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研究生:司念雲
研究生(外文):Szu Nien-Yun
論文名稱:代幣增強方案對增進注意力渙散學生用功行為成效之研究
論文名稱(外文):The Experimental Effects of the Token Reinforcement Program On the Improvement of an ADD Student''''s On-task Behavior
指導教授:許天威許天威引用關係
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立彰化師範大學
系所名稱:特殊教育學系在職進修專班
學門:教育學門
學類:特殊教育學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2002
畢業學年度:90
語文別:中文
論文頁數:139
中文關鍵詞:代幣增強方案注意力渙散用功行為
外文關鍵詞:token reinforcement programADDon-task behavior
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論文名稱:代幣增強方案對增進注意力渙散學生
用功行為成效之研究
校(院)所組別:國立彰化師範大學特殊教育學系
畢業時間及提要別:九十學年度第二學期碩士學位論文提要
指導教授:許天威博士
研究生:司念雲
論文提要內容:
本研究旨在探討代幣增強方案對增進注意力渙散學生用功行為之成效。研究對象為一名九歲就讀普通班四年級女學生,經由個案資料收集與直接行為觀察確定為具有注意力渙散的行為問題。
研究方法採單一受試實驗研究法中跨情境的多基準線實驗設計,自變項為代幣增強方案,依變項為用功行為反應次數的時距百分比。實驗情境選定國語課、數學課及社會課。觀察地點在班級教室內,每週一、三、五在各情境進行每節次以20秒為時距的40分鐘觀察紀錄。
本研究所得資料以目視分析與C統計進行分析,以決定實驗成效。目標行為的觀測信度達87.44﹪,教師、家長之問卷調查及與受試者、教師、家長的訪談結果作為本研究的社會效度,其評鑑結果令人滿意。綜合本研究結果如下:
(一) 實施代幣增強方案後,學生在國語課、數學課及社會課的用功行為有進步的跡象。即代幣增強方案能增進注意力渙散學生在不同情境下用功行為的時距百分比,發現國語課、數學課及社會課在處理期的水準平均值皆比基線期佳。綜觀實驗處理對於目標行為的增進狀況係依課程內容、教學方式及受試者對不同學科內容之理解程度而有不同的表現,社會課優於數學課及國語課,其中數學課的用功行為表現得較不穩定。
(二) 當撤除代幣增強方案對維持注意力渙散學生用功行為有不同效果。撤除代幣增強方案後,研究結果顯示:
1.學生在國語課的用功行為維持效果不明顯。
2.學生在數學課的用功行為維持效果不明顯。
3.學生在社會課的用功行為有明顯的維持跡象。
本研究根據研究結果及討論後提出建議,可供家長、教師及
從事相關研究者參考。
關鍵字:代幣增強方案、注意力渙散、用功行為
The Experimental Effects of the Token Reinforcement Program
On the Improvement of an ADD Student’s On-task Behavior
Abstract
The purpose of this study is to investigate into the experimental effects of the token reinforcement program to improve an ADD student’s on-task behavior. The subject was a 4th grade girl, ages 9, who studied in regular class. She was assumed to have attention deficit disorder(ADD) problem via individual information collecting and direct behavioral observation.
A multiple baselines across settings design of the single-subject experimentation was adopted as the research. The independence variable is the token reinforcement program, and the dependence variable is the interval percentage of on-task behavior responses. The experimental settings involve Mandarin, mathematics and social study lessons; Each forty-minute-session is took down on every Monday, Wednesday, and Friday.
To attain the results of this study, the data collected are analyzed by visual analysis and C statistics. The interobserver reliability reaches 87.44%; the social validity of this study is based on the surveys of the teachers, parents and the subject. The results of this study can be summarized as follows:
1. The token reinforcement program is able to increase the interval percentage of an ADD student’s on-task behavior in the three different settings.
2. The student’s on-task behavior improvement of social study lessons is superior to that of mathematics and Mandarin lessons; in the three courses mentioned above, the student’s performance of mathematics lessons appears to be least stable.
3. The maintenance effect during both Mandarin lessons and mathematics lessons are not obvious, however social study lessons’ maintenance performance is obvious.
Research discussions and recommendations are provided for the parents, teachers, and related researchers.
key words:token reinforcement program, ADD, on-task behavior.
目 次
中文摘要………………………………………………………… Ⅰ
英文摘要………………………………………………………… Ⅲ
目次……………………………………………………………… Ⅴ
表次……………………………………………………………… Ⅶ
圖次……………………………………………………………… Ⅷ
第壹章 緒論 ………………………………………………1-5
第一節 研究動機…………………………………………1
第二節 研究目的…………………………………………3
第三節 名詞釋義…………………………………………4
第貳章 文獻探討…………………………………………6-62
第一節 注意力缺陷過動症………………………………6
第二節 行為的增強理論…………………………………18
第三節 代幣增強理論與相關研究………………………41
第參章 研究方法…………………………………………63-83
第一節 研究步驟…………………………………………64
第二節 研究對象…………………………………………66
第三節 研究設計…………………………………………72
第四節 實驗器材…………………………………………78
第五節 資料處理…………………………………………80
第肆章 研究結果 ………………………………………84-104
第一節 受試者用功行為之資料分析……………………84
第二節 研究結果之討論…………………………………98
第伍章 結論與建議 …………………………………105-110
第一節 結論………………………………………………105
第二節 研究限制…………………………………………107
第三節 建議………………………………………………108
參考文獻
中文部分…………………………………………………111-113
英文部分…………………………………………………114-129
附錄………………………………………………………130-139
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