跳到主要內容

臺灣博碩士論文加值系統

(54.224.117.125) 您好!臺灣時間:2022/01/28 19:27
字體大小: 字級放大   字級縮小   預設字形  
回查詢結果 :::

詳目顯示

: 
twitterline
研究生:張仲德
研究生(外文):Chang Chuan-Te
論文名稱:彰化市2001年大氣沈降特性分析
論文名稱(外文):Characteristics of atmospheric deposition in Changhua of 2001
指導教授:林登秋林登秋引用關係
指導教授(外文):Lin Teng-Chiu
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立彰化師範大學
系所名稱:地理學系
學門:民生學門
學類:觀光休閒學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2002
畢業學年度:90
語文別:中文
論文頁數:116
中文關鍵詞:酸沈降氣象條件降雨類型因子分析特徵值
外文關鍵詞:acid depositionmeteorological factorsstorms typesfactor analysiseigenvalue
相關次數:
  • 被引用被引用:15
  • 點閱點閱:353
  • 評分評分:
  • 下載下載:78
  • 收藏至我的研究室書目清單書目收藏:2
本研究於2001年在彰化市收集乾沈降、溼沈降及混沈降並分析其主要離子濃度,探討降雨期間各項氣象條件對雨水化學特性的影響,再透過多變量因子分析探討雨水之化學物質組成,以定量方式評估雨水中各成份之來源。分析結果發現2001年雨水(溼沈降)平均pH值為4.91,約有一半的降雨其pH小於一般判定酸雨的5.0。雖然雨水中SO42-、NO3-的濃度只有台北市的1/4,但因K+、Ca2+與Mg2+的濃度亦遠低於台北,故pH與台北市(4.89)十分相近。不同降雨類型的雨水酸度由高至低依序為梅雨、春雨、夏季陣雨及冬雨、颱風雨,其pH值分別為4.58、4.74、4.83、4.76及5.05;降雨時平均風向為NW時,致酸性離子濃度偏高但致鹼性離子卻未上升,其雨水pH值最低為4.51。風速在小於2.5 m/sec時污染物濃度偏高但變化也很大,但當風速大於2.5 m/sec時,各種污染物的濃度則會降低。當降雨量增加時污染物的濃度會因稀釋作用而下降;降雨強度增加時雨水中主要的中和物質如Ca2+、Mg2+的濃度下降的很快,而致酸性離子(SO42-、NO3-)的濃度下降速度較慢,使得雨水的pH值在降雨強度增加時下降。對雨水化學組成進行因子分析,以特徵值大於1萃取出三個主要因子,結果發現降雨深受海鹽飛沫的影響,此項因子對Na+、Mg2+、Cl-、Ca2+的解釋變異量很高,可能是因靠近海洋有關;降雨中人為污染的影響,應與彰化市農業及工業發達有關,NH4+、SO42-、NO3-在此項因子的負荷量皆很高。酸因子主要以H+單獨呈現,代表雨水並未受到酸性沈降物SO42-、NO3-的主導,而是致酸性及致鹼性離子綜合造成的結果,另外塵土因子Ca2+及K+則必須扣除海鹽之後才能顯示出來。
Dry, wet and bulk deposition in Changhua City were collected in 2001 to examine its chemical composition and evaluate its relationship with meteorological factors. Factor analysis was used to evaluate relationships of ions in precipitation to provide a quantitative determination of sources of rainwater contamination. Annual volume-weighted mean pH was 4.91 with approximately half of the precipitation events had pH < 5.0, the commonly used level for acid rain classification. Although the mean concentrations of SO42- and NO3- in precipitation were only 1/4 of that reported for Taipei, mean concentrations of Na+、K+、Mg2+ and Ca2+ were also much lower in Changhua as such mean pH was very close to that reported for Taipei(4.89). Storms types differ in their pH with mold rain(Meiyu), spring rain, thundershower, cold front and typhoon rain in 2001 in Changhua had mean pH of 4.58, 4.74, 4.83, 4.76 and 5.05, respectively. Light wind (< 2.5 m/sec) had high mean ions concentration but was highly variable, and ions concentration tended to decreased with increasing rainfall volume as a result of dilution effect. Ion concentrations also decreased with increases in rainfall intensities but the effect differed among ions. Base cations decreased more rapidly than anions with increasing rainfall intensities. Consequently, pH tended to drop with increases in rainfall intensities. Factor analysis on precipitation chemical composition extracted three main factors with eigenvalue > 1. The first factor has high loadings on Na+、K+、Mg2+ and Ca2+ could be attributed to sea salt aerosol influence. The second factor had high loadings on NH4+、SO42-、NO3- and clearly indicates anthropogenic pollution source. The third factor has a high loading only on H+ indicating that the pH of precipitation in Changhua City was not dominated only by acidic but base ions. The influences of soil and dust can only be recognized after sea salt correction.
