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研究生:陳福順
論文名稱:國小特殊體育實施現況與意見調查研究
指導教授:張昇鵬張昇鵬引用關係
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立彰化師範大學
系所名稱:特殊教育學系在職進修專班
學門:教育學門
學類:特殊教育學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2002
畢業學年度:90
語文別:中文
論文頁數:138
中文關鍵詞:特殊體育回歸主流國民小學適應體育
外文關鍵詞:special physical educationadapted physical educationmainsteaming
相關次數:
  • 被引用被引用:65
  • 點閱點閱:1906
  • 評分評分:
  • 下載下載:503
  • 收藏至我的研究室書目清單書目收藏:10
本研究旨在探討國小階段身心障礙學生實施體育教學的現況、特殊體育實施的需求、困難與意見,以及不同背景變項對「特殊體育教學」與「特殊體育課程期許」的差異情形。研究調查對象以九十學年度台灣省國民小學中部五縣市(包括台中市、台中縣、彰化縣、南投縣、雲林縣)含有特殊班(包括啟智班、資源班、啟聰班、啟明班、啟仁班)的學校中,每校各抽取特殊教師一名及體育教師一名;及特殊學校國小階段每校抽取每年級級任老師及體育老師各一名,有效樣本共279名。本研究之研究工具以吳武典與施大立共同編制之「對特殊體育現況與意見調查問卷」量表,來了解國小特殊體育實施情形。問卷資料以以次數分配、百分率、獨立樣本平均數差異t檢定法、單因子變異數分析和Scheffe’事後比較等統計方法,進行分析處理。本研究的結果如下:
一、 國小階段身心障礙學生體育教學現況方面
1. 目前各校大都有為身心障礙學生安排體育課,擔任者以導師為主,且上體育課的身心障礙學生大都安置於特殊班。
2. 擔任體育課程教師,近八成會為身心障礙學生規劃特殊體育課程,課程的規劃方式超過一半的教師以「設計個別化體育教學方案」為主,其次是「使用一般學生教學方式,但予以簡化」,再其次是「彈性擬定」。
3. 課程規劃的主要依據方式為:「依實際狀況,自行調整擬定」,其次為「特殊學校課程綱要」,再其次為「現行體育課程實施標準」。
4. 目前對身心障礙學生特殊體育教學安置型態,主要為「特殊班自成一班實施體育教學」以避免發生危險,老師好管理,課程也容易安排。
5. 教師認為現行的教學內容,以「球類」、「團康」及「感覺統合訓練」選用率最高。
6. 教師認為現行的教學場地,以「田徑場」、「籃球場」及「原班級教室」選用率最高。
7. 實施特殊體育教學時大都利用現有的器材及教具;當遇到困難時大都會尋求校內相關領域的同事協助,結合校外專業人士的比率較低。
二、 實施特殊體育的需求分析
1. 在「教好特殊體育課程」的需求方面:
教師對「法令資訊需求」、「運動傷害與特殊狀況之防範與處理」、「體能動作評量的工具和技巧」、「現行可用、適用的教材資訊」、「對特殊體育教學經驗資訊」、「如何安排和執行特殊體育方案資訊」、「專業訓練與在職訓練資訊」、「對無障礙環境與相關教具、器材、設備資訊」等八個項目之資訊需求比率皆高達八成以上。
2. 在對「特殊體育課程期許」方面:
教師對「對身心障礙學生實施特殊體育教學」、「對制訂法律來推動特殊體育」、「對由教育部統一編訂特殊體育教材」、 「對另編經費來購置特殊體育教具、器材及改善現有運動設施」、「對身心障礙學生實施特殊體育個別化教育方案」、「對為特殊教育教師提供特殊體育在職進修機會」、「舉辦一些特殊運動會及國際性特殊體育與運動交流活動」等七個實務上之項目需要勾選率皆達六成以上,顯見這些項目是教師們對身心障礙學生實施特殊體育期許中,覺得自已或所處環境不足的部份,也是未來推動特殊體育要加強的重點所在。
三、 對身心障礙學生實施特殊體育困難與意見
1.高達49.1﹪的教師勾選「可偶爾嘗試,但還是以在特殊班中進行體育教學為佳」,顯示多數教師對身心障礙學生的體育教學還是不贊成讓他們經常地到普通班上課。
2.身心障礙學生體育教學要教什麼,目前缺乏特殊體育教材也沒有一個依據或參考,只是依照學生失能狀況提供必要的幫助,造成教師無所適從。且體育教師較不明瞭身心障礙學生的障礙性質、行為、相關知識;而特殊教育教師較不明瞭有關體育的專業部份,如何統整這兩類教師的專業知能,可作為推動特殊體育的參考。
3.特殊體育教師在面對身心障礙學生學生時,絕非自己一個人的單方面專業知能就能解決學生所有問題,一定要同時多方面配合,有專業團隊支持和諮詢。
4.目前特殊體育的知能是否適合擔任特殊體育教學,不到一半教師認為自己「適合」,其餘大部份教師認為「不適合」或「無意見」。顯示一半以上教師覺得目前自己特殊體育知能不夠。
5. 特殊學校教師與普通學校體育教師覺得自己特殊體育知能較能擔任特殊體育教學的比率明顯高於其他兩類教師;其可能原因是普通學校體育教師本身只有體育專業知能,且接觸身心障礙學生機會較少;普通學校資源班教師目前對特殊體育的專業素養仍感陌生,因此比率也不高。
6.超過一半的教師未來都願意從事特殊體育教學,顯示實施特殊體育的推動已具有一定的成果。
四、不同「性別」、「年齡」、「婚姻狀況」、「服務年資」、「擔任特殊體育年資」、「教育程度」、「有無修習體育學分或曾參加相關研習」等背景的教師,對「教好特殊體育課程」與對「特殊體育課程期許」,並不因教師的個人因素而影響對特殊體育課程的實施。
