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研究生:邱芸姍
研究生(外文):Yun-san Chiu
論文名稱:論夏綠蒂‧布朗特《簡愛》中性別文化政治
論文名稱(外文):Cultural Politics of Gender in Charlotte Bronte's Jane Eyre
指導教授:陳梅英陳梅英引用關係
指導教授(外文):May-ying Chen
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立彰化師範大學
系所名稱:英語學系
學門:人文學門
學類:外國語文學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2002
畢業學年度:90
語文別:英文
論文頁數:104
中文關鍵詞:性別文化建構性別主體父權性壓迫簡愛
外文關鍵詞:cultural construction of gendergendered subjectpatriarchysexual oppressionJane Eyre
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  • 下載下載:287
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摘要
本論文嘗試從性別文化政治的角度來重新詮釋簡愛中性別的議題。闡述在維多利亞時期的父權社會中,女主角簡愛如何反抗當時的女性理想形象、反抗父權論述實踐,及挑戰當時的性別權利關係。
第一章回顧國內外有關簡愛的評論文章,並從中找出了重新閱讀此小說的理由。其一,簡愛是否顛覆當時傳統的女性角色一直備受討論但是尚無定論;其二,至今有關小說中性別是透過什麼樣的文化機制形塑而成,且簡愛如何反抗性別主體的過程尚未有健全的討論。因此,本論文採用Weedon和Jordan的性別文化政治及Foucault的權利觀念來探討小說中性別形塑的問題,及簡愛對維多利亞性別主體的反動。
第二章再現維多利亞女性理想意象,以便與夏綠蒂對簡愛的描繪做一比較。簡愛這一角色的描繪可說是與當時女性理想形象背道而馳,因此夏綠蒂與簡愛受到相當多人的批評。批評者控訴他們顛覆維多利亞的社會價值觀及女性理想形象;無可否認,這些控訴正證明簡愛顛覆了當時傳統的女性角色。
第三章舉例說明家庭、學校,及宗教這三個文化機制如何透過論述實踐、紀律、與懲罰來形塑簡愛成為一個性別主體。此外,這一章節也展現簡愛如何反抗這些形塑力量。
第四章主要論述簡愛如何抵抗Rochester 及St. John的誘惑,而不至於成為Rochester的情婦及St. John有名無實的妻子,並闡述簡愛如何尋找到自我,成為自己的主人而非Rochester及St. John的他者。此外,這一章將Bertha詮釋為維多利亞時代性壓迫下一個被壓制的主體;但這並不表示Bertha就毫無權力可言,她透過暴力來展現對父權的反抗。
第五章摘要了前幾章的重點,並指出這本小說尚可探討的空間。本論文只著重性別議題的討論,而忽略階級及種族的議題。基於Weedon及Jordan的觀點,性別、階級及種族都是文化建構的產品,他們促成了不同與不平。因此,這本小說中階級及種族議題也可從文化政治的角度來加以探討。

Abstract
This thesis attempts to provide an interpretation of Charlotte Bronte’s Jane Eyre in terms of cultural politics of gender by exploring the ways in which Jane Eyre resists being an en-gendered subject as an angel in the house and conforming to the ideal image of womanhood embedded in the network of power relations and discursive practices of the Victorian Age.
In Chapter One, Introduction, I review the critical essays abroad and at home, and point out two reasons for rereading the already much discussed novel. For one thing, whether or not Jane is subversive to the traditional roles of women has been constantly debated and yet far from settled; for the other, there is yet no sound and systematic study on how the gender role is constructed and how Jane resists being an en-gendered subject and empowers herself. In this chapter I introduce the methodology─cultural politics of gender which is a combination of the ideas of such feminist critics Weedon and Jordan and Foucault’s idea of power.
In Chapter Two, I represent the ideal image of womanhood in the early Victorian Age so as to offer a vivid comparison to Jane Eyre. Creating a heroine alienating from the Victorian ideal image of womanhood, Brontë aroused lots of hostile responses when the first edition of Jane Eyre was published in 1847. Brontë and Jane were accused of doing unconventional deeds and subverting social, political and religious institutions. Meanwhile, the contemporary negative reviews manifest that the novel really challenged the Victorian cultural norms and ideal image of womanhood.
In Chapter Three, I illustrate how the three cultural institutions─family, school, and religion, which coincide with Gateshead, Lowood, and the representatives of Christianity in the novel─function to en-gender Jane as an expected gendered subject through discursive practices, discipline and punishment, and how Jane revolts against their power.
In Chapter Four, I mainly focus on Jane’s resistance to the temptation of becoming Rochester’s mistress and St. John’s nominal wife, and on Jane’s quest for her identity as her own mistress. In addition, the mad woman, Bertha, is read as a subjugated subject under the sexual oppression in the Victorian patriarchal society. Under the sexual regulation, Bertha isn’t a powerless woman; instead, she demonstrates her resistance to the patriarchy through violence.
In the last chapter I summarize the main points of the preceding chapters and point out the room for further study. In this thesis, the issues of class and race are overlooked. According to Weedon and Jordan, these three terms, gender, class, and race are all culturally constructed, not natural. They contribute to difference and inequality. Therefore, I suggest that the two issues in Jane Eyre can also be discussed in the light of cultural politics of class and race.
Table of Contents
Chapter one Introduction………………………………………………1
Chapter Two Jane and Brontë’s Transgression of Gender Roles…………25
Chapter Three Three Cultural Institutions:
Constituting Jane as a Gendered Subject……………………45
Chapter Four Jane and Bertha’s Resistance to the Victorian Patriarchy……72
Conclusion……………………………………………………………………101
Bibliography………………………………………………………………….109

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