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研究生:劉錫忠
研究生(外文):Shi Chung Liou
論文名稱:提昇國中生對科學本質理解之行動研究
論文名稱(外文):Using Action Research to Promote Junior High School Students'' Understanding the Nature of Science
指導教授:段曉林段曉林引用關係
指導教授(外文):Hsiao-lin Tuan
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立彰化師範大學
系所名稱:科學教育研究所在職進修專班
學門:教育學門
學類:普通科目教育學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2002
畢業學年度:90
語文別:中文
論文頁數:177
中文關鍵詞:科學本質行動研究科學教學
外文關鍵詞:Nature of ScienceAction ResearchScience Teaching
相關次數:
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摘 要
本研究旨在探討在國中理化科教學活動中,以行動研究來提昇國中生對科學本質的理解,以達成讓學生具備當代科學本質觀的目標。
本研究時間持續一學期,所選取的班級是研究者任教的一班國二學生共33位。研究方法是採取質、量並重。質性研究部份,由自製科學本質問卷前測結果選取分屬高、中、低分群各5名學生做為整學期觀察及晤談的對象。而量的部份則以問卷前後測結果作統計分析。將所收集的晤談、學習單資料分類,並與前、後測結果進行歸納、比較,以得到研究結果及主張。
結果顯示個案班級全體學生對科學本質觀有小幅提昇,且在「科學知識」、「科學探究」等兩個向度有提升,但在「科學事業」向度則下降。這說明在課室教學環境,要讓學生體會瞭解科學家所從事的行業特質是不易進行的。但是在經歷融入科學本質的教學活動後,中、低分群學生的確有顯注提升他們對當代科學本質觀的理解。
在科學知識的向度上,其中「科學知識的價值由科學社群認可」的本質觀達顯著差異,晤談結果顯示小組合作模式是幫助學生理解科學社群功能的良好策略。在科學探究的向度上,其中「科學探究會受社會、經濟、歷史因素影響。」和「科學理論非客觀的觀察、實驗即可形成。」二項觀點達顯著差異。由晤談得知學生大都認為在每次的實驗過程與研討會活動中,藉由小組相互討論與小組間的批判,而體會科學的理論只靠自己觀察、實驗是不夠的,還需要小組合作討論才能考慮周詳。在科學事業的向度上,有兩項觀點「科學由不同領域所組成」和「科學家不會從事複製人的研究」則呈現顯著下降。但有趣的是,學生認為科學家會從事複製人研究,是因為科學家的好奇心,以及複製人的研究不一定有不良後果,反而也可以應用在製造人類器官的正途上。所以學生認可做適度的研究而非全面禁止研究。
Using Action Research to Promote Junior High school
students''Understanding the Nature of Science
Shi-Chung Liou
Abstract
The purposes of this study were to use action research to promote junior high school students’ understanding of the contemporary NOS during the action processes.
One class of thirty-three 8th graders was chosen to participate in the five months action research progress. Both qualitative and quantitative research methods had been employed, which consisted of interview, observation and questionnaire. Students’ views of NOS were assessed by pre and post-test. In addition, fifteen students ranged from high, middle and low levels on NOS were selected to conduct semi-structures interview during the investigation periods.
In analyzing students ranged from middle to low score on NOS, their post test results showed significant increase (p<.05). It indicated that NOS teaching could benefit this group of students''NOS.
Examining the knowledge dimension on NOS questionnaire, it showed that “the value of scientific knowledge must be approved by scientific community” increased significantly. Interview data showed that group cooperation could help students appreciate the function of scientific community.
In the inquiry dimension on NOS, there were two items showed significant increase, these were “Scientific inquiry were influenced by social, economic, and historical factors.” and “The formation of scientific theory was not only based on objective observation and practical experiments.” The study found out students experienced group discussion and criticism during experiment and seminar activities, which made them appreciated the formation of scientific theory could not only rely on observation and experiment, it also needs group collaboration and discussion to generate more complete theory.
In the scientific enterprise dimension, there were two items “Science is consisted of various disciplines” and “Scientists should not do the research on reproduce human being.'''' decreased significantly (p<.05) on post-test.Students thought it was scientists’ curiosity that made them research on human reproduction. On the other hand, human reproduction research could help for reproduction human organ. Thus, there was still some strength on human reproduction research, which should not be prohibited.
目次
中文摘要 Ⅰ
英文摘要 Ⅱ
目次 Ⅲ
圖次 Ⅲ
表次 Ⅳ
附錄次 Ⅴ
第壹章 緒論 1
第一節 問題背景與研究動機 1
第二節 研究目的與待答問題 2
第三節 名詞釋義與研究限制 3
第貳章 文獻探討 5
第一節 當代科學本質的發展演進 5
第二節 科學本質的哲學背景與內涵 7
第三節 科學本質在科學教育上的實徵性研究 14
第四節 傳達科學本質的關鍵要素 20
第參章 研究方法 26
第一節 研究對象 27
第二節 研究者的角色與理念 27
第三節 資料蒐集 29
第四節 資料分析 32
第五節 研究流程與研究架構 33
第肆章 研究結果與討論 37
第一節 個案班級學生在教學前的科學本質觀 37
第二節 進行融入科學本質的教學活動歷程,所採取的教學策略、所遭遇的困境與解決方針 61
第三節 教學實施後,個案班級學生對科學本質觀的轉變 114
第伍章 結論與建議 146
第一節 綜合結論 146
第二節 建議 153
參考文獻 155
中文摘要 155
英文摘要 156
圖次
圖3-1 研究架構圖 35
圖3-2 研究流程圖 36
表次
表4-1 科學知識向度各子題的前測平均值、贊同人數與不贊同人數比率
38
表4-2 科學探究向度各子題的前測平均值、贊同人數與不贊同人數比率
45
表4-3 科學事業向度各子題的前測平均值、贊同人數與不贊同人數比率
55
表4-4 各組學生發言人數狀況表 104
表4-5 科學本質─三向度(n=33)的前後測平均值差異檢定 114
表4-6 中、低分群學生(n=20)科學本質三向度前後測平均值差異檢定
114
表4-7 科學本質整份問卷之平均值、標準差、前後測改變量、男女平均差異值
115
表4-8 科學知識向度之平均值、標準差、前後測改變量、男女平均差異值
116
表4-9 科學探究向度之平均值、標準差、前後測改變量、男女平均差異值
116
表4-10 科學事業向度之平均值、標準差、前後測改變量、男女平均差異值
116
表4-11高分群學生代表的前後測平均值比較 116
表4-12中分群的學生代表前後測平均值比較 117
表4-13低分群學生代表的前後測比較 118
表4-14意見類型人數交叉表範例 119
表4-15科學知識向度之前後測平均值改變量、贊同人數與不贊同人數改變率
120
表4-16科學探究向度之前後測平均值改變量、贊同人數與不贊同人數改變率
128
表4-17科學事業向度之前後測平均值改變量、贊同人數與不贊同人數改變率
138
附錄次
附錄一 自製科學本質問卷 159
附錄二 自製理化學習單 160
附錄三 自製科學本質問卷每題之意見類型人數交叉表 169
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