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研究生:陳炯翰
研究生(外文):Jong Hang Chen
論文名稱:澱粉酯化、交鏈化處理後物理性質的探討及其在冷凍食品上的應用
論文名稱(外文):The Physical Properties of Esterificated and Cross-linked Starch and Application on Frozen-food Manufacture
指導教授:張瑞郎張瑞郎引用關係
指導教授(外文):R. L. Chang
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立嘉義大學
系所名稱:食品科學系碩士班
學門:農業科學學門
學類:食品科學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2002
畢業學年度:90
語文別:中文
論文頁數:105
中文關鍵詞:木薯交鏈化酯化雙重修飾澱粉小麥
外文關鍵詞:Tapiocacross-linkingEsterificationdual modificationsstarchWheat
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中 文 摘 要
本論文以木薯( Tapioca )與小麥( Wheat )澱粉材料進行抗老化研究 。取澱粉量3%的醋酸酐( acetic anhydride )為酯化試劑進行酯化作用( esterification )得到酯化澱粉,0.03%的三氯氧磷( phosphorus oxide chloride )為交鏈化試劑進行交鏈化作用得到交鏈化澱粉,另外取酯化澱粉行交鏈化作用、交鏈化澱粉行酯化作用得到酯化配合交鏈化的雙重修飾澱粉進行抗老化效果的分析比較。研究結果發現,酯化會降低糊化溫度 ( 木薯從60.8下降至51.5℃,小麥從56.7下降至46.1 ℃ )、提高尖峰粘度( 木薯從739上升至922BU,小麥從87上升至384BU )促進熱降解反應( 木薯從448上升至581BU,小麥從0上升至148BU ),交鏈化可抑制熱降解反應( 木薯從448降至1.3BU )。抗老化方面,酯化有顯著效果,木薯老化度為0.0976小麥為0.180( J/g )、糊的透光度經28天冷藏亦無改變、冷凍-解凍循環穩定度經7循環後木薯澱粉離水率從44.9降至1.05%小麥澱粉從52.5降至22.9%。此外,經交鏈化後酯化的修飾澱粉糊化溫度為木薯51.7,小麥49.5℃、熱降解反應為木薯56,小麥40BU經7次冷凍-解凍循環後離水率發現木薯無離水現象發生而小麥為20.8%;反之,酯化後交鏈化的修飾澱粉其熱降解反應及經7次的冷凍-解凍循環後離水率皆較前者為高。接著,以示差熱掃描分析(DSC)探討添加修飾澱粉的抗老化效果。結果顯示,以添加方式亦具抑制澱粉老化之效果,但對澱粉膠的質地亦有影響。
取澱粉混合物製做水晶餃進行官能品評,結果表示,純木薯澱粉接受度較高,經添加交鏈化後酯化的澱粉接受最低;小麥澱粉部份則相反,以添加酯化後交鏈化、交鏈化後酯化澱粉的接受較高,純小麥及添加交鏈化澱粉接受度最差。
因此,於冷凍食品中可利用交鏈化後酯化之修飾澱粉來提高產品的保水力,賦予產品的抗老化特性,但亦須進一步考慮質地部份的問題以得到最佳的產品。
關鍵字:木薯、小麥、酯化、交鏈化、雙重修飾澱粉

Abstract
In this study, the starch of both tapioca and wheat were used for antirretogradation approach. The esterification, cross-linking modification, or dual modifications by each after were employed to find out the optimal process operation for modified starch product. The data shows the esterification of starch may decreasing the gelatinization temperature (down to 51.5℃ and 46.1℃of tapioca and wheat, respectively), elevating the top viscosity (up to 922 BU and 384 BU of tapioca and wheat, respectively) and accelerating the breakdown reaction (up to 581 BU and 148 BU of tapioca and wheat, respectively). However, the cross-linking modification may inhibit the breakdown reaction, down to 1.3 BU, of cross-linking starch of tapioca. The esterificated starch shows the significant results on antiretrogradation that past transparencies were consistent in 28 days under 4℃ storage, the transparencies after 7 cycles of freeze-thaw stability assay were down to 1.05﹪ and 22.9﹪, the degree of antiretrogradation were 0.0976 and 0.180 (J/g) of tapioca and wheat, respectively. Further more, the assays results of cross-linking modification before esterification of dual modified starch in gelatinization temperature were 51.7℃ and 49.5℃, the breakdown reaction were 56 BU and 40 BU and the transparencies after 7 cycles of freeze-thaw stability were 0 and 22.9﹪of tapioca and wheat, respectively. Otherwise, cross-linking modification after esterification of dual modified starch shows the higher values in all 3 assays than cross-linking modification before esterification of dual modified starch of both tapioca and wheat. Applying the modified starch also improved the ability of antiretrogradation, but influenced the texture of the past by DSC investigation.
