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研究生:林馥瑩
研究生(外文):Fu-ying Lin
論文名稱:中譯英的偏好結構
論文名稱(外文):Preferred Structures in Chinese-English Translation
指導教授:曹逢甫曹逢甫引用關係
指導教授(外文):Feng-fu Tsao
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立彰化師範大學
系所名稱:英語學系
學門:人文學門
學類:外國語文學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2002
畢業學年度:90
語文別:英文
論文頁數:210
中文關鍵詞:翻譯句法結構主題串被動關係子句連接詞
外文關鍵詞:translationsyntactic structuretopic chainsthe passivizationthe relative clausethe connectives
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摘要
本論文旨在探討當原文(source language,即源頭語)是中文,而譯文(target language,即目標語)是英文時,對中國學生而言,在翻譯的過程中偏好結構(preferred structure)為何。
本論文希望藉由在句法學中對中文、英文兩語言的比較,在翻譯上提供一個較具體的研究。而由於時間有限,本論文僅探討四種句法上的結構,亦即主題串、被動句、關係子句和連接詞。例如:主題若是在一個主題串的中文句子中時,主題在第二個子句常被省略;有些中文句子是中態句(middle voiced sentence),但在英文句中卻必須是被動句(passive voiced sentence);在中文裡較少使用關係子句,常可看見一個句子是由很多子句串聯而成,但在英文裡關係子句的使用是一種偏好結構;當兩個限定子句(finite clause)連用時,在中文裡連接詞並不一定要出現,但在英文裡一定要有適當的連接詞。
在本論文中,光華雜誌的翻譯語料除了做為在探討中譯英時會有哪些偏好結構的具體佐證外,並可為之後實驗中所採用的學生翻譯語料做為一個對比的探討。因為從所引用的光華雜誌的具體語料發現,在一個成熟的翻譯作品中母語的影響是不大的,但在學生的翻譯作品中發現,母語的影響仍是很大。
除此之外,誠如曹逢甫 博士在1977年的博士論文中所提出的:「中文是一個言談導向的語言(a discourse-oriented language);英文是一個句子導向的語言(a sentence-oriented language)」,從本論文的研究結果發現,中國學生在做中譯英的翻譯時,不論是哪一個結構,均受此影響很深。
Abstract
The main purpose of this thesis is to discuss the preferred structures in Chinese-English translation with Chinese as the source language and English, the target language.
This thesis is also an attempt to bring these two types of research─syntactic structures and translation -- together to see how structural differences between English and Chinese are actually handled in translation. Because of the limitation of time, we will examine only four syntactic structures in Chinese-English translation; they are topic chains, the passivization, the relative clauses, and the connectives. For example, topic deletion is prevalent in a Chinese sentence cast in the shape of a topic chain; some transitive verbs in Chinese are middle voiced, i.e. while they are active in form, they are passive in meaning and they are passivized in English translation; the relative pronoun can serve as the function of a conjunction in English, yet it lacks such a function in Chinese; it is necessary to use a conjunction as two finite clauses are put together in English, yet no much a requirement exists in Chinese.
Authentic linguistic data from Sino not only provides supportive proof about our generalization and assumption in this study, but also serves as the contrastive group to students’ translating work in the experiment.
The outcome of this study proves that this property, i.e., topic chains, in Chinese, plays a vital role in Chinese-English translation. And the concept─Chinese is a discourse-oriented language and English is a sentence-oriented─proposed by Prof. Tsao (1977) has much to do this Chinese-English translation.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT…………………………………………………………. i
ABSTRACT(ENGLISH)………………………………………………………….. iii
ABSTRACT(CHINESE)…………………………………………………………… iv
TABLE OF CONTENTS…………………………………………………………….vii
CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION……………………………………………1
1.1 Introduction……………………………………………………………………..1
1.2 Preferred structures and writing tendencies in translation……………………...4
1.3 Purpose and limitation of the study……………………………………………..7
1.4 Assumptions of the study………………………………………………………..7
1.5 Organization of the thesis………………………………………………………..8
Notes …………………………………………………………………………………9
CHAPTER TWO LITERATURE REVIEW……………………………………..10
2.1 Introduction……………………………………………………………………...10
2.2 Topic Chain………………………………………………………………………11
2.2.1 Definition & Characterization………………………………………………12
2.2.2 Implication, Application, and Assumption for Translation………………….16
2.2.3 Summary………………………………………………………………….…19
2.2.4 Examples from Sino…………………………………………………………20
2.3 The Passive Construction .…………………………………………………….…21
2.3.1 Definition & Characterization ………………………………………………22
2.3.2 Implication, Application, and Assumption for Translation …………………27
2.3.3 Summary…………………………………………………………………….30
2.3.4 Examples from Sino ………………………………………………………...31
2.4 The Relative Clause(RC) …………………………………………………… ..33
2.4.1 Definition & Characterization……………………………………………..34
2.4.2 Implication, Application, and Assumption for Translation ………………..41
2.4.3 Summary …………………………………………………………………..42
2.4.4 Examples from Sino ……………………………………………………….43
2.5 The Connectives ………………………………………………………………..45
2.5.1 Definition & Characterization …………………………………………….48
2.5.2 Implication, Application, and Assumption for Translation ……………….57
2.5.3 Summary …………………………………………………………………..58
2.5.4 Examples from Sino ………………………………………………………58
Notes ……………………………………………………………………………….62
CHAPTER THREE EXPERIMENTAL METHODS AND RESULTS ………...67
3.1 Subjects …………………………………………………………………………67
3.2 Materials ………………………………………………………………………..68
3.3 Procedures ………………………………………………………………………69
3.4 Results …………………………………………………………………………. 70
Notes ……………………………………………………………………………….. 95
CHAPTER FOUR DISCUSSION ……………………………………………… 96
4.1 Topic Chain …………………………………………………………………….. 96
4.2 The Passive Construction ………………………………………………………100
4.3 The Relative Clause (RC) ………………………………………………………105
4.4 The Connectives ………………………………………………………………..109
Notes ………………………………………………………………………………. 112
CHAPTER FIVE CONCLUSION AND PEDAGOGICAL IMPLICATION …. 113
5.1 Conclusion …………………………………………………………………….. 113
5.2 Remaining Problems ………………………………………………………….. 117
5.3 Pedagogical Implication ………………………………………………………. 118
5.4 Implications for Further Research …………………………………………….. 119
Notes ……………………………………………………………………………… 121
References ………………………………………………………………………….122
APPENDIX 1: Translation Test ……………………………………………………130
APPENDIX 2: Students’ Translation on Topic Chain …………………………….. 132
APPENDIX 3: Students’ Translation on Passive Construction …………………… 143
APPENDIX 4: Students’ Translation on Relative Clauses (RC) ………………….. 158
APPENDIX 5: Students’ Translation on Connectives …………………………….. 177
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