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研究生:周承岡
論文名稱:發展紙筆測驗以探究高中生對牛頓運動定律之迷思斯概念
指導教授:陳錦章陳錦章引用關係
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立彰化師範大學
系所名稱:物理學系在職進修專班
學門:自然科學學門
學類:物理學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2002
畢業學年度:90
語文別:中文
中文關鍵詞:牛頓運動定律迷思概念晤談二段式選擇題
外文關鍵詞:dynamicsmisconceptioninterviewtwo-tier
相關次數:
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為了探究高中生對力與運動有那些迷思概念,本研究是以質的研究,首先編製紙筆測驗,要求學生選出選項,並說明所依據的原因,然後經由學生的回答理由作歸類,將學生常有的迷思概念分出類型,並進行晤談,再編製成二段式選擇題測驗。紙筆測驗受試對象為台灣中部某高中已完成高一基礎物理學生228位;二段式選擇題紙筆診斷測驗對象為台灣中部五所高中,合計285人,試題的庫李信度為0.64。
本研究發現高中生於動力學主要的迷思概念為:
1.不瞭解向量與運動學之概念。如不會分析力圖;缺乏轉換觀察座標的區辨能力;無法區分路徑、速度、加速度、力之間關係。
2.不會分析力的種類、來源與用途。如對力的來源通常憑直覺;力來自物體本身的先天和後天性質;會把接觸力視為超距力。
3.把慣性誤認為慣性力,或是保有物體既有的物理量。如有運動者才提供力;物體慣性力受阻力或重力後會逐漸減弱;物體受慣性力維持運動;力量維持物體等速運動;慣性就是維持物體受力前的軌跡;慣性定律就是動力持續到用完;慣性定律只適用於有規律運動;忽略物體的慣性。
4.對一受力體,不瞭解其力與運動量間的關係。如物體運動方向就是物體受力方向;不瞭解衝力及時間與受力關係;認為圓周運動是沒受力的運動;圓周運動同時受向心力與離心力作用,失去向心力,就會朝外滾出;圓周運動時有繞圓圈的慣性力;單擺至最高點,速度不為零;一個重物體比一個輕的物體有更大的加速度;一物在空中運動,會先以水平運動直到動力用完才垂直掉落。
5.對施力物與受力物間的物理量關係不清楚。如物體的本身物理性質能夠影響答案;兩物互推時,通常力量不相等而且取決於(這些)物體運動的狀態;大部分主動者有較大力氣;當物體互相推時, 普遍想到第二定律,他們各自受到淨力變化,由兩方物體的向撞後運動及受損情形來判斷兩物各受力大小;無法區分一系統中內外力的不同;作用力等於反作用力,但兩力作用在同一物體互相抵消;要拉動物體時要克服物體重量。
此外,本研究以晤談方式探索學生力與運動迷思概念之成因,發現主要原因為:1.從日常的經驗與觀察。2.從類比所產生的混淆。3.從日常生活中的隱喻。4.從同儕文化。5.非觀察量不存在。6.賦予物體人類及動物的特性。7.無法正確使用公式。8.賦予物體一部份的物理量。
The purpose of this study is to develop a paper-pencil test and assess senior high students’ misconceptions concerning dynamics.
First, I developed a paper-pencil test and made an interview with students in order that they could choice items and illustrate the reasons. Then a two-tier test was developed based on students’ reasons for their choice as well as on information gathered from the paper-pencil question. The first part of each item on the tset is a multiple choice question concerning dynamics. The second part of each question contains a set of four or five possible reasons for the answer given to the first part.
Two hundred and twenty eight students in a certain senior high school in central Taiwan who had studied basic physics of 10th grade were examined on paper-pencil test;two hundred and eighty five students in five senior high schools in central Taiwan who had studied basic physics of 10th grade were examined on a two-tier test. Kuder-Richardson reliability is 0.64.
The most significant misconceptions revealed by the study are follows as:
1. Can not understand vector and motion.
2. Can not analyze the kind of vector , the source of vector and the way of vector.
3. Mistake inertia for interia force.
4. Can not understand the relationship between force and motion.
5. Can not understand the relationship between action and counter-action.
The most significant source of misconceptions revealed by the study by means of interviews are:
1. from everyday experience and observation.
2. From confusion about the analogies.
3. From the use of metaphors.
4. From the peer culture.
5. Non-observable does not exist.
6. Endowing objects with the characteristics of humans and animals.
7. That students cannot use formula correctly.
8. Endowing objects with a certain amount of a physical quantity.
中文摘要
英文摘要
目 次
表 次
圖 次
附 錄 次
第一章 緒論
第一節 研究背景與動機
第二節 研究目的與待答問題
第三節 研究範圍與限制
第四節 名詞釋義
第二章 文獻探討
第一節 概念的形成與發展
第二節 迷思概念
第三節 探究迷思概念的方法
第四節 牛頓運動定律迷思概念的相關研究
第三章 研究方法與步驟
第一節 研究樣本
第二節 研究工具
第三節 研究程序
第四節 資料處理與分析
第四章 結果與討論
第一節 二段式紙筆測驗結果
第二節 綜合討論
第五章 結論與建議
第一節 結論
第二節 建議
參考文獻
附 錄
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