圖 次………………………………………………………………………..Ⅲ
表 次………………………………………………………………………..Ⅴ
第一章、前 言……………………………………………………….………1
第一節、研究動機……………………………………………………….……3
第二節、研究目的………………………………………………………….…4
第二章、文獻回顧……………………………………………………….……7
第一節、酸沈降的概述……………………………………………….………7
一、酸沈降的定義…………………………………………………….………7
二、大氣中污染物之來源…………………………………………….………7
三、酸沈降研究的歷史與現況……………………………….…….......12
  第二節、不同酸沈降方式及其對沈降貢獻量的影響……….……...15
一、乾沈降………………………………………………………….……...15
二、溼沈降………………………………………………………….……...17
三、混沈降………………………………………………………….……...19
  第三節、氣象條件對酸沈降的影響……………………….………...19
一、降雨型態…………………………………………………….………...19
二、風向與風速……………………………………………………………..24
三、降雨量及降雨強度…………………………………………….….…..24
第四節、酸沈降污染源鑑別分析之研究…………………………………..25
第三章、研究方法…………………………………………………………..28
第一節、採樣地點及方法…………………………………………………..28
一、採樣地點及環境概述…………………………………………………..28
二、採樣方法及氣象資料收集……………………………………….…...28
三、雨水保存及分析………………………………………………….…...32
第二節、資料分析方法…………………………………………………....34
一、資料品質篩選…………………………………………………….…...34
二、基本統計量分析…………………………………………….………...35
三、因子分析…………………………………………………….………...38
第四章、結果與討論…………………………………………………………40
第一節、降雨資料基本統計………………………………………………..40
一、雨水pH分布情形……………………………………………………..…40
二、雨水中各項物質基本統計……………………………………….…...46
第二節、酸沈降與氣象條件關係的分析…………………………………..56
一、不同天氣型態對降雨的影響…………………………………………..56
二、風向與風速對降雨的影響……………………………………………..59
三、降雨量與降雨強度對雨水的影響……………………………………..69
第三節、雨水組成離子之污染源分析……………………………………..77
一、溼沈降…………………………………………………………………..77
二、混沈降…………………………………………………………………..79
三、乾沈降…………………………………………………………………..81
四、不同沈降方式及不同地區之比較……………………………………..83
第五章、結 論……………………………………………………………..86
第六章、參考文獻……………………………………………………………88
附 錄………………………………………………………………….……102
第六章 參考文獻
方國權、張鎮南、張冠甫、楊定國(1997)“台灣地區大氣中金屬,硫酸 根及硝酸根乾沉降特性之探討”,弘光學報,第三十期,頁49-61。
方國權、吳玉琛、范煥榮、葉進儀、賴坤助、陳惠鋗(2000)“應用適當之沉降模式於臺中地區乾沉降之計算”,弘光學報,第三十六期,頁149-159。
呂世宗、陳福來、繆在澄(1975)“大氣污染對台灣地區雨水pH值之影響”,大氣科學,第二期,頁41-48。
李灝銘(1996)以聚類分析解析北臺灣酸沈降特性之初步研究,國立中央大學環境工程研究所碩士論文。
李遠輝、陳鎮東、洪佳章(1997)“台灣水庫與湖泊的水化學”,TAO(Terrestrial, Atmospheric and Oceanic Sciences),第八期第四卷,頁405-426。
