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研究生:洪肇謙
研究生(外文):Chao-Chien Hung
論文名稱:減脂、減膽固醇蛋黃粉理化特性之探討
論文名稱(外文):Studies on the Physicochemical Characteristics of the Reduced Fat and Cholesterol Egg Yolk Powder
指導教授:徐錫樑徐錫樑引用關係
指導教授(外文):Shyi-Liang Shyu
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立嘉義大學
系所名稱:食品科學系碩士班
學門:農業科學學門
學類:食品科學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2002
畢業學年度:90
語文別:中文
論文頁數:132
中文關鍵詞:蛋黃粉膽固醇
外文關鍵詞:egg yolk powdercholesterol
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本研究之第一部份是探討減脂、減膽固醇蛋黃粉的膽固醇去除率及其功能特性。以12倍量(w/v)之95%乙醇與液態蛋黃混合於30℃攪拌30分鐘後,經過濾得到固形物再經冷凍乾燥以製得減膽固醇蛋黃粉;並探討乙醇對膽固醇之去除效果及減膽固醇蛋黃粉之組成分及理化性質,並與未經乙醇處理之新鮮蛋黃粉及市售蛋黃粉做比較。結果顯示在三種樣品中以減膽固醇蛋黃粉的膽固醇含量最低為466.7 (mg/100g);以乙醇去除液態蛋黃中膽固醇,其去除率為 82%。SDS-PAGE電泳分析結果所示,經乙醇處理後的減膽固醇蛋黃粉在分子量 43 kDa的蛋白質分子有減少的現象。在乳化的功能特性方面,三種樣品的乳化活性(Emulsifying activity, EA)及乳化安定性(Emulsion stability, ES)是隨蛋白質濃度的增加而增加。經-18℃冷凍貯藏8週後,發現減膽固醇蛋黃粉比市售和新鮮蛋黃粉具有較好的乳化活性。在起泡力的試驗中,減膽固醇蛋黃粉無論在起泡力和泡沫穩定性方面,也均優於未經萃取之新鮮蛋黃粉。
第二部份是探討減膽固醇蛋黃粉在貯藏期間之化學成分變化,並與新鮮蛋黃粉、市售蛋黃粉作比較。由結果顯示新鮮蛋黃粉之 △E(色差)增加最多而市售蛋黃粉的變化最少。將減膽固醇蛋黃粉貯藏於日光燈下或暗室下8週,其過氧化價、羰基價、不飽和脂肪酸之變化均比新鮮蛋黃粉及市售蛋黃粉小。另外減膽固醇蛋黃粉、新鮮蛋黃粉的糖類與游離胺基酸會隨貯藏時間之延長而減少,但市售蛋黃粉則較無顯著之變化。在膽固醇氧化方面,將三種蛋黃粉貯藏於日光燈照射或暗室貯藏8週後,總膽固醇氧化產物皆隨貯藏時間而增加,其中以市售蛋黃粉增加最為顯著,而減膽固醇蛋黃粉則增加少。因此,減膽固蛋黃粉不但有較好之油脂氧化安定性,而且其膽固醇氧化物含量很少。
第三部份是探討減脂、減膽固醇蛋製品的製造及其品質評估。利用以12倍量(w/v)之95%乙醇與液態蛋黃混合於30℃攪拌30分鐘後,經過濾得到固形物再經冷凍乾燥以製得減膽固醇蛋黃粉,探討其製作成海綿蛋糕及蛋黃醬製品的品質評估,並與未經乙醇處理之新鮮蛋黃粉及市售蛋黃粉做比較。由結果顯示,三種蛋黃粉所製成海綿蛋糕的體積,以減膽固醇蛋黃粉所製成的海綿蛋糕有較大的膨發體積而且在官能品評方面是能被接受。在蛋黃醬方面,以減膽固醇蛋黃粉所製得的蛋黃醬的黏度明顯比新鮮蛋黃粉所製得的蛋黃醬高(p<0.05)。三種蛋黃粉所製得蛋黃醬,其乳化安定性無顯著差異(p>0.05)。由官能品評得知,減膽固醇蛋黃粉所製成蛋黃醬之整體表現最佳。因此,以減膽固醇蛋黃粉來製造低膽固醇蛋製品在加工技術上是可行的。
In part I, liquid egg yolk was extracted with 12 fold (W/V) of alcohol and stirred at 30℃ for 30 min, and then filtered. The residues were dried by freeze-drying to remove the solvent to produce the reduced fat and cholesterol egg yolk (RFRC-yolk) powder. The analysis of cholesterol contents and physicochemical characteristics of the RFRC- yolk powder were investigated in this study. Comparison of the functional properties of the RFRC-yolk powder with that of native yolk powder and commercial yolk powder were also investigated. The results showed that the RFRC-yolk powder had the lowest cholesterol content among the three samples. The molecular weight of 43 kDa was reduced on the band of the RFRC-yolk powder as determined by the electrophoresis. In addition, both emulsifying activity (EA) and emulsion stability (ES) of the three samples were increased with increasing protein concentration. After storage at -18℃ for 8 weeks, the emulsifying activity (EA) of the RFRC-yolk powder was the best among the three samples. We also found that the whipping ability and the foaming stability of the RFRC-yolk powder were better than those of the native egg yolk.