五、不同「任教類別」的體育教師對「教好特殊體育課程」及對「特殊體育課程期許」會因其任教類別的差異而影響其對特殊體育課程的實施。
1.普通學校資源班班教師與普通學校體育教師對如何「教好特殊體育課程」差異情形為:普通學校資源班教師比普通學校體育教師較能教好特殊體育課程。
2.普通學校特殊班教師與普通學校體育教師對「特殊體育課程期許」的比較,其差異情形為:普通學校特殊班教師比普通學校體育教師對特殊體育課程發展的期許較高。
3.普通學校資源班教師與普通學校體育教師對「特殊體育課程期許」的比較,其差異情形為:普通學校資源班教師比普通學校體育教師對特殊體育課程發展的期許較高。
最後根據研究結果做進一步討論外,綜合結論與研究限制,提出未來實施特殊體育及研究上之建議。
The purpose of this research is to explore the current gymnastic teaching condition, demand, problems and opinions, in mental and physical handicap students in the elementary stage; and the differences between "special gymnastic teaching" and "special gymnastic lessons expectation" under different backgrounds. The research samples are collected from elementary schools, containing special classes (including Chi-Zhi Class, Resource Class, Chi-Cong Class, Chi-Ming Class, Chi-Ren Class), in the middle part of Taiwan (including Taichung city, Taichung county, Zhanghua county, Nantou county, Yunlin country). I selected one special teacher and one gymnastic teacher in each selected schools and selected one teacher and one gymnastic teacher in each school year from special elementary schools. Total effective samples are counted to be 279 teachers. The research tool used in this research is "Current special gymnastic carrying out condition and opinion survey questionnaire" quantitative checklist edited by Wu, Wu-Dian and Shih, Da-Li, to understand the practical condition of elementary special gymnasium. The data collected will be analyzed by using statistic methods, such as frequency allocation, percentage, T test of independent sampling means, One-Way ANOVA Analysis and Scheffe''s Post Hoc Tests…etc. The result of this research is summarized as followings:
二、 Current gymnastic teaching condition of mental and physical handicap students in the elementary schools
1. Currently, almost every school arranges gymnastic classes for mental and physical handicap students. The undertakers are mainly tutors and the locations to have gymnastic classes for mental and physical handicap students are mostly taking place in special classes.
2. Almost 80% gymnastic teachers will design special gymnastic lessons for mental and physical handicap students. More than 50% of them will design the classes by using "personalized gymnastic teaching methods", following by "simplified general students teaching methods" and "elastic sketch".
