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研究生:連彥惠
研究生(外文):Yen-Hui Lien
論文名稱:蜂膠超臨界二氧化碳分餾物抗氧化與保肝能力之探討
論文名稱(外文):The Antioxidative and Hepatoprotective Effects of Propolis Fractionationed by Supercritical Carbon Dioxide.
指導教授:王璧娟余哲仁余哲仁引用關係
指導教授(外文):Be-Jen WangZer-Ran Yu
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立嘉義大學
系所名稱:食品科學系碩士班
學門:農業科學學門
學類:食品科學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2002
畢業學年度:90
語文別:中文
論文頁數:131
中文關鍵詞:蜂膠超臨界二氧化碳分餾抗氧化tert -butylhydroperoxide肝細胞保肝
外文關鍵詞:PropolisSupercritical FractionationAntioxidationtert -butylhydroperoxidePrimary liver cellhepatoprotective
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本研究探討蜂膠經超臨界二氧化碳分餾後各分餾物之抗氧化與保肝能力。乙醇與蜂膠以10:1 (v/w) 混合經24小時萃取後得蜂膠乙醇萃取液 E,再進行超臨界二氧化碳流體分餾,分餾條件如下:溫度60℃,壓力分別為20,15,10,5 MPa得R,F1,F2,F3分餾物。分析蜂膠乙醇萃取液與四種分餾物之總酚類含量及抗氧化能力,結果顯示,抗氧化力與清除DPPH自由基的能力,隨著分餾物濃度的增加而增加。各分餾物在2mg/mL濃度時抑制MDA生成的能力依次為E(115%),R(110%),F1(73%),F2(58%),F3(54%)。而清除DPPH的能力為R(93%),E(75%),F1(56%),F2(47%),F3(27%)。當分餾物濃度為1mg/mL時,抑制O2‧─生成率可達73%以上,而分餾物濃度為2mg/mL時,清除O2‧─自由基的能力皆>65%。至於捕捉‧OH方面,各分餾物能力相近,約為60%。分餾後使總酚含量降低,但使總類黃酮量增加。由體外抗氧化能力實驗可篩選較具抗氧化力的蜂膠超臨界二氧化碳分餾物,總括來說,E與分餾物R的抗氧化效果較佳,F2其次,但F3清除O2‧─自由基的效果較佳。
蜂膠超臨界分餾物對不同肝損傷誘導劑保肝能力之探討,用大鼠初代肝細胞經分離後以四種誘導劑如carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)、tert-butylhydroperoxide (t-BHP)、acetaminophen (APAP) 及D-galactosamine (D-GalN) 誘發肝細胞損傷,探討不同濃度 10、25、50、100 及300μg/mL 之蜂膠分餾物保護四種誘導劑的肝細胞損傷模式中對大鼠初代肝細胞之保護作用。結果顯示不同的誘導劑所誘發肝細胞損傷的機制不同,故蜂膠分餾物對大鼠肝細胞保護效果也不盡相同。總括來說在t-BHP誘導的大鼠肝細胞損傷模式,顯示蜂膠分餾物濃度於25及50μg/mL等低濃度即可對對於t-BHP誘導的肝損傷具保護效果;肝細胞存活率在50%以上 (P<0.05)。而低濃度分餾物時 (25μg/mL) 尤其是F2對t-BHP與CCl4誘導大白鼠肝細胞毒性時,保肝效果為最顯著(P<0.05)。
配合t-BHP誘發大白鼠急性肝炎模式,探討口服給予五天不同濃度(50 及100mg/kg bw)的蜂膠超臨界二氧化碳分餾物,再以單一計量t-BHP誘導氧化性傷害,對大鼠體內血清轉胺酵素、脂質過氧化、抗氧化酵素(SOD及CAT)與麩胱甘肽相關酵素(GPx, GRd及GST)活性之影響。結果顯示,在血清轉胺酵素方面,大鼠注射t-BHP後,其SGOT與SGPT值明顯增加(P<0.05),而E、R、F1及F2於100mg/kg bw時皆能降低SGOT與SGPT值(P<0.05)。肝臟中的脂質過氧化方面以誘導組的脂質過氧化物TBARS為最高(P<0.05),然而E、R、F1、F2及F3於100mg/kg bw皆可減少TBARS的生成量。另一方面,誘導組血球與肝臟中的抗氧化酵素及麩胱甘肽相關酵素活性會呈現代償性的增加(P<0.05),而誘導組大鼠肝臟中GRd活性顯著的降低(P<0.05),餵食E 100、R 100可抑制GRd活性。透過t-BHP誘發大鼠急性肝炎實驗模式篩選較具有保肝效果的蜂膠超臨界二氧化碳分餾物,總括來說以E、R及F1的保肝效果為最佳,F2其次,而F3的保肝效果不佳。
This research studies the effects of propolis fractionationed by superecritical carbon dioxide on the antioxidant and hepatopective abilities. Propolis was mixed with ethanol at the ratio 1:10 (v/w) for 24 hrs to obtain Propolis ethanol extract (E). The extract E was further fractionationed by SC-CO2 at the following operation conditions: temp at 60℃ and pressure at 20, 15,10, or 5MPa to give R, F1, F2, or F3 fractionation; respectively. The evaluation of total phenol contents and the antioxidant ability of extract E and four fractionations showed that the antioxidant ability and the scavenge effect of DPPH radical increased with the concentrations of fractionations. The inhibition on MDA formation and the