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研究生:王文吟
研究生(外文):Wen-Yin Wang
論文名稱:性別與聽力程度於高中生英語聽力策略使用之影響--以台灣彰化地區為例
論文名稱(外文):Effects of Gender and Proficiency on Listening Comprehension Strategy Use by Taiwanese EFL Senior High School Students-- A Case from Changhua, Taiwan
指導教授:趙玉芝趙玉芝引用關係
指導教授(外文):Yu-Gi Chao
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立彰化師範大學
系所名稱:英語學系
學門:人文學門
學類:外國語文學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2002
畢業學年度:90
語文別:英文
論文頁數:259
中文關鍵詞:英語教學英語聽力聽解力聽力理解策略
外文關鍵詞:EFLlisteningEFL listeninglistening comprehensionlistening comprehension strategies
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摘要
本研究之目的在於調查高中生使用英語聽力理解策略之狀況,並探討性別與聽力程度對高中學生的聽力理解策略使用之影響。研究對象是台灣彰化地區三所高中的301位高中二年級學生,最後獲得297位學生的有效資料,其中包含153位男生與144位女生。本研究工具為全民英檢中級聽力測驗,聽力策略問卷,以及訪談。
研究結果顯示,在三個策略類型當中,彰化地區高中生最常使用後設認知策略,其次是社會/情意策略,最少使用的是認知策略。其中翻譯、運用對英語的知識、以及意識到自己失去注意力並重回注意力的使用頻率最高。然而,他們很少運用其他語言的知識,也不常用文法結構來幫助了解聽力內容。
此外,不同的性別與不同的聽力程度在整體聽力理解策略的使用以及後設認知、認知、與社會/情意策略的使用上都有顯著的差異;女生使用策略的平均頻率高於男生,而且聽力程度較高的學生平均使用策略的頻率高於聽力程度較低的學生。換言之,女生比男生更常計畫如何去聽、運用由上而下及由下而上的運作模式、做筆記、以及尋求他人的協助來幫助聽解。另一方面,聽力程度較高的學生比聽力程度較低的學生在計畫、自我監控、自我評估、運用字典、重複聽、由上而下及由下而上的運作、作筆記、將字依屬性分類、作摘要、以及社會策略等方面有較高的使用頻率。尤其值得注意的是聽力程度較低的學生比聽力程度較高的學生更常使用翻譯策略。本論文最後並進一步提出高中英語教學上之應用與未來研究之建議。
ABSTRACT
The purpose of the present study lied in the attempts to find out the frequency of Taiwanese senior high school students’ EFL listening comprehension strategy use, and to explore the effects of gender and proficiency on the students’ listening comprehension strategy use. The participants were 301 students from three senior high schools in Chunghua, Taiwan; however, there were finally 297 valid data, including 153 males and 144 females. The instruments of the study were the listening comprehension intermediate test of the General English Proficiency Test, the listening comprehension strategy questionnaire, and the interview question guide.
It was found that, the students used metacognitive strategies most frequently, followed by social/affective strategies and then cognitive strategies. They used translation, employed their knowledge about English, and became aware of their inattention most frequently. However, they seldom used knowledge of other languages and seldom listened for structures. Significant differences in gender favoring females and in proficiency favoring effective listeners were found in the use of overall listening comprehension strategies, as well as metacognitive, cognitive, and social/affective strategies separately. Specifically, compared with males, females planned their listening, employed the top-down and the bottom-up processing, took notes, and asked others for help significantly more frequently. On the other hand, effective listeners exhibited significantly higher frequency in the use of planning, monitoring, self-evaluation, practicing, bottom-up strategies, top-down strategies, note-taking, grouping, summarization, and a social strategy. However, less effective listeners tended to use translation more frequently than effective ones. Pedagogical implications and suggestions for further study were provided at the end of this thesis.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
ABSTRACT (English)…………………………………………………………... i
ABSTRACT (Chinese)………………………………………………………….. iii
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS..……………………………………………………. iv
TABLE OF CONTENTS………………………………………………………...v
LIST OF TABLES……………………………………………………………….ix
LIST OF FIGURES……………………………………………………………... xi
CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION………………………………………….. 1
Background and Motivation……………………………………………….. 1
Purpose of the Study……………………………………………………….. 7
Research Questions………………………………………………………… 7
Significance of the Study…………………………………………………... 7
Definition of Terms……………………………………………………… ... 9
CHAPTER TWO LITERATURE REVIEW………………………………….. 12
Information Processing Approach…………………………………………. 12
Three Stores of Memory……………………………………………… 13
Information Representation in Memory……………………………… 14
Three Stages of Skill Acquisition……………………………………. 14
Information Processing Approach and Language Learning Strategies……. 15
Definition of Language Learning Strategies………………………………. 16
The Taxonomy of Learning Strategies…………………………………….. 16
Listening Comprehension and Listening Comprehension Strategies……… 19
Factors Affecting Choice of Learning Strategies………………………….. 21
Factors Affecting Listening Comprehension………………………………. 22
Characteristics of Good Language Learners……………………………….. 23
Studies in the Field of Listening Strategies….…………………………….. 24
Differences Between Effective and Less Effective Learners’ Strategy Use.. 27
Studies Related to Language Learning Strategies……………………. 27
Studies Related to Listening Strategies………………………………. 28
Strategy Use in Terms of Gender Differences……………………………... 33
Studies Related to Language Learning Strategies……………………. 33
Studies Related to Listening Strategies………………………………. 37
CHAPTER THREE METHODOLOGY……………………………………… 39
Population…………………………………………………………………. 39
Subjects……………………………………………………………………. 39
Instruments………………………………………………………………… 40
The Listening Comprehension Test…………………………………... 40
The Listening Comprehension Strategy Questionnaire………………. 41
The Interview Question Guide……………………………………….. 43