3. The lesson content planning will be mainly based on "self-adjustable according to the real condition", "special school classes guideline" and "current gymnastic classes practical standards".
4. The current special gymnastic teaching allocation for mental and physical handicap students are mainly "giving gymnastic lessons for special classes altogether" for teachers to manage students and classes easily and to avoid something dangerous happening.
5. Teachers think that under current teaching contents, "balls", "group game" and "sense integration training" have been used under most of the situations.
6. Teachers think that "fields", "basketball fields" and "original classrooms" have the highest utilized ratio for current gymnastic lesson to take place.
7. While teaching special gymnastic classes, almost every teacher utilizes current equipments and tools. While there is any problem, teachers will search help from colleagues in related fields in school. There is lower ratio for those teachers to search help outside school.
三、 Special gymnastic classes demand analysis
甲、 On the perspective of demand in "how to teach special gymnastic classes well":
Over 80% of teachers have demands in information about "legal and law", "prevention and arrangement of exercise injury and special condition", "tools and techniques in measuring physical actions", "current usable and suitable teaching information", "special gymnastic teaching experience", "how to arrange and execute special gymnastic programs", "professional training and in work training", and "obstacle free environment and related teaching tools and equipments".
乙、 On the perspective of "expectation of special gymnastic lessons":
Over 60% of teachers have demands in items of "programs about how to teach special gymnastic lesson on mental and physical handicap students", "make laws to set special gymnasium into action", "special gymnastic materials regulated by Ministry of Education", "funding money to purchase special gymnastic tools, equipment and improve current sport facilities", "having personalized special gymnastic education programs for mental and physical handicap students", "providing further education in special gymnasium for teachers teaching special education", "taking place some special sport games and international special gymnasium and sports exchange activities". From those items chose, it is obvious to know what''s short in teachers themselves and environments, which are enforced points in the future to improve special gymnastic teaching.
四、 Problems and opinions in carrying out special gymnastic teaching
1.From the situation that 49.1% teachers choosing "could try occasionally, but it is better to carry gymnastic teaching in special classes", it shows that most teachers don’t agree to let mental and physical handicap students have their gymnastic teaching in normal classes.
2.There is no reference or standard still about what to teach in special gymnastic classes. Teachers can only teach students based on their situation that could cause confusion in performing gymnastic teaching. Besides, gymnastic teachers do not have knowledge about quality, behavior of mental and physical handicap students; in contrast, teachers teaching special education do not have professional knowledge of gymnasium. It is important to coordinate both fields of special knowledge as reference to move special gymnasium.
3.It is impossible for a special gymnastic teacher to solve every problem depending on his own professional knowledge while facing mental and physical handicap students. It needs multi-dimensional coordination to solve all the problems with the support and consultation of professional team.
4.Concerning whether or not teachers are suitable to teach special gymnastic classes based on their knowledge about special gymnasium, only less than half of them think they are "suitable", but mostly of them choose "improper" or "no opinion". The result indicates that more than half of teachers don’t think they have enough knowledge to teach special gymnasium.
5. Teachers in special schools and gymnastic teachers in normal schools have higher ratio in thinking that they have enough special gymnastic knowledge to teach special gymnastic classes than other two categories of teachers. Part of reasons could be contributed to gymnastic teachers in normal schools only have gymnastic professional knowledge and have rare opportunities to contact mental and physical handicap students, and teachers in resource class in normal school are not familiar with special gymnastic teaching.
6.More than half of teachers are willing to devote themselves in special gymnastic teaching that indicates that special gymnasium movement has been effective in certain level.
五、 There is no significant difference in "teaching special gymnastic lesson well" and" expectation in special gymnastic lessons" for teachers with different personal background and factors, such as "sex", "age", "marital status", "years of service", "years of teaching special gymnastic lessons", "educational level", "ever or not take gymnastic credit or participate related seminars".
V. There is significant difference in "teaching special gymnastic lesson well" and "expectation in special gymnastic lessons" for teachers with different "teaching subjects".