scavenge effect on DPPH of propolis extract and fractionations at 2 mg/mL were E ( 115% ) , R ( 110% ) , F1 ( 73% ) , F2 ( 58% ) , F3 ( 54% ) and R ( 93% ) , E ( 75% ) , F1 ( 56% ) , F2 ( 47% ) , F3 ( 27% ); respectively. When the concentration was 1 mg/mL, propolis fractionations had above 73% inhibition effect on the O2‧─ formation; however, when the concentration was 2 mg/mL, propolis fractionations had over 65% scavenge effect on the O2‧─. The fractionations had similar about 60% effects on the‧OH trapping. Fractionation altered the composition distributions such as decreasing total phenol contents but increasing total flavonoid contents. From this in vitro antioxidation study, the abilities of E and R were the best and F2 was next among the fractionations; however, F3 was the best in O2‧─scavenge.
The various concentrations (10,25,50,100 or 300 μg/mL) of propolis fractionations protected the primary hepatocytes against toxicity induced by one of the following reagents:carbon tetrachloride (CCl4); tert-butylhydroperoxide (t-BHP); acetaminophen(APAP) or D-galactosamine (D-GalN) was studied. The result displayed that the various hepatic toxicity induced reagents had different mechanisms for hepatocytes damage; thus, the heptoprotection effects of propolis fractionations on induced reagents were variance. The propolis fractionations at the concentrations of 25 and the 50μg/mL were significantly decreased the cytotoxicity induced by. t-BHP. The survival cells were above 50% (P< 0.05). F2 even thought at low concentration such as 25 μg/mL was significant to against the heptotoxicity induced by t-BHP and CCl4 (P< 0.05).
The preliminary study showed that propolis had antioxidant activity and was able to against the various hepatotoxins induced hepatotoxicity of primary hepatocytes; thus, the antioxidant and hepatoprotective effects of propolis on acute hepatitis induced in rats was further investigated. Rats were oral pretreatment of propolis extract or one of fractionations (50 and 100mg/kg bw) for 5 days before a single dose of t-BHP. The results showed that E, R, F1, and F2 at 100 mg/kg bw concentration significantly lowered the serum levels of hepatic enzyme markers (GOT and GPT) and reduced oxidative liver damage (P<0.05). However, the activities of antioxidation-related ( SOD and CAT ) and glutathione-related enzymes ( GPx, GRd and GST) of the blood cell and the liver of the induced group can present the increase (p<0.05) of feed back, however the GRd activity of induced group liver set inside gross step down, then pretreatment of E or R (100 mg/kg bw) significantly increased liver GRd activity (P<0.05). Based on the results described above, the hepatoprotection effect of E, R and F1 were the best, F2 was the next in order, however the F3’s hepatoprotective effect was ineffective.
