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研究生:鄭惠玲
研究生(外文):Hui-Ling Cheng
論文名稱:服務失敗與補救措施有效性之研究-以認知腳本觀點看二次滿意
論文名稱(外文):A Study of Service Failure and Effective Service Recovery-From Cognitive Script Viewpoint to Evaluate Second-time Satisfaction
指導教授:凌儀玲凌儀玲引用關係
指導教授(外文):Yi-Ling Lin
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立嘉義大學
系所名稱:管理研究所
學門:商業及管理學門
學類:企業管理學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2002
畢業學年度:90
語文別:中文
論文頁數:131
中文關鍵詞:服務失敗服務補救抱怨行為顧客知覺反應認知腳本
外文關鍵詞:Service FailureService RecoveryComplaint BehaviorCustomer SatisfactionCognitive Script
相關次數:
  • 被引用被引用:11
  • 點閱點閱:1026
  • 評分評分:
  • 下載下載:0
  • 收藏至我的研究室書目清單書目收藏:7
摘要
由於服務的四大特性(無形性、異質性、生產與消費同時性、不可儲存性)使然,因此服務供應者很難一直維持完美的服務演出,以致服務失敗在所難免。如何在面臨服務失敗時,作有效因應處理,是多數具『顧客導向』觀念之服務企業努力的目標。因為有效的服務補救不但能維持顧客忠誠度、與顧客建立長期關係,同時也是廠商從激烈競爭環境中脫穎而出的關鍵成功要素。
過去服務失敗與補救措施相關研究非常豐富,然而,多數研究前提皆認定服務補救措施是有效的,很少研究著墨於若補救措施非顧客所期望,公司該如何重新補救?此種情況稱為『雙重誤差』(Binter et al.,1990),亦即服務失敗且補救又失敗情形。Johnston and Fern(1999)也認為,若能於第一次服務補救失敗後,再提出有效補救措施,雖無法使顧客較過去更滿意,但仍有可能留下顧客,換言之,顧客雖然不怎麼滿意,但還可接受!因此雙重誤差情境下,顧客對服務補救措施之期望,實有研究之必要。
基於上述研究動機及目的,本研究以雙重誤差為前提,採實驗設計與問卷方式進行二階段研究設計。首先於第一階段以影片方式呈現虛擬情境,藉由情境問卷了解受試者之抱怨行為與失敗嚴重性,同時透過腳本分析得到顧客對服務補救步驟之看法,共收集444份有效樣本。接著,第二階段採2×2受試者間因子實驗設計,依嚴重性高低、正負向失驗操弄出服務補救四套補救腳本,藉以驗證受試者期望腳本差異,對知覺反應之影響。此階段樣本以配對方式進行,通知第一階段受試者進行第二階段實驗(嚴重度高低 VS 正負向失驗),共得到360份有效樣本,分別為99、90、90、81份。
研究結果得到以下結論:(一)、藉由動態影片進行實驗內容檢測,較之文字敘述效果為佳;(二)、服務失敗嚴重性與抱怨行為強度正相關;(三)、運用認知腳本之分析方法,可將顧客正向(負向)失驗之補救措施操作化;(四)、服務補救腳本期望失驗對顧客滿意度有正向影響效果;(五)、服務補救知覺反應與補救後滿意度亦呈現顯著相關。
而研究結果於管理上之意涵則是:
一、即使服務過程中產生雙重誤差(服務失敗且補救失敗),只要公司提
供符合顧客期望的補救措施,仍有機會讓顧客滿意。
二、公司應重視不滿意顧客所造成之負面口碑效果。因此進行服務補救
時,對第一線員工賦權並建立服務補救指導方針及標準是相當重要
的;再者暢通申訴管道及導入資訊科技亦是不可或缺的指導原則。
三、經營顧客關係管理,應朝向情緒行銷之方向。換言之,滿意度與忠誠
度間,藉由對顧客感性之關懷,即使服務接觸過程中產生失敗,組織
仍有轉敗為勝、贏回顧客歡心的機會。
Abstract
Due to the four characteristics of the service properties: intangibility、inseparability、variability and perishability, service providers cannot always perform perfectly. Therefore, the service failure is unavoidable. How to make the effective service recovery is the fact that firms cannot be ignored. Effective service recovery can maintain customer royalty and establish long-term relationship with customer. It is also the important key for firms to survive in the increasing competitive market.