Data Collection…………………………………………….………………. 44
Data Analysis………………………………………………………………. 45
CHAPTER FOUR RESULTS…………………………………………………. 47
Demographic Information of the Subjects…………………………………. 47
The Background Information of the Subjects……………………………… 49
The General Strategy Use by the Whole Sample………………………….. 53
The Use of Three Main Categories of Listening Comprehension Strategies……………………...…….…………………………………53
The Use of the Individual Strategies…………………………………. 53
Strategies With High Frequency of Usage…………………………… 56
Strategies With Low Frequency of Usage……………………………. 57
The Strategy Use in Terms of Gender Differences………………………… 58
The Use of Three Main Categories of Listening Comprehension Strategies…….……………………………………………………….. 58
Ten Strategies Most Often and Ten Strategies Least Often Used by
Males…………………………………………………………………. 59
Ten Strategies Most Often and Ten Strategies Least Often Used by
Female………………………………………………………………... 61
The Use of the Individual Strategies…………………………………. 62
The Strategy Use in Terms of Listening Proficiency Differences…………. 65
The Use of Three Main Categories of Listening Comprehension Strategies…………………….……………………………………….. 65
Ten Strategies Most Often and Ten Strategies Least Often Used by
Effective Listeners……………………………………………………. 66
Ten Strategies Most Often and Ten Strategies Least Often Used by
Less Effective Listeners..……………………………………………... 68
The Use of the Individual Strategies…………………………………. 69
The Students’ Responses to the Open-ended Question on the
Questionnaire………………………………………………………………. 73
The Interview Results……………………………………………………… 75
CHAPTER FIVE DISCUSSIONS AND CONCLUSIONS………………….. 117
The General Strategy Use by the Whole Sample………………………….. 117
The Use of Three Main Categories of Listening Comprehension
Strategies……………………………………………………………... 117
Strategies With High Frequency of Usage…………………………… 119
Strategies With Low Frequency of Usage……………………………. 124
The Strategy Use in Terms of Gender Differences………………………… 129
The Use of Three Main Categories of Listening Comprehension
Strategies……………………………………………………………... 129
The Use of the Individual Strategies…………………………………. 130
The Strategy Use in Terms of Listening Proficiency Differences…………. 133
The Use of Three Main Categories of Listening Comprehension
Strategies……………………………………………………………... 133
The Use of the Individual Strategies…………………………………. 135
Suggestions and Pedagogical Implications………………………………… 143
Limitations of the Study…………………………………………………… 146
Suggestions for Further Studies…………………………………………….147
BIBLIOGRAPHY………………………………………………………………. 148
APPENDICES…………………………………………………………………... 162
Appendix A: The Listening Comprehension Strategy Questionnaire….…...161
Appendix B: The Interview Question Guide………………………………. 167
Appendix C: Interview Data……………………………………………….. 170
Appendix D: The Test Scores of the Subjects……………………………... 232
Appendix E: Statistical Tables……………………………………………... 236
LIST OF TABLES
Table 4.1 The Percentage of Ways to Practice English Listening in Class….. 49
Table 4.2 The Percentage of The Ways to Improve English Listening……… 50
Table 4.3 Perception of the Importance of Listening………………………… 51
Table 4.4 Self-rating of Listening Ability……………………………………. 51
Table 4.5 The Percentage of Time Spent on Listening Comprehension
Practice..………………………………………………………….... 52
Table 4.6 The Sources of Difficulty in Listening……………………………. 52
Table 4.7 The Three Main Listening Strategy Categories…………………… 53
Table 4.8 Means and Standard Deviations of the 42 Strategies……………… 54
Table 4.9 Ten Strategies Most Often Used by the Whole Sample…………… 56
Table 4.10 Ten Strategies Least Often Used by the Whole Sample…………... 57
Table 4.11 The t-test on Male and Female Students’ Use of the Three Strategy
Categories…………………………………………………………. 58
Table 4.12 Ten Strategies Most Often Used by Males………………………... 59
Table 4.13 Ten Strategies Least Often Used by Males………………………... 60
Table 4.14 Ten Strategies Most Often Used by Females……………………… 61
Table 4.15 Ten Strategies Least Often Used by Females……………………... 62
Table 4.16 T-test Results for Gender Differences…………………………….. 63
Table 4.17 The t-test on Effective and Less Effective Listeners’ Use of the
Three Strategy Categories………………………………………… 65
Table 4.18 Ten Strategies Most Often Used by Effective Listeners…………... 66
Table 4.19 Ten Strategies Least Often Used by Effective Listeners…………... 67
Table 4.20 Ten Strategies Most Often Used by Less Effective Listeners…...… 68
Table 4.21 Ten Strategies Least Often Used by Less Effective Listeners...…... 69
Table 4.22 T-test Results for Effective and Less Effective Listeners….……… 70
Table 4.23 Additional Techniques Used to Facilitate Listening
Comprehension……………………………………………………. 73
LIST OF FIGURES
Figure 2.1 Classification of Learning Strategies…………………………….... 17
Figure 2.2 Oxford’s Taxonomy of Learning Strategies……………………….. 18
Figure 2.3 Characteristics of Successful and Less Successful Listeners……... 30
Figure 3.1 The Categorization of the 42 Strategy items in the Listening
Comprehension Questionnaire……………………………………. 42
Figure 4.1 Strategies with Significant Gender Differences…………………… 64
Figure 4.2 Strategies with Significant Differences Favoring Effective
Listeners…………………………………………………………… 72
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