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研究生:蔡素妙
研究生(外文):Tsai Su-Miao
論文名稱:九二一受創家庭復原力之變化分析研究
論文名稱(外文):A n Analytical Study on the Resilience Process of the Families Traumatized by 921 Earthquake
指導教授:蕭文蕭文引用關係
指導教授(外文):Hsiao Wein
學位類別:博士
校院名稱:國立彰化師範大學
系所名稱:輔導與諮商系
學門:社會及行為科學學門
學類:心理學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2002
畢業學年度:90
語文別:中文
論文頁數:230
中文關鍵詞:921地震受創家庭復原力
外文關鍵詞:921 earthquaketraumatized familyresilience
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本研究旨在探討九二一地震受創家庭在災後將近兩年期間的復原力變化歷程。故以質性研究法訪談在此災變中曾遭受重創而有家人重傷或罹難者的家庭共十戶二十一人。根據受訪者的訪談資料之分析發現,受創家庭災後復原歷程主要可分為四個階段,分別為:驚慌期、安置期、重整期、與穩定期等;家庭功能的壓力反應型態以「先降後升型」為主,同時有少數受創戶出現「直線平行型」、「向上遞升型」、以及「多重起伏型」等;災後近兩年內的家庭功能的恢復情況,則多數受創家庭仍呈現低於震前的家庭功能層次水準,少部分家庭可以接近平於震前水準,以及高於震前水準。
有關受創家庭的復原力發展,受到多個交織循環的脈絡影響包括:一、個人與家庭的前置因素,如家庭成員的關係、個人的信仰、性格、或社經資源等;二、家庭的受災程度,如家人受到重傷、有某位或多位家庭成員死亡等;三、家庭內部的個別成員層面之正向心理位移作用,如出現減輕負向關注、正向積極的思考、正向積極的行動、性格堅毅、性格樂觀、與更不幸者比較、樂於助人、或參與支持團體等復原力因子之影響;四、家庭內部的家庭整體層面之正向恆定作用,如出現重建家園、穩定家庭經濟、連結情感為家人堅強、改善溝通、重建生活秩序、分工合作肩負起新角色責任、重要家庭信念的建立、或展望未來等復原力因子之影響;五、家庭外部的環境層面之正向資源交互作用等,如出現社會支持力量、社會文化影響、穩定的物理環境、或時間的力量等資源之作用。
對於此受創家庭之復原力因子與復原力變化歷程的發現,建議頗值得未來相關的災後諮商復健工作與研究之應用。
關鍵詞:921地震、受創家庭、復原力
An Analytical Study on the Resilience Processes of the Families Traumatized by the 921 Earthquake
Abstract
This study intends to investigate the variations of the near-two-year resilience processes of the families traumatized by the 921 Earthquake. The qualitative method is applied to interviewing 21 members from 10 different families suffering from the torments of losing their families or having families severely injured.
Based on the data collected from the interviews, it is found that the resilience processes of the traumatized families can be classified into four chronological stages: the panic stage, the sheltering stage, the reorganization stage, and the stabilization stage. Also through the analysis of the interview data, four types of pressure reaction functioned by the families are predominantly the roller-coaster type, and
, scatteredly, the increasing type, the flat type, and the multiple change type. The roller-coaster type shows that the family’s function decreases at the beginning stage but then gradually resumes toward or even beyond the original level at the latter stages. The increasing type features an upgrading incline of the family function after the earthquake, the flat type, little variation of the family function, and the multiple change type, a multiple up-down variation of the family function.
Five interwoven and interrelated contexts are found to affect the resilience development of the traumatized families. The contexts can be clarified into the pre-existing context of the individual family members and the family, the traumatic degree of the family, the positive psychological displacement of the individual members within the family internal system, the positive homeostasis of the integrating level within the family internal system, and the positive resources mutual interaction of environmental level outside the family system.
Within each context efficacious factors contributing to family resilience are extracted from the interview data. Factors in the pre-existing context are family relationship, personal belief, pre-earthquake experience of grief, personalities, social-economic resources, etc. Effective factors vary according to the different degree of being traumatized. In the light of individual family members, the following factors are influencing: a decrease in negative focus, positively aggressive thinking and action, hardy and optimistic personality, feeling of comfort when comparing to more severely damaged victims, willingness to help others, participation in supporting groups, etc. Taking the family per se into consideration, the following factors are compelling: family reconstruction, family financial security rebuilding, enhancement of family members’ intercommunication and caring for each other, daily-life order reestablishment, family members’ cooperation and new roles undertaking, important family belief commitment, better future expectation, etc. As regards the context outside the family, the following factors are efficacious: social supporting resource, social cultural influence, stable physical environment, the state of becoming due to time passing, etc.
The generalization of the stages and the types of the resilience processes, the clarification of the resilience contexts, and the interpretation of the compelling resilience factors operating within each context may serve as helpful guiding information for trauma and resilience counseling projects, and for further relevant studies as well.
Key words: 921 Earthquake, traumatized family, resilience
目錄
第一章 緒論‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧ 1
第一節 研究動機與目的‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧ 1
第二節 研究問題‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧11
第三節 名詞定義‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧11
第二章 文獻探討‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧15
第一節 家庭系統特性與家庭研究‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧15
第二節 受創家庭與系統變化‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧21
第三節 復原力的概念及在創傷家庭復健上的應用‧‧‧‧35
第三章 研究方法‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧53
第一節 研究對象‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧53
第二節 研究工具‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧57
第三節 研究程序‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧62
第四節 資料分析‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧64
第四章 研究結果‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧67
第一節 受創家庭壓力反應型態變化分析‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧67
第二節 受創家庭個案的復原力歷程分析‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧84
第三節 受創家庭復原力現象跨個案分析之發現與討論‧ 129
第五章 結論與建議‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧ 190
第一節 結論‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧ 190
第二節 建議‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧ 197
第三節 研究限制‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧ 204
參考文獻‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧ 206
中文部分‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧ 206
英文部分 ‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧211
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