1.The difference between teachers in resource classes in normal school and gymnastic teachers in normal schools is that the former ones are more capable of teaching special gymnastic lessons than the latter ones.
2.The difference between teachers in special classes in normal schools and gymnastic teachers in normal schools in "expectation of special gymnastic lessons" is that the former ones have higher expectation in special gymnastic lessons than the latter ones.
3.The difference between teachers in resource classes in normal schools and gymnastic teachers in normal schools in "expectation of special gymnastic lessons" is that the former ones have higher expectation in special gymnastic lessons development than the latter ones.
Finally, based on the research result to have further discussion and coordinating with conclusion and research limitation, I will offer suggestions about how to carry special gymnasium in the future.
第一章 緒論
第一節 研究背景與研究動機…………………………1
第二節 研究目的………………………………………4
第三節 研究問題………………………………………5
第四節 名詞釋義………………………………………6
第五節 研究限制………………………………………9
第二章 文獻探討
第一節 特殊體育的意涵…………………………… 10
第二節 特殊體育的目的…………………………… 14
第三節 特殊體育的歷史背景及起源……………… 17
第四節 特殊體育相關之研究……………………… 25
第三章 研究設計與實施
第一節 研究方法…………………………………… 37
第二節 研究對象與取樣方法……………………… 38
第三節 研究工具與設計…………………………… 39
第四節 研究程序…………………………………… 41
第五節 資料處理與統計方法……………………… 42
第四章 研究結果與討論
第一節 本研究樣本的分配情形…………………… 44
第二節 國小階段身心障礙學生實施體育教
學現況分析……………………………… 47
第三節 對實施特殊體育需求之分析……………… 68
第四節 實施特殊體育之困難與意見分析………… 82
第五節 不同背景教師對實施特殊體育課程的差異 93
第五章 結論與建議
第一節 結論…………………………………………108
第二節 建議…………………………………………115
參考書目
中文部分………………………………………………118
西文部分………………………………………………123
附錄
對「特殊體育」實施現況與意見調查問卷…………131
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教育部(民83)。中華民國特殊教育法規彙編。台北市。
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教育部(民84b)。八十三學年度國民小學啟智類特殊體育研習會報告書。台北市:國立台灣師範大學學校體育研究與發展中心 。未出版。
教育部(民84c)。中華民國身心障礙教育報告書:充分就學、適性發展。台北市:教育部社會司。
教育部(民84d)。一九九五年特殊體育教師專題研討會報告書。台北市:國立台灣師範大學學校體育研究與發展中心 。未出版。
教育部(民85a)。中華民國教育統計(1996)。台北市:教育部統計處。
教育部(民85b)。一九九六年國際特殊體育研討會報告書。台北市:國立台灣師範大學學校體育研究與發展中心 。未出版。
教育部(民85c)。特殊體育教師研習會報告書。台北市:國立台灣師範大學學校體育研究與發展中心 。未出版。
教育部(民85d)。推廣特殊體育行政人員座談會報告書。台北市:國立台灣師範大學學校體育研究與發展中心 。未出版。
教育部(民85f)。我國各級學校身心障礙學生動作能力、教學現況及教學設施調查問卷。台北市:國立台灣師範大學學校體育研究與發展中心 。未出版。
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郭為藩(民79)。特殊兒童心理與教育。台北市:文景書局。
陳在頤(民71)。特殊體育。台北市:健行文化。
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陳俊忠(民82)。殘障者的體適能。國民體育季刊,22(2),25-31。
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陳弘烈(民85)。活動分析在特殊體育上的應用。國民體育季刊,25(2),8-13。
莊惠敏(民85)。中重度智能不足兒童田徑代表隊之訓練。一九九六年國際特殊體育研討會報告書。台北市:國立台灣師範大學學校體育研究與發展中心,154-163。
游添燈(民85)。視障生體育教學之我見。國民體育季刊,25(2),26-33。
游福生(民83)。學生體能的改善。國教月刊,40(7、8),43-44。
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潘裕豐(民86)。殘障者適應體育運動的演進及發展趨勢。特殊體育季刊,62,1-5。
賴復寰、甘光熙(民85)。殘障運動員生理反映與心理特質的比較研究。殘障體育運動會刊,5,54-58。
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