沈仁峰(1998)中部地區酸沈降之量測研究,國立中興大學環境工程研究所碩士論文。
邱皓攻(2000)量化研究與統計分析:SPSS中文視窗版資料分析範例解析,台北,頁15-1~15-21。
金恆鑣、黃良鑫(1983)“酸性降水對森林生態系的影響”,中華林學季刊,第十六期第一卷,頁79-89。
金恆鑣(1987)“台北市連續六年來的雨水性質”,第四屆環境污染控制技術研討會,台大環工所,頁175-191。
金恆鑣、洪富文(1987)“酸雨與森林健康”,台灣植物資源景觀保育研討會論文集,台北,頁45-58。
金恆鑣(1988)“酸雨對水域環境的影響”,台灣植物資源景觀保育研討會論文集,台北,頁1-24。
金恆鑣、漆陞忠、蔡忠勳、孫正春、黃正良、黃良鑫、沈勇強、翁松元、曾淑聆(1991),台灣地區酸性沈降調查評估研究計畫(二)--酸性沈降對森林影響之研究,行政院環境署,EPA-80-E3F1-09-27。
金恆鑣、張斐章、陳彥璋(1994)“臺北市酸雨趨勢特性分析”,台灣水利,第四十二期第一卷,頁7-15。
林立偉(1998)台灣地區酸性沈降之時空變化及颱風貢獻量之探討,國立成功大學環境工程研究所碩士論文。
林登秋、夏禹九、金恆鑣(1996a)“台灣東北部天然闊葉林林內降雨及林冠截留之研究”,台灣林業科學,第十一期第四卷,頁393-400。
林登秋、夏禹九、金恆鑣、黃正良、王立志、劉瓊霦(1996b)“福山試譣林雨水成分來源之探討--多變數因子分析”,中華林學季刊,第二十九期第一卷,頁121-132。
林登秋、金恆鑣、夏禹九、王立志(1998)“福山試驗林硫酸根與無機氮沉降之探討”,中華林學季刊,第三十一期第二卷,頁153-164。
林俊全、郭銘仁、陳澤民(1997)“台灣地區的酸性物質沉降量極限值之研究”,台大地理學報,第二十二期,頁21-33。
吳德源(1996)高雄都會區酸性沉降之調查研究,國立中山大學環境工程學研究所碩士論文。
吳義林(1998)“台灣地區酸沉降物質調查研究”,行政院環保署。
孫岩章、吳瑞鈺(1980)“臺灣地區的酸雨”,科學發展月刊,第八期第五卷,頁428-434。
袁中新(1986)台灣地區雨水水質特性研究,國立台灣大學環境工程學研究所碩士論文。
張裴章、金恆鑣、陳彥璋(1991)“台北市雨水pH值與離子關係”,臺大農學院研究報告,第三十一期第一卷:頁88-98。
張雅萍(1998)台北市酸沉降特性分析(1981-1997年),國立東華大學自然資源管理研究所碩士論文。
張仲德、林登秋、薛美莉(2001)“1994~2000年彰化市空氣品質特性之探討”,台大地理學報,第三十期,頁89-100。
陳堅強(1986)“酸性雨”,台灣農業,頁46-50。
陳淨修(1993)酸雨形成機制及模式之研究,國立中央大學大氣物理研究所博士論文。
陳郁良(1995)台北都會地區酸雨形成機制及採樣方法比較之研究,國立台灣大學環境工程學研究所碩士論文。
陳順宇(2000)多變量分析,台北,華泰書局,頁1-42。
許美芳、羅英瑛、陳庭堅(1999),“屏東地區雨水化學特性探討”,大仁學報,第十期,頁101-114。
環保署(1998)“台灣地區酸雨調查綜合成果報告”。
薛美莉(2000)“台灣中部山區降雨水質及酸性沈降”,特有生物研究,第二期,頁21-33。
羅明政(1991)多變量分析應用於臺灣地區雨水水質特性評估之研究,國立中央大學土木工程學研究所碩士論文。
羅積玉(1994)多元統計分析:方法與應用,台北,科技圖書,頁124-145。
羅友志(1995)以多變量分析評估北桃地區雨水特性之研究,國立中央大學環境工程學研究所碩士論文。
顏宏元、王乾盈(1998)白沙氣象觀測坪之地理位置與重力測量成果報告,國立中央大學地球物理研究所。
Alastuey, A., X. Querol, A. Chaves, C. R. Ruiz, A. Carratala, and A. Lopez-soler (1999) " Bulk deposition in a rural area located around a large coal-fired power station, northeast Spain," Environmental Pollution, 106: 359-367.