In the past, the topics about service failure and service recovery are abundant. However, most theses emphases that service recovery is actually “effective”. Fewer researchers focus on whether the recovery process is the customer expected or not. In this circumstances, how the provider recovery the “ failure ” after the first recovery in vain? This kind of failure is called double deviation (Binter et al., 1990). It implies that both service and recovery failure. John and Fern (1999) also consider that if firms take the effective recovery method after the first service failure, although the recovery cannot make customer more satisfied than before, such recovery may retain the customer in the future. In other words, the second recovery is not perfectly satisfied to customers, but sill acceptable. Therefore, the expected service recovery in the double deviation is necessary to investigate.
From the research motivation and objective, This Study took two stages research methods and used video files to creative virtual scenario and network questionnaire. Different from the past research, our study presented virtual scenario by video online. This method could make volunteers more understand the video story and appreciated from their experience. The first step included complaint behaviors, failure severity and used script analysis to know what service recovery behaviors customer expected. By limiting each person chose one of the setting scenarios, we had gathered 444 useful samples in total, 232 for restaurant service failure scenario and 212 for pc service failure scenario. Our research operated customer expected service recovery by cognitive script theory. The second step, we used experiment design which according order of severity and expected or not. In these steps, we can find different script whether can affect satisfaction. We had gathered 360 useful samples.
There are third conclusions from this study:(1)Using videos express the experimental scenarios that have better content validity.(2)The more severity of service failure, the more intensity of complaint behavior.(3)Use cognitive script theory can make customer expected service recovery operational.
Finally, the managerial implication are:(1)Even in double deviation situation, company should offer service recovery customer expected to make them satisfaction.(2)unsatisfied customer would make negative word of mouth which affect company goodwill, so company should take these thing seriously. (3) Using emotion marketing could catch the heart of customer, even occurring the service failure.
目錄
第一章 緒論………………………………………………………………1
第一節 研究背景與動機…………………………………………………1
第二節 研究問題與目的…………………………………………………4
第三節 研究流程…………………………………………………………5
第二章 文獻探討…………………………………………………………6
第一節 服務失敗…………………………………………………………6
一、服務失敗之意涵…………………………………………………6
二、服務失敗的類型…………………………………………………7
三、服務失敗之影響…………………………………………………13
第二節 顧客抱怨…………………………………………………………13
一、顧客抱怨之原因…………………………………………………13
二、顧客抱怨行為分類………………………………………………15
第三節 服務補救…………………………………………………………18
一、服務補救之內涵…………………………………………………18
二、服務補救之重要性………………………………………………19
三、服務補救期望-認知腳本操作化……………………………… 21
四、服務補救類型……………………………………………………24
五、服務補救之程序…………………………………………………31
第四節 顧客知覺反應……………………………………………………35
一、顧客知覺反應之意涵……………………………………………35
二、顧客知覺反應之衡量……………………………………………35
三、顧客知覺各反應間之關係………………………………………39
第五節 文獻探討小結……………………………………………………41
第三章 研究方法…………………………………………………………42
第一節 研究架構…………………………………………………………42
第二節 研究假設…………………………………………………………42
第三節 變數之操作型定義………………………………………………44
第四節 問卷設計及前測結果……………………………………………46
第五節 抽樣設計與問卷回收……………………………………………54
第六節 問卷之信度效度分析……………………………………………61
第七節 資料分析方法……………………………………………………63
第四章 結果分析…………………………………………………………64
第一節 服務失敗與補救腳本分析結果…………………………………64
第二節 補救措施有效性之結果分析……………………………………75
第三節 補救措施有效性之探討分析……………………………………88
第四節 研究假設驗證……………………………………………………92
第五章 結論與未來研究建議……………………………………………93
第一節 研究發現與討論…………………………………………………93
第二節 管理意涵…………………………………………………………97
第三節 研究貢獻…………………………………………………………99
第四節 研究限制與未來研究建議………………………………………99
參考文獻……………………………………………………………………101
中文文獻………………………………………………………………101
英文文獻………………………………………………………………103
附錄一:服務失敗情境文字敘述…………………………………………112
附錄二:第一階段初始問卷………………………………………………113
附錄三:第一階段正式問卷………………………………………………115
附錄四:第二階段初始問卷………………………………………………121
附錄五:第二階段正式問卷………………………………………………122
附錄六:影片情境片段描述………………………………………………124
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