In part II, the purpose of this study was to compare the changes chemical components of the reduced cholesterol egg yolk powder with that of the native yolk powder and the commercial yolk powder during storage at room temperature for eight weeks. The results showed that the color difference (ΔE) of native egg yolk powder had the greatest increase among the three samples during storage. As the samples were exposure to fluorescent light or stored at the dark, the changes of peroxide value, carbonyl value and unsaturated fatty acid of the reduced cholesterol egg yolk powder were less than that of the other two samples. The contents of sugars and free amino acids of the reduced cholesterol egg yolk and the native egg yolk powder were decreased with increasing storage time. However, there was no significant changes in sugars and amino acids of the commercial egg yolk powder during storage. When the three egg yolk powders were exposure to fluorescent light or stored at the dark for 8 weeks, the content of total cholesterol oxidation products (TCOP’s) in the three samples was increased due to the oxidation of cholesterol. The content of TCOP’s in the commercial cholesterol egg yolk powder were significantly higher than that in the reduced cholesterol egg yolk powder. Therefore, the reduced cholesterol egg yolk powder had better oxidative stability and lower of TCOP’s content than the other two samples.
In part III, liquid egg yolk was extracted with 12 fold (W/V) of alcohol and stirred at 30℃ for 30 mins, and then filtered. The residues were dried under freeze-drying to remove the solvent to produce the reduced fat and cholesterol egg yolk (RFRC-yolk) powder. Comparing the equality of sponge cakes made from reduced cholesterol with from native yolk powder and commercial yolk powder were also investigated. The results showed that a sponge cake made from the RFRC-yolk powder had a higher swelling volume the other samples and good acceptability in sensory evaluation. In addition, the mayonnaise made from the reduced cholesterol yolk powder had higher viscosity than the other two samples. We also found that the emulsion stability of the mayonnaise made from the three different egg yolk powders was not significantly (p<0.05) for each other. From the result of sensory evaluation, the mayonnaise made from the reduced cholesterol yolk powder had the highest overall intensity among the three samples. Therefore, the results of this research could be suggested that making reduced cholesterol egg products with reduced cholesterol egg yolk powder was feasible on the standpoint of processing technology.