Al-Momani, I. F., O. Y. Ataman, M. A. Anwari, S. Tuncel, C. Kose, and G. Tuncel (1995a) " Chemical composition of precipitation near an industrial area at Izmir, Turkey," Atmospheric Environment, 29: 1131-1143.
Al-Momani, I. F., S. Tuncel, U. Eler, E. Ortel, G. Sirin, and G. Tuncel (1995b) " Major ion composition of wet and dry deposition in the eastern Mediterranean basin," The Science of the Total Environment, 164: 75-85.
Avila, A. (1996) " Time trends in the precipitation chemistry at a mountain site in northeastern spain for the period 1983-1994," Atmospheric Environment, 30: 1363-1373.
Bachmann, K., A. Roder, and I. Haag (1992) " Determination of anions and cations in individual raindrops," Atmospheric Environment, 26A: 1795-1797.
Balestrini, R., L. Galli, and G. Tartari (2000) " Wet and dry atmospheric deposition at prealpine and alpine sites in northern Italy," Atmospheric Environment, 34: 1455-1470.
Battoe, L. E., and E. F. Lowe (1992) " Acidification of lake annie, highlands Co., FL.," Water air and soil pollution, 65: 69-80.
Bravo, H. A., M. I. R. Saavedra, P. A. Sánchez, R. J. Torres, and L. M. M. Granada (2000) " Chemical composition of precipitation in a Mexican Maya region," Atmospheric Environment, 34: 1197-1204.
Breemen, N., P. A. Borrough, E. J. Velthorst, H. F. Dobben, T. Wit, T. B. Ridder and H. F. R. Reijnders (1982) " Soil acidification from atmospheric ammonium sulphate in forest canopy throughfall," Nature, 299: 548-550.
Bridgman, H. A. (1992) " Evaluting rainwater contamination and sources in southeast Australia using factor analysis," Atmospheric Environment, 26A: 2401-2412.
Butler, T. J., and G. E. Likens (1998) " Weekly and daily precipitation chemistry network comparsions in the eastern U.S.:NADP/NTN vs MAP3S/AIRMoN," Atmospheric Environment, 32: 3749-3765.
Butler, T. J., G. E. Likens, J. B. Barbara, and J. B. Stunder (2001) " Regional-scale impacts of phase I of the clean Air Act Amendments in the USA:the relation between emissions and concentrations, both wet and dry," Atmospheric Environment, 35: 1015-1028.
Calert, J. G., A. Lazrus, G. L. Kok, B. G. Heikes, J. G. Walega, J. Lind, and C. A. Cantrell (1985) " Chemical mechanism of acid rain generation in the troposphere," Nature, 317: 27-35.
Charlson, R. J., and H. Rodhe (1982) " Factors controlling the acidity of natural rainwater," Nature, 295: 683-685.
Chang, K. H., F. T. Jeng, Y. L. Tsai, and P. L. Lin (2000) " Modeling of long-range transport on Taiwan''s acid deposition under different weather conditions," Atmospheric Environment, 34: 3281-3295.
Chen, C.T., and B.J. Wang (1996a) " Acidification of lakes and reservoirs in Taiwan," Proceedings of International Conference on Acid Deposition in East Asia, Taipei, Taiwan, 28-30 May 1996, pp.45-59.
Chen, C. S., N. H. Lin, C. M. Peng, and F. T. Jeng (1996b) " Acidic deposition on Taiwan and associated precipitation systems," Proceedings of International Conference on Acid Deposition in East Asia, Taipei, Taiwan, 28-30 May 1996, pp.124-132.
Dahch, J. M. (1985) " Direct measurement of dry deposition to a polyethylene bucket and various surrogate surfaces," Environmental science and Technology, 19: 721-725.
Davidson, C. I., and Y. L. Wu (1990) " Dry deposition of particles and vapors," in Acidic Precipitation Ⅲ:Sources, Deposition, and Canopy Interactions, Michigan:United States of America, pp.103-216.
Davies, T. D., G. Farmer, R. J. Barthelmie, P. Brimblecomber, and P. M. Kelly(1986) " Acidity of Scottish rainfall influenced by climatic change," Nature, 322: 359-361.