第一章、文獻整理………………………………………………………… 1
壹、活性氧及自由基之來源及氧化傷害………………………………… 1
一、自由基與活性氧之種類……………………………………………… 1
二、活性氧之來源………………………………………………………… 7
三、活性氧造成的疾病…………………………………………………… 10
四、人體抵抗自由基的防禦系統………………………………………… 13
貳、不同肝損傷誘導劑的作用機制……………………………………… 21
一、肝臟的功能與肝疾病………………………………………………… 21
二、不同肝損傷誘導劑的作用機制……………………………………… 23
參、抗氧化與保肝之測定………………………………………………… 31
一、抗脂質過氧化活性測定……………………………………………… 31
二、清除α,α-二苯基-β-苦味肼基團 (α,α-diphenyl-β-picryl
hydrazyl; DPPH) 自由基之能力………………………………………… 31
三、超氧陰離子自由基生成抑制之活性評估…………………………… 35
四、清除超氧陰離子能力之評估………………………………………… 36
五、對氫氧自由基之捕捉效應…………………………………………… 38
肆、蜂膠的效用…………………………………………………………… 40
一、蜂膠的來源…………………………………………………………… 40
二、蜂膠的藥理活性……………………………………………………… 41
伍、超臨界二氧化碳分餾………………………………………………… 44
陸、本研究目的…………………………………………………………… 47
第二章、蜂膠超臨界二氧化碳分餾物抗氧化能力之探討……………… 48
摘 要……………………………………………………………………… 48
前 言……………………………………………………………………… 49
材料與方法………………………………………………………………… 51
一、蜂膠之超臨界萃取及分餾…………………………………………… 51
二、藥品…………………………………………………………………… 51
三、對氯化亞鐵-抗壞血酸誘發鼠肝均質液脂質過氧化作用之測定… 52
四、清除1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazyl(DPPH)能力測定…… 53
五、超氧陰離子自由基生成抑制率之評估……………………………… 54
六、清除超氧陰離子能力之評估………………………………………… 54
七、對氫氧自由基之捕捉效應…………………………………………… 55
八、總酚含量之測定……………………………………………………… 56
九、類黃酮含量之測定…………………………………………………… 56
十、統計分析……………………………………………………………… 56
結 果……………………………………………………………………… 57
討 論……………………………………………………………………… 61
圖 表……………………………………………………………………… 65
第三章、蜂膠超臨界二氧化碳分餾物對誘導劑誘發大鼠初代肝細胞
損傷的保肝作用…………………………………………………………… 74
摘 要……………………………………………………………………… 74
前 言……………………………………………………………………… 76
材料與方法………………………………………………………………… 77
一、藥品…………………………………………………………………… 77
二、蜂膠之超臨界分餾…………………………………………………… 77
三、實驗動物……………………………………………………………… 78
四、大鼠初代肝細胞之分離及培養……………………………………… 78
五、分餾物對誘導劑保肝作用評估……………………………………… 79
六、統計分析……………………………………………………………… 80
結 果……………………………………………………………………… 81
討 論……………………………………………………………………… 83
圖 表……………………………………………………………………… 86
第四章、蜂膠超臨界二氧化碳分餾物對tert-Butyl hydro-
peroxide誘發大白鼠急性肝炎之保肝活性研究………………………… 90 摘要………………………………………………………………………… 90
前 言……………………………………………………………………… 91
材料與方法………………………………………………………………… 93
一、藥品…………………………………………………………………… 93
二、蜂膠之超臨界分餾…………………………………………………… 93
三、實驗動物……………………………………………………………… 94
四、t-BHP誘發大鼠肝臟損傷……………………………………………… 94
五、血液及肝臟樣品之前處理…………………………………………… 95
六、血清轉胺酵素 (SGOT與SGPT) 之活性分析………………………… 95
七、肝臟脂質過氧化之分析……………………………………………… 96
八、麩胱甘肽相關酵素 (GPx、GRd與GST) 活性之測定………………… 96
九、.抗氧化酵素活性之分析……………………………………………… 97
十、蛋白質定量分析……………………………………………………… 98
十一、肝臟組織觀察……………………………………………………… 98
十二、統計分析…………………………………………………………… 98
結 果……………………………………………………………………… 99
討 論……………………………………………………………………… 102
圖 表……………………………………………………………………… 105
結 論……………………………………………………………………… 111
參考文獻…………………………………………………………………… 112
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