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研究生:程培榮
研究生(外文):Cheng, Pei-Rong
論文名稱:繁殖期彩鷸在漢寶地區之食性與覓食棲地需求
論文名稱(外文):The diet and foraging habitat requirement of Painted Snipe (Rostratula benghalensis) during the breeding season at Ham-bow Wetland Area
指導教授:李淑雯李淑雯引用關係姜鈴姜鈴引用關係
指導教授(外文):Lee, Shu-WenJiang, Ling
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立彰化師範大學
系所名稱:生物學系
學門:生命科學學門
學類:生物學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2002
畢業學年度:90
語文別:中文
論文頁數:59
中文關鍵詞:彩鷸漢寶濕地福壽螺食性覓食棲地水稻田繁殖期
外文關鍵詞:Painted SnipeRostratula benghalensisHam-bow Wetland AreaPomacea canaliculatadietforaging habitatpaddybreeding season
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漢寶濕地位於彰化縣福興及芳苑兩鄉交界處的沿海地帶,是農業、畜牧與廢耕地交錯的區域,也是彩鷸在台灣的重要棲息地之一。由於土地的鹽化、經濟型態的轉型與臺灣加入WTO的影響,漢寶濕地有更多的土地將面臨廢耕的命運,為了解決廢耕的農業損失及濕地保育目的,而預設立漢寶生態園區。彩鷸(Rostratula benghalensis)是世界保育類野生動物名錄的第二類珍貴稀有之留鳥,亦是本園區希望培育的珍貴鳥類。因此本研究藉由調查彩鷸的族群動態、分析其排遺與胃內含物,並對照其覓食棲地上可能利用之餌食生物,獲知彩鷸的食性及其覓食棲地的需求,以提供針對設立彩鷸自然棲地的管理依據。
彩鷸數量調查的研究期間從89年4月至89年9月及90年4月至90年9月,共調查68次,發現780隻次的彩鷸。兩年之雌雄性別比例均約為1:1。彩鷸之覓食棲地依序為初運作時期之水稻田(27﹪)、生長期之水稻田(18%)、收割後之水稻田(24%)、草澤地(11%)、田埂(5%)、牧草地(5%)、溝渠(4%),廢棄或休耕農地(4%)和其他(2%)。統計分析彩鷸對覓食棲地的選擇情況具有顯著差異(p<0.001),因此彩鷸對覓食棲地具有高度的選擇性,顯示彩鷸的主要覓食棲地以各種農耕型態的水稻田為主。分析彩鷸排遺與胃內含物發現,彩鷸在水稻結穗前之餌食生物是以沙蠶及雙翅目和鞘翅目昆蟲為主,在水稻結穗後則是以福壽螺、稻米和其他禾本科植物為主。
採集彩鷸之覓食棲地之可能利用之餌食,在繁殖季可能利用之優勢餌食生物以福壽螺及稻穀為主,且彩鷸的確以此兩者為餌食;非繁殖季可能利用之優勢餌食生物以小頭蟲為主,但小頭蟲並非彩鷸主要利用之餌食生物。顯示彩鷸在繁殖季過後不再選擇相同的棲地覓食是因為底棲生物產生變動。
針對彩鷸的覓食數量與覓食棲地的底棲生物進行分析,結果發現彩鷸的數量與福壽螺(r=0.91,p<0.001)和稻穀(r=0.77,p=0.03)的數量皆呈現明顯的正相關,顯示福壽螺與水稻是繁殖季彩鷸的優勢餌食生物。
彩鷸在稻田結穗前餌食生物多樣性及豐富度均高之時,會選擇特定之餌食生物,但在稻田結穗後,因農事作業影響,造成餌食生物多樣性及豐富度下降,彩鷸即改為食用棲地中之優勢餌食生物,推測因為孵卵的彩鷸受限於往返巢區與覓食區之間的距離,而就近在水稻田中進行覓食。
漢寶濕地區的農事活動,固定頻率的農事運作和牧草地與水稻田交錯種植的棲地型式,反而提供彩鷸覓食與繁殖棲地適當的干擾,因此漢寶濕地區的彩鷸能夠利用棲地型態的變化狀態來同時滿足繁殖和覓食的需求,使得彩鷸在漢寶濕地區仍然能夠維持穩定的數量。
Located on the boundary between Fu-Xing village and Fang-Yuan village in Changhua county, Han-bow wetland is typical of costal area, where abolished farms and lands used for horticulture, and pasturage are most common. Owing to the salinification of land, transformation of economic activities, and the joint of WTO, more and more lands are facing the problem of being abolished. To solve the problem of agricultural loss and achieve ecological reservation, Han-bow Ecology Park is going to be set up. Rostratula benghalensis is a kind of resident bird, ranked as a secondary rare species on the List of Global Wild Animal Reservation. This research was to acquire the basis information for setting up and managing a reservation habitat for R. benghalensis by knowing how it feeds, what it feeds and what kind of land it feeds on.