Downing, C. E. H., K. J. Vincent, and G. W. Campbell (1995) " Trends in wet dry of sulphur in the united kingdom," Water air and soil pollution, 85: 659-664.
Draaijers, G. P. J., E. P. V. Leeuwen, P. G. H. Jon, and J. W. Erisman (1997) " Base-cation deposition in Europe-part II. Acid neutralization capacity and contribution to forest nutrition," Atmospheric Environment, 31: 4159-4168.
Driscoll, C. T., N. M. Johnson, G. E. Likens, and M. C. Feller (1988) " Effects of acidic deposition on chemistry of headwater streames:a comparison between Hubbard Brook, New Hampshire, and Jamieson Creek, Bratish Columbia," Water Resources Research, 24: 195-200.
Driscoll, C. T., G. E. Likens, L. O. Hedin, F. H. Bormann, and D. A. Wolf (1989) " Letters:chnages in the chemistry of surface waters," Environmental Science and Technology, 23: 1028, 1078-1080.
Dufour, C. M. L., B. Chapman, J. A. Lore, and M. Nosal (1985) " Acid deposition near a sour gas plant in southwestern Alberta," Water air and soil pollution, 24: 361-373.
Durand, P., C. Neal, and F. Lelong (1992) " Anthropogenic and natural contributions to the rainfall chemistry of a mountainous area in the Cevennes national park(Mont-Lozere, southern France)," Jouranl of Hydrology, 130: 71-85.
Farmer, G., R. J. Barthelmie, T. D. Davies, P. Brimblecomber, and P. M. Kelly (1987) " Relationship between concentration and sulphate in precipition," Nature, 328: 787-789.
Feeley, J. A., and H. M. Liljestrand (1983) " Source contributions to acid precipitation in Texas," Atmospheric Environment, 17: 807-814.
Finzi, A., and S. Viarengo (1991) " An application of multivariate analysis to acid rain data in Northern Italy to discriminate natural and man-made compounds," Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, 17: 273-280.
Fujita, S. I., A. Takahashi, J. H. Weng, L. F. Huang, H. K. Kim, C. K. Li, F. T. C. Huang, and F. T. Jeng(2000) " Precipitation chemistry in East Asia," Atmospheric Environment, 34: 525-537.
Furiness, C., L. Smith, L. Ran and E. Cowling (1998) " Composition of emissions of nitrogen and sulfur oxides to deposition of nitrate and sulfate in the USA by state in 1990," Environmental Pollution, 102: 313-320.
Galloway, J. N., G. E. Likens, W. C. Keene, and J. M. Miller (1982) " The composition of precipitation in remote area of the world," Journal of Geophysical Research, 87: 8771-8786.
Galloway, J. N., G. E. Likens, and M. E. Hawley (1984)" Acid precipitation:Natural versus anthropogenic components," Science, 226: 829-831.
Galloway, J. N., D. W. Zhao, X. Jiling, and G. E. Likens (1987) " Acid rain: China, United States, and a remote area," Science, 236: 1559-1562.
Galloway, J.N., D.W. Zhao, V.E. Thomson, and L.H. Chang(1996) " Nitrogen mobilization in the united states of America and the people''s republiuc of China," Atmospheric Environment, 30: 1551-1561.
Gilbert, S. R., and J. V. Hayes (1981) " Acidity and conductivity of precipitation on central Long Island, New York in relation to meteorological variables," Water Air and Soil Pollution, 15: 229-245.
Glass, N. R., G. E. Glass, and P. J. Rennie (1979) " Effects of acid precipitation," Environmental science and Technology, 13: 1350-1355.
Gorham, E., F. B. Martin, and J. T. Lintau (1984) " Acid rain:ionic correlations in the eastern united states, 1980-1981," Science, 225: 407-409.
Granat, L. (1978) " Sulfate in precipitation as observed by the European atmospheric chemistry network ," Atmospheric Environment, 12: 413-424.
Grennfelt, P., and H. Hultberg (1986) " Effects of nitrogen deposition on the acidification of terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems," Water air and soil pollution, 30: 945-963.