目錄......................................................... I
表目錄..................................................... VII
圖錄...................................................... VIII
中文摘要..................................................... X
英文摘要................................................... XII
第一章 前言................................................. 1
第二章 文獻整理............................................. 3
 一、蛋黃之簡介............................................. 3
(一)蛋黃的一般組成分....................................... 3
1. 蛋白質.................................................... 3
(1)低密度脂蛋白質.......................................... 3
(2)高密度脂蛋白質.......................................... 4
(3)卵黃磷蛋白.............................................. 4
(4)卵黃球蛋白.............................................. 5
2. 脂質...................................................... 5
3. 碳水化合物................................................ 5
4. 無機物.................................................... 5
(二)蛋黃之乳化特性......................................... 6
1. 乳化液形成機制............................................ 6
2. 蛋黃乳化作用之構成成分.................................... 6
(三)影響蛋黃乳化性的因素................................... 7
1. 溶液的黏度................................................ 7
2. 添加物.................................................... 8
3. pH值...................................................... 8
4. 冷凍...................................................... 8
5. 乾燥...................................................... 8
6. 殺菌...................................................... 8
7. 均質化.................................................... 9
8. 貯藏...................................................... 9
二、膽固醇及其氧化產物之簡介................................. 9
三、膽固醇氧化的反應機制.................................... 10
(一)自氧化反應............................................ 15
1. A、B環自氧化反應......................................... 15
2. 側鏈自氧化反應........................................... 17
(二)光氧化反應............................................ 18
四、膽固醇氧化物之生理影響.................................. 19
(一)致細胞毒性............................................ 19
(二)致癌性與致突變性...................................... 19
(三)抑制細胞代謝.......................................... 21
(四)致血管毒性............................................ 21
五、影響食品中膽固醇氧化之因素.............................. 22
(一)加工條件.............................................. 22
(二)pH值.................................................. 23
(三)食品成分.............................................. 24
1. 油脂..................................................... 24
2. 鹽....................................................... 24
3. 胺基酸................................................... 25
4. 磷脂質................................................... 25
5. β-胡蘿蔔素............................................... 25
6. 抗氧化劑................................................. 26
(1)抗氧化劑的種類......................................... 26
(2)抗氧化劑的添加濃度..................................... 27
(四)膽固醇酯化與否及散步狀態.............................. 28
(五)儲存之溫度與時間...................................... 29
(六)光照.................................................. 29
(七)氧源.................................................. 30
(八)蛋及蛋製品............................................ 30
六、食品中去除膽固醇的方式.................................. 32
(一)有機溶劑萃取法........................................ 32
(二)超臨界二氧化碳萃取法.................................. 33
(三)蒸汽去除法............................................ 33
(四)低溫共沸蒸餾法........................................ 33
(五)微生物之酵素水解法.................................... 33
(六)β-環狀糊精包接法...................................... 33
第三章 材料與方法.......................................... 34
 一、實驗架構.............................................. 35
 二、試驗材料及設備........................................ 38
 三、實驗方法.............................................. 39
(一)新鮮蛋黃粉之製備...................................... 39
(二)減膽固醇蛋黃粉之製備.................................. 40
(三)油樣品之製備.......................................... 40
(四)貯藏試驗.............................................. 40
(五)蛋製品之製作.......................................... 40
1. 海綿蛋糕................................................. 40
2. 蛋黃醬................................................... 42
(六)分析方法.............................................. 42