The crystal dumplings were made from variant composition of modified or unmodified starch for sensory evaluation. The result shows the crystal dumplings made from tapioca starch with the highest acceptability is unmodified starch without applying any modified starch and the poorest is applying the cross-linking modification after esterificated starch. However, the crystal dumplings made from wheat starch with the higher acceptability is applying the dual modified starch, cross-linking modification after or before esterification, but the unmodified or applying the cross-linking modified starch got the poor acceptability.
Therefore, applying the cross-linking before esterification dual modified starch may elevate the water holding capacity and improve the characteristics of antiretrogradation to the frozen food application, and under a balance with the acceptability of texture for creating the most popular food product.
Keywords: Tapioca, Wheat, Esterification, cross-linking, dual modifications.

目 錄
圖目錄……………………………………………………………………………… IV
表目錄……………………………………………………………………………… VI
中文摘要……………………………………………………………………………VII
英文摘要…………………………………………………………………………… IX
壹、 前言…………………………………………………………………………….1
貳、 文獻回顧……………………………………………………………………….3
一、 澱粉的介紹………………………………………………………………..3
(一)、澱粉顆粒的組成及結構………………………………………………3
(二)、澱粉的糊化……………………………………………………….….14
(三)、澱粉的回凝……………………………………………………….….16
二、 修飾澱粉的介紹…………………………………………………………21
(一)、酯化澱粉…………………………………………………………….23
(二)、交鏈化澱粉………………………………………………………….25
(三)、雙重修飾澱粉…………………………………………………….…33
三、 修飾澱粉在食品的應用…………………………………………………35
參、 研究目地……………………………………………………………………...37
肆、 材料與方法…………………………………………………………………...39
一、 材料………………………………………………………………………39
二、 修飾澱粉的製備…………………………………………………………40
三、 實驗方法…………………………………………………………………43
(一)、基本成分分析………………………………………………………..43
(二)、理化特性分析………………………………………………………..43
1. 直鏈澱粉含量測定………………………………………………...43
2. 澱粉醋酸酯取代度的測定………………………………………...44
3. 交鏈度之測定……………………………………………………...45
4. 連續糊化粘度之測定……………………………………………...47
5. 示差熱掃描分析之測定…………………………………………...47
6. 澱粉的透光率之測定……………………………………………...48
7. 溶解度與膨潤度的測定…………………………………………...48
8. 冷凍-解凍循環穩定度的測定…………………………………...49
9. 粉體白度的測定…………………………………………………...49
10. 質地分析…………………………………………………………...49
11. 水晶餃的製備……………………………………………………...50
12. 官能品評…………………………………………………………...50