Hara, H., M. Kitamura, A. Mori, I. Noguchi, T. Ohizumi, S. Seto, T. Takeuchi, and T. Deguchi (1995) " Precipitation chemistry in Japan 1989-1993," Water air and soil pollution, 85: 2307-2312.
Hedin, L. O., L. Granat, G. E. Likens, T. A. Buishand, J. N. Galloway, T. J. Butler, and H. Rodhe (1994) " Steep declines in atmospheric base cations in regions of Europe and North America," Nature, 367: 351-354.
Herut, B., A. Starinsky, A. Katz, and D. Rosenfeld (2000) " Relationship between the acidity and chemical composition of rainwater and climatological conditions along a trasition zone between large deserts and Mediterrean climate, Israel," Atmospheric Environment, 34: 1281-1292.
Hooper, R P., and N. E. Peters (1989) " Use of multivariate analysis for determining sources of solutes found in wet atmospheric deposition in the united States," Environmental science and Technology, 23: 1263-1268.
Houbao, F., H. Wei, M. Zhuang, and W. Kosuke (1999) " Acidity and chemistry of bulk precipitation, throughfall and stemflow in a Chinese fir plantation in Fujian," China, Forest Ecology and Management, 122: 243-248.
Ichikawa, Y., and S. Fujita (1995) " An analysis of wet deposition of sulfate using a trajectory model for East Asia, " Water air and soil pollution, 85: 1927-1932.
Idrees, F. A., O. Y. Ataman, A. A. Mohammad, T. Semra, K. Cevdet, and T. Gurdal (1995) " Chemical composition of precipitation near an industrial area at Izmar, Turkey," Atmospheric Environment, 29: 1131-1143.
Jacob, A. T. (1991)Acid Rain:The Chemistry of Acid Depositon from the Atmosphere, Wisconsin:Department of chemistry University of Wisconsin-Madison, pp.56.
Jacob, D. J., J. M. Waldman, J. W. Munger, and M. R. Hoffmann (1985) " Chemical composition of fogwater collected along the California coast," Environmental science and Technology, 19: 730-736.
Johnson, A. H., and T. G. Siccama (1983) " Acid deposition and forest decline," Environmental science and Technology, 17: 294A-305A.
Kaiser, J. (1996) " Acid rain''s dirty business stealing minerala from soil," Science, 272: 198.
Karlsson, V., M. Lauren, and S. Peltoniemi (2000) " Stability of major ions and sampling variability in daily bulk precipitation samples," Atmospheric Environment, 34: 4859-4865.
Kaya, G., and G. Tuncel (1997) " Trace element and major ion composition of wet and dry deposition in Ankara, Turkey," Atmospheric Environment, 31: 3985-3998.
Kline, P. (1999)An easy guide to factor analysis, London and New York:Routledge, pp.194.
Krupa, S., and M. Nosal (1999) " Rainfall composition in Minnesota:integrating the chemistry, synoptic meteorology and numerical modeling," Environmental Pollution, 104: 477-483.
Larssen, T., S. M. Hans., S. Arne., M. Jan., P. M. Ivar., D. V. Rolf., L. Espen., A. Valter., D. Tang and E. Odd (1999) " Acid deposition and its effects in china:an overview," Environmental science and Policy, 2: 9-24.
Lee, D. S., and J. W. S. Longhurst (1992) " A comparison between wet and bulk deposition at an urban site in the U.K.," Water Air and Soil Pollution, 64: 635-648.
Lijestrand, H. M., and J. J. Morgan (1981) " Spatial variations of acid precipitation in southern California," Environmental science and Technology, 15: 333-339.
Likens, G. E., and F. H. Bormann (1974) " Acid Rain:A serious regional environmental problem," Science, 184: 1176-1179.
Likens, G. E., R. F. Wright, J. N. Galloway, and T. J. Buttler (1979) " Acid Rain," Scientific American, 241: 39-47.
Likens, G. E., and T. J. Butler (1981) " Recent acidification of precipitation in North America," Atmospheric Environment, 15: 1103-1109.
Likens, G. E., C. T., Driscoll, and D. C. Buso (1996) " Long-term effects of acid rain response and recovery of a forest ecosystem," Science, 272: 244-246.