Investigation on the number of R. benghalensis was carried out respectively in two time spans, from April to September in 2000 and in 2001. In 68 investigations, 780 individuals were found without considering the repetitive spotting. The average sex ratios in these two years are all 1:1. According to the occurrence of R. benghalensis, it could be inferred that the most preferred feeding habitat was initially-cultivated rice farms (27%), followed by cultivating rice farms (18%), harvested rice farms (24%), swamps (11%), ridges between fields (5%), forage grass lands (5%), ditches (4%), abolished or fallow lands (4%), and others (2%). Statistic analysis showed a significant difference that R. benghalensis did choose specific types of feeding habitats, and rice farms in any cultivation period are especially in majority. From the analysis on the droppings and extracts form stomachs, R. benghalensis mostly fed on lobworms and insects belonging to dipterans and coleopterans before rice grains were produced. After the production of rice grains, it turned to feed on Pomacea canaliculata,rice grains and other plants in the grass family.
In the propagation season of R. benghalensis, biological constitution, which could provide potential food of it, was investigated; P. canaliculata and rice grains were dominant. Correspondingly, it indeed fed on these foods. In the non-propagation season, Capitellidae was the dominant resource. However, Capitellidae was not fondest prey for R. benghalensis. This phenomenon proved that R. benghalensis changed its feeding habitats because of the alternation of benthic diet after the propagation season.
According to the research result of analysis on the fauna of potential diet and occurrence of R. benghalensis, there showed an obvious positive relevance between the numbers of R. benghalensis and P. canaliculata(r=0.91,p<0.001) as well as the amount of rice grains (r=0.77,p=0.03). This showed that P. canaliculata and rice were the dominant prey in the propagation season.
Before the occurrence of rice grains, the diversity and abundance of prey were high, and thus R. benghalensis could feed on specific types of food. Nevertheless, after the occurrence of rice grains, harvest took place and caused the diversity and abundance of preys to reduce; therefore, R. benghalensis would only feed on dominant preys in the feeding habitat. Accordingly, R. benghalensis would migrate to a nearby rice farm for food because of the advantage of shorter distance.
目錄
中文摘要…………………………………………………………….…..i
Abstract………………………………………………………………….iii
壹、 前言
一、 研究動機……………………………………………………...1
二、 文獻回顧……………………………………………………...3
貳、 材料與方法
一、 研究地點…………………………………………………….10
二、 樣區設置…………………………………………………….11
三、 彩鷸的基礎生態學調查…………………………………….11
四、 餌食生物的採樣方式……………………………………….12
五、 農事活動記錄……………………………………………….15
六、 資料處理方式……………………………………………….16
參、 結果與討論
一、 彩鷸基礎生態學的調查…………………………………….18
二、 彩鷸的食性研究…………………………………………….24
三、 彩鷸的覓食棲地需求……………………………………….27
四、 其他與彩鷸覓食相關的因素……………………………….32
肆、 參考文獻…………………………………………………………37
圖………………………………………………………………………..43
表………………………………………………………………………..51
附錄 ……………………………………………………………………54
圖目錄
圖一 漢寶濕地地圖……………………………………………………43
圖二 新生路所在位置…………………………………………………44
圖三 穿越線設置路徑…………………………………………………44
國四 民國八十九年彩鷸普查日期與觀測數量………………………45
圖五 民國九十年彩鷸覓食棲地之彩鷸普查日期與觀測數量………45
圖六 八十九年彩鷸於研究區域內出現之地點………………………46
圖七 彩鷸各種行為出現之次數………………………………………47
圖八 八十九年彩鷸棲地選擇狀況……………………………………48
圖九 九十年彩鷸棲地選擇狀況………………………………………48
圖十 彩鷸之潛在優勢餌食月數量動態………………………………49
圖十一 彩鷸潛在餌食生物多樣性與種豐富度指數各月份之變化…49
圖十二 九十年彩鷸在漢寶地區之族群動態…………………………50
表目錄
表一 民國八十九年各月份彩鷸之數量與性別比例…………………51
表二 民國九十年彩鷸各月份之數量與性別比例……………………51
表三 彩鷸在漢寶濕地築巢記錄………………………………………52
表四 彩鷸利用之棲地類型與比例……………………………………52
表五 彩鷸之潛在優勢餌食生物於繁殖季與非繁殖季之比較表……53
表六 彩鷸覓食地點餌食生物多樣性與種豐富度於繁殖季與非繁殖季之比較表 ………………………………………………………………53
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