13. 統計分析…………………………………………………………...50
伍、 結果與討論…………………………………………………………………….51
一、 基本成份分析……………………………………………………………….51
二、 直鏈澱粉含量……………………………………………………………...51
三、 修飾澱粉之酯化取代度與交鏈度………………………………………..53
四、 經不同修飾作用對木薯及小麥澱粉粉體白度的影響…………………55
五、 不同處理的修飾澱粉之連續糊化粘度的影響…………………………57
六、 不同處理的修飾澱粉之糊化性質的影響………………………………62
七、 不同處理的修飾澱粉對澱粉膨潤力之影響……………………………67
八、 不同處理的修飾澱粉對澱粉溶解度之影響解凍………………………70
九、 不同處理的修飾澱粉對澱粉糊透光度之影響…………………………73
十、 不同處理的修飾澱粉對冷凍─解凍循環穩定度之探討………………77
十一、 木薯及小麥澱粉經不同修飾作用後澱粉膠之質地分析…………….81
十二、 添加33﹪的修飾澱粉經糊化低溫儲藏後之示差熱掃描分析………84
十三、 添加33﹪的修飾澱粉其澱粉膠之質地分析…………………………87
十四、 添加33﹪修飾澱粉的水晶餃官能品評………………………………89
陸、 結論…………………………………………………………………………….92
柒、 參考文獻……………………………………………………………………….94
圖 目 錄
圖一、木薯澱粉顆粒之光學顯微鏡圖……………………………………………….4
圖二、木薯澱粉顆粒之掃描式電子顯微鏡圖……………………………………….4
圖三、小麥澱粉顆粒之光學顯微鏡圖……………………………………………….5
圖四、小麥澱粉顆粒之掃描式電子顯微鏡圖……………………………………….5
圖五、澱粉之理論結構圖…………………………………………………………….7
圖六、不同澱粉之X-射線繞射圖譜……………………………………………….9
圖七、A結晶型澱粉立體結構圖……………………………………………………10
圖八、B結晶型澱粉立體結構圖……………………………………………………11
圖九、脫水葡萄糖苷中碳原子的位置……………………………………………13
圖十、澱粉的交鏈化反應式………………………………………………………26
圖十一、不同交鏈程度對玉米澱粉粘度的影響…………………………………28
圖十二、交鏈對糯性玉米澱粉粘度的影響………………………………………30
圖十三、交鏈對糯性玉米澱粉剪力的影響………………………………………31
圖十四、經不同修飾作用對木薯及小麥澱粉粉體白度之影響…………………56
圖十五、經不同修飾處理對木薯澱粉連續糊化粘度圖之影響…………………60
圖十六、經不同修飾處理對小麥澱粉連續糊化粘度圖之影響…………………61
圖十七、不同修飾處理的木薯澱粉並且經糊化及低溫儲藏後之示差熱掃描分析圖…………………………………………………………………………65
圖十八、不同修飾處理的小麥澱粉並且經糊化及低溫貯藏後之示差熱掃描分析圖…………………………………………………………………………66
圖十九、經不同修飾作用對木薯及小麥澱粉澎潤力之影響……………………69
圖二十、經不同修飾作用對木薯及小麥澱粉溶解度之影響……………………72
圖二十一、木薯及其修飾澱粉之透光度變化……………………………………75
圖二十二、小麥及其修飾澱粉之透光度變化……………………………………76
圖二十三、木薯及其修飾澱粉膠內冷凍-解凍循環穩定之變化………………79
圖二十四、小麥及其修飾澱粉膠內冷凍-解凍循環穩定之變化………………80
圖二十五、不同修飾處理的木薯澱粉和天然澱粉混合後經糊化低溫儲藏後之示差熱掃描分析圖………………………………………………………85
圖二十六、不同修飾處理的小麥澱粉和天然澱粉混合後經糊化低溫儲藏後之示差熱掃描分析圖………………………………………………………86
表 目 錄
表一、不同澱粉顆粒大小…………………………………………………………….6
表二、各種修飾澱粉之分類………………………………………………………...22
表三、修飾澱粉的特性……………………………………………………………...34
表四、木薯與小麥澱粉之化學組成分析…………………………………………...52
表五、各種修飾澱粉之酯化取代度與交鏈度……………………………………...54
表六、木薯與小麥澱粉經不同修飾作用後之連續糊化粘度的變化……………...59
表七、不同修飾方法對木薯及小麥澱粉糊化行為和老化度的影響……………...64
表八、以木薯及小麥澱粉經不同修飾作用反澱粉膠之質地分析………………..83
表九、以木薯及小麥澱粉混以不同修飾澱粉後澱粉膠之質地分析……………...88
表十、水晶餃之順位品評試驗數據………………………………………………...90
表十一、水晶餃之順位品評試驗數據……………………………………………...91
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