Lin, T.H. (2001) " Long-term transport of yellow sand to Taiwan in spring 2000:observed evidence and simulation," Atmospheric Environment, 35: 5873-5882.
Lindberg, S. E., A. L. Page, and S. A. Norton (1990) Acidic Precipitation Ⅲ:Sources, Deposition, and Canopy Interactions, Michigan:United States of America, pp.285-322.
Losno, R., G. Bergametti, P. Carlier, and G. Mouvier (1991) " Major ions in marine rainwater with attention to sources of alkaline and acidic species," Atmospheric Environment, 25A: 763-770.
Matzner, E., D. Murach, and H. Fortmann (1986) " Soil acidity and its relationship to root growth in decling forest stands in Germany," Water air and soil pollution, 31: 273-282.
Millet, M., A. Sanusi, and H. Wortham (1996) " Chemical composition of fogwater in an urban area :Strasbourg(France)," Environmental Pollution, 94: 345-354.
Mosello, R., A. Marchetto, and G. A. Tartari (1988) " Bulk and wet atmospheric deposition chemistry at pallanza(N. Italy)," Water air and soil pollution, 42: 137-151.
Ozeki, T., K. Koide, and T. Kimoto (1995) " Evaluation of sources of acidity in rainwater using a constrained oblique rotational factor analysis," Environmental science and Technology, 29: 1638-1648.
Park, S. U., H. J. In, S. W. Kim, and Y. H. Lee (2000) " Estimation of sulfur deposition in South Korea," Atmospheric Environment, 34: 3259-3269.
Pellett, G. L., R. Bustin, and R. C. Harriss (1984) " Sequential sampling and variability of acid precipitation in Hampton, Virginia," Water Air and Soil Pollution, 21: 33-49.
Poissant, L., and P. Beron (1994) " Parameterized rainwater quality model in urban environment," Atmospheric Environment, 28: 305-310.
Pratt, G. C., M. Coscio, D. W. Gardner, B. I. Chevone and S. Krupa (1983) " An analysis of the chemical properties of rain in Minnesota," Atmospheric Environment, 17: 347-355.
Puxbaum, H., V. Simeonov, and M. F. Kalina (1998) " Ten years trends(1984-1993)in the precipitation chemistry in central Austria," Atmospheric Environment, 32: 193-202.
Querol, X., A. Alastuey, J. A. Puicercus, E. Mantilla, C. R. Ruiz, A. Lopez-Soler, F. Plana, and R. Juan (1998)" Seasonal evolution of suspended particles around a large coal-fired power station:chemical characterization," Atmospheric Environment, 32: 719-731.
Raper, D. W., and D. S. Lee (1996) " Wet deposition at the sub-20 km scale in a rural upland area of England," Atmospheric Environment, 30: 1193-1207.
Rattray, G., and H. Sievering (2001) " Dry deposition of ammonia, nitric acid , ammonium, and nitrate to alpine tundra at Niwot Ridge, Colorado," Atmospheric Environment, 35: 1105-1109.
Ravichandran, C., and B. Padmanabhamurty (1994) " Acid precipitation in Delhi, India," Atmospheric Environment, 28: 2291-2297.
Raynor, G., and J. V. Hayes (1981a) " Acidity and conductuvuty of precipitation on central long island , New York in relation to meteorlogical variables," Water air and soil pollution, 15: 229-245.
Raynor, G., and J. V. Hayes (1981b) " Concentrations of some ionic species in central long island, New York precipitation in relation to meteorological variables," Water air and soil pollution, 17: 309-335.
Rodhe, H. and M. J. Rood (1986) " Temporal evolution of nitrogen compounds in Swedish precipitation since 1955," Nature, 321:762-764.
Ruugrok, W., and F. G. Romer (1993) " Aspects of wet, acidifying deposition in arnhem:source regions, correlations and trends(1984-1991), " Atmospheric Environment, 27A: 637-653.
Schawrtz, S.E. (1989) " Acid deposition:Unraveling of regional phenomenon," Science, 243: 753-763.
Schindler, D. W., K. H. Mills, D. F. Malley, D. L. Findly, J. A. Shearer, I. J. Davies, M. A. Turner, G. A. Linsey and D. R. Cruikshank (1985) " Long-term ecosystem stress:the effects of years of experimental acidification on a small lake," Science, 228: 1395-1401.