1. 一般組成分分析........................................... 42
2. 膽固醇含量之分析......................................... 42
3. SDS不連續聚丙烯醯胺膠體電泳分析.......................... 43
4. 乳化活性及乳化安定性測定................................. 44
5. 起泡性之測定............................................. 44
6. 水分活性................................................. 45
7. 色澤測定................................................. 45
8. 過氧化物測定............................................. 46
9. 羰基價測定............................................... 46
10. 脂肪酸組成分析.......................................... 46
11. β-胡蘿蔔素含量之測定.................................... 48
12. 游離胺基酸之測定........................................ 49
13. 游離醣類組成分之測定.................................... 50
14. 膽固醇氧化產物之分析.................................... 50
15. 蛋糕體積之測定.......................................... 52
16. 蛋糕硬度之測定.......................................... 52
17. 蛋黃醬黏度之測定........................................ 53
18. 蛋黃醬色澤之測定........................................ 53
19. 蛋黃醬乳化安定性之測定.................................. 53
20. 官能品評................................................ 53
21. 統計分析................................................ 54
第四章 結果與討論.......................................... 55
第一部份:減脂、減膽固醇蛋黃粉的膽固醇去除率及其功能特性之探討.......................................................... 55
一、不同蛋黃粉之一般組成分.................................. 55
二、膽固醇含量分析.......................................... 55
三、SDS-PAGE電泳分析........................................ 59
四、乳化的功能特性.......................................... 59
五、起泡力與起泡穩定性之變化................................ 64
第二部份:減脂、減膽固醇蛋黃粉之化學成分分析及其貯藏試驗.... 68
一、水活性之變化............................................ 68
二、色澤之變化.............................................. 68
三、過氧化物含量之變化...................................... 73
四、羰基價之變化............................................ 75
五、脂肪酸含量之變化........................................ 77
六、β-胡蘿蔔素含量之變化.................................... 79
七、游離糖類之變化.......................................... 81
八、游離胺基酸之變化........................................ 83
九、膽固醇及其氧化產物之變化................................ 85
 (1)膽固醇含量之變化..................................... 85
 (2)總膽固醇氧化產物之變化............................... 87
 (3)各種膽固醇氧化產物之變化............................. 89
第三部份:減脂、減膽固醇蛋製品的製造及其品質評估............ 96
一、蛋糕的品質評估.......................................... 96
二、蛋黃醬的品質評估........................................ 98
第五章 結論............................................... 105
第六章 參考文獻........................................... 107
【表目錄】
表一、不同種類及加工食品內膽固醇及膽固醇氧化產物含量........ 11
表二、食品中常見之膽固醇氧化物.............................. 13
表三、膽固醇氧化產物之生理活性.............................. 14
表四、存於人體及動物組織之膽固醇氧化物...................... 20
表五、水相中不同氧源與膽固醇生成氧化產物間之關係............ 31
表六、不同蛋黃粉之一般成分分析.............................. 56
表七、不同蛋黃粉之膽固醇含量................................ 57
表八、不同蛋黃粉於pH4及pH7的起泡力之變化.................... 65
表九、不同蛋黃粉於貯藏期間,脂肪酸組成之變化................ 78
表十、不同蛋黃粉於貯藏期間,β-胡蘿蔔素含量之變化............ 80
表十一、不同蛋黃粉於貯藏期間,游離糖類含量之變化............ 82
表十二、不同蛋黃粉於貯藏期間,游離胺基酸含量之變化.......... 84
表十三、比較三種海綿蛋糕之顏色值及硬度之變化................ 98
表十四、三種海綿蛋糕之官能品評比較.......................... 99
表十五、比較三種蛋黃醬顏色值、黏度及乳化安定性之變化....... 101
表十六、三種蛋黃醬之官能品評比較........................... 103
【圖目錄】
圖一、膽固醇之化學結構....................................... 9
圖二、膽固醇自氧化之主要途徑................................ 16
圖三、膽固醇支鏈氧化物之化學結構............................ 18
圖四、貯藏期間每週之平均室溫之變化.......................... 41
圖五、三氯化鐵之標準曲線.................................... 47
圖六、不同蛋黃粉的SDS聚丙醯胺膠體電泳圖譜................... 58
圖七、不同蛋黃粉的蛋白質濃度對其乳化活性之影響.............. 61
圖八、不同蛋黃粉的蛋白質濃度對其乳化安定性之影響............ 62
圖九、不同蛋黃粉於-18℃凍藏期間乳化活性之變化............... 63
圖十、不同蛋黃粉於pH 4或pH 7狀態的泡沬穩定性之變化.......... 66
圖十一、不同蛋黃粉於貯藏期間,水分活性之變化................ 69
圖十二、不同蛋黃粉於貯藏期間,色澤之變化.................... 70
圖十三、不同蛋黃粉於貯藏期間,ΔΕ之變化...................... 72
圖十四、不同蛋黃粉於貯藏期間,過氧化物含量之變化............ 74
圖十五、不同蛋黃粉於貯藏期間,羰基價之變化.................. 76
圖十六、三種蛋黃粉於貯藏期間,膽固醇含量變化之情形.......... 86
圖十七、不同蛋黃粉於貯藏期間,總膽固醇氧化產物變化之情形.... 88
圖十八、市售蛋黃粉於貯藏期間,膽固醇氧化產物變化之情形...... 90
圖十九、新鮮蛋黃粉於貯藏期間,膽固醇氧化產物變化之情形.......91
圖二十、減膽固醇蛋黃粉於貯藏期間,膽固醇氧化產物變化之情形.. 92
圖二十一、不同蛋黃粉於貯藏期間,TCOP''s/Cholesterol值變化之情形.......................................................... 94
圖二十二、三種海綿蛋糕體積.................................. 97
圖二十三、三種蛋黃醬之照片................................. 104
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