Schindler, D. W. (1988) " Effects of Acid Rain on Freshwater Ecosystem," Science, 239: 149-157.
Schroder, L. J., R. A. Linthurst, J. E. Ellson, and S. F. Vozzo (1985) " Comparison of acidity and weekly precipitation sampling efficences using automatic collectiors," Water air and soil pollution, 24: 177-187.
Schulze, E. D. (1989) " Air pollution and forest decline in a Spruce(Picea abies) forest," Science, 244: 776-783.
Sequeira, R. (1982) " Chemistry of precipitation at high altitudes:inter-relation of acid-base components," Atmospheric Environment, 16: 329-335.
Sequeira, R. and F. Lung (1995) " A critical data analysis and interpretation of the pH, ion loadings and electrical conductivity of rainwater from the territory of Hong Kong," Atmospheric Environment, 29: 2439-2447.
Sha, Y., A. Wang, S. Yang, and P. Liu (1996) " Correlation of acid rain with the distributions of acid rain alkaline elements in aerosols," Nuclear Instruments and Methods on Physics Research B , 109/110: 551-554.
Stoddard, J. L., D. S. Jeffries, A. Lukewille, T. A. Clair, P. J. Dillon, C. T. Driscoll, M. Johannessen, J. S. Kahl, J. H. Kellogg, A. Kemp, J. Mannio, D. T. Monteith, P. S. Murdoch, S. Patrick, H.Van Dam, K. E. Webster, J. Wieting, and A. Wilander (1999) " Regional trends in aquatic recovery from acidification in North America and Europe," Nature, 401: 575-578.
Stumm, W., L. Sigg, and J. Schnoor (1987) " Aquatic chemistry of acid deposition," Environmental science and Technology, 21:8-13.
Summers, P. W. (1995) " Time trend of wet deposition acidity potential at five ecological monitoring sites in Eastern Canada 1981-1993," Water air and soil pollution, 85: 653-658.
Tanner, R. L. (1990) " Sources of acids, bases, and their precursors in the atmosphere," in Acidic Precipitation Ⅲ:Sources, Deposition, and Canopy Interactions, Michigan:United States of America, pp.1-19.
Tremblay, S., and Y. Richard (1993) " Effects of acidity on fish communities in southwestern Quebec(Canada), " Water air and soil pollution, 66: 315-331.
Tsai, Y. I., and M. T. Cheng (1999) " Visibility and aerosol chemical compositions near the coastal area in central Taiwan," The Science of the Total Environment, 231: 37-51.
Tuncel, S. G., and S. Ungor (1996) " Rain water chemistry in Ankara, Turkey ," Atmospheric Environment, 30: 2721-2727.
Tyson, P. (1992) Acid Rain, Main:Chelsea House, pp. 53-59.
Vermeulen, A. T., G. P. Wyers, F. G. Römer, N. F. M. Van Leeuwen, G. P. J. Draaijers, and J. W. Erisman (1997) " Fog deposition on a coniferous forest in the Netherlands," Atmospheric Environment, 31: 375-386.
Wakamatsu, S., U. Akira, J. S. Han, M. Atsuko, U. Itsushi, and U. Kiyoshi (1996) " Seasonal variation in atmospheric aerosols concentration covering northern Kyushu, Japan and Seoul, Korea," Atmospheric Environment, 30: 2343-2354.
Wolff, G. T., P. J. Lioy, H. Golud, and J. S. Hawkins (1979) " Acid precipitation in the New York metropolitan area:its relationship to meteorological factors," Environmental Science and Technology, 13: 209-212.
Yu, S. C., C. N. Gao, Z. M. Cheng, X. J. Cheng, S. T. Cheng, J. Xiao, and W. X. Ye (1998) " An analysis of chemical composition of different rain types in ‘Minnan Golden Triangle’ region in the southeastern coast of china," Atmospheric Research, 47/48: 245-269.
Zunckel, M., C. R. Turner, and R. B. Wells (1996) " Dry deposition of sulphur on the mpumalanga highland:a pilot study using the inferential method," South African Journal of Science, 92(10): 485-494.
QRCODE
 
 
 
 
 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               
第一頁 上一頁 下一頁 最後一頁 top