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研究生:王文志
研究生(外文):wen-chih wang
論文名稱:類比教學策略對國小五年級學童物態變化概念學習的成效研究
論文名稱(外文):A Study on effectiveness for fifth grade students to learn conception about Three State of Matter through Teaching-with-analogy
指導教授:郭金美郭金美引用關係
指導教授(外文):Jinmeei Kuo Hsieh
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立嘉義大學
系所名稱:國民教育研究所
學門:教育學門
學類:綜合教育學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2002
畢業學年度:90
語文別:中文
論文頁數:174
中文關鍵詞:類比教學物態變化概念學習
外文關鍵詞:Analogical teachingthe Change of MatterConceptual Learning
相關次數:
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本研究目的在於探討類比教學策略對學童物態變化概念學習的影響。研究對象是以嘉義市某國小五年級學童為樣本,選取同質性的兩班級為實驗組與對照組,不但施以前後測,且經班級教師協助由兩班選取高低成就學生各三人為晤談樣本。教學設計以學童排隊的熟悉經驗為類比進行學習水物質三態中不同狀態以及變化的描述,藉此以探討類比教學策略對學童物質三態變化概念學習的影響,研究者曾在五年級不同班級做預試教學,以為教學流程的穩定性控制。
分析資料來源為前後測問卷、晤談資料、教學中錄影帶的轉錄資料、學童的省思札記、習作與學校試卷等。研究發現:兩組不同高低成就的學童,在物態變化巨觀認知的分析中除凝結概念外,凝固、熔化、蒸發、與物質狀態的概念學習表現上差異不大;但是在微觀認知的分析中,實驗組對熔化、蒸發、物質狀態的概念以及對物態變化動力現象的了解與迷思概念的減少等,皆優於對照組的表現;甚至以物態結構為基礎,類推至「聲音傳遞快慢」新概念的學習遷移表現,實驗組低成就表現也優於對照組高成就的學童;且實驗組部分的學童也出現自發性類比應用於其他的概念學習。研究結論確定只要類比應用得當,學童對學習較抽象的科學概念仍有很大的幫助。
研究結果中發現學童對於凝結的概念學習比熔化或是蒸發的概念困難。因此,研究者建議應該在教材中融入類比的教材或是對教師施以類比策略教學訓練,使學童對抽象且重要的科學概念學習有所幫助也更為容易。
ABSTRACT
The purpose of this study was to explore the 5th grade students’ concept learning on three states of matter through the strategies of teaching-with-analogy. The subjects of this study consisted of fifth-graders selected from an elementary school in Chia-yi city. The subjects were divided into two groups through phase questionnaire surveys with purposive assignment. Six students were selected as case study through standard achievement test from each group. The instructional design was based on students’ alignment as analogy when were prepared to attended physical activity in school. Students’ conceptual learning was influenced by analogical teaching approach and interpretation on change matter and physical activity. Researcher did prior teaching in different 5th grade class for the control stability of teaching.
The source for analysis was including questionnaire surveys, interviews, and observations students’ writes reviews, school test and so on. It was not different between high and low achievement students in condensation, evaporation, melting and state of matter except solidification. In micro cognition analysis, experimental group had better scientific conception than control group in melting, evaporation, state of matter, removing misconception and dynamic phenomenon about heating. Analogize the new conceptual learning “transmission rate of sound” low achievement students in experimental group were better learning transfer than high achievement student in control group. Some students could generate analogy by themselves and applied to another concept learning. The conclusion of this study was that using analogy correctly could help students to learn abstract scientific conceptions.
Researcher recommend that teacher must accept discipline for analogical teaching and add some analogical curriculum in textbook, then students learn easily and helpfully when face to abstract scientific conception.
目 錄
第一章 緒論……………………………………………………….....1
第一節 研究問題之背景與動機……………………………………….1
第二節 研究目的……………………………………………………….3
第三節 重要名詞解釋………………………………………………….3
第二章 文獻探討………………………………………………….....5
第一節 科學教育的發展趨勢………………………………………….5
第二節 類比學習之心理學理論基礎…………………………………10
第三節 有關類比之詮釋與批判………………………………………18
第四節 類比教學模式…………………………………………………23
第五節 關於類比教學的實證研究……………………………………27
第六節 有關物態變化概念的實證研究………………………………33
第三章 研究方法與實施………………………………………......44
第一節 研究方法………………………………………………………44
第二節 研究工具與樣本選取…………………………………………50
第三節 資料收集………………………………………………………52
第四節 資料整理與分析………………………………………………54
第四章 結果分析與討論………………………………………......57
第一節 教學前後學童在質量與體積概念上表現差異之探討………57
第二節 教學前後學童對熔化、蒸發、凝結、凝固等概念上表現
差異之探討………………………………………………….........63
第三節 教學後實驗組與對照組物態變化想法差異比較………….100
第四節 高低成就學童經過類比教學後物態變化概念學習上的
差異探討……………………………………………………........123
第五章 結論與建議………………………………………….......132
第一節 結論………………………………………………………….132
第二節 建議………………………………………………………….135
參考文獻
中文部分……………………………………………………………..137
外文部分………………………………………………………………138
附錄
附錄一 水的三態與學童活動的類比對應圖…………………………….147
附錄二 類比策略教學活動教案設計…………………………………….151
附錄三 學童的物態變化概念問卷……………………………………….155
附錄四 學童有關物態變化概念之訪談大綱…………………………….158
附錄五 物態變化單元教學活動後學童的省思札記…………………….159
附錄六 學童物態變化概念的訪談大綱與欲檢視的科學概念內容
對照表……………………………………………………………........161
附錄七 教學活動前個案訪談內容轉譯原案…………………………….162附錄八 對照組教學錄影帶轉議原案(摘錄)………………………….170
附錄九 訪談個案教學前與教學後的物態變化概念類型轉換
分析對照表……………………………………………………..........175
表目錄
表2-1 GMAT的理論架構……………………………………………………24
表2-2 GMAT類比教學模式………………………………………………..25
表2-3 八十二年國小課程標準有關物態變化概念要領………………..34
表2-4 九年一貫課程綱要有關物態變化概念之要項…………………..36
表3-1 類比物與所教學的科學概念對照表……………………………..48
表3-2 學童物態變化概念的訪談大綱與科學概念內容對照表………..51
表4-1-1 學童重量守恆概念通過百分率……………………………….58
表4-1-2 教學前後學童對重量守恆的類型與想法…………………….59
表4-1-3 教學前後學童體積變化概念分佈百分率…………………….60
表4-1-4 教學前後學童體積概念改變的類型與想法………………….62.
表4-2-1 教學前後學童凝固概念通過百分率分析表………………….63
表4-2-2 教學前後學童水凝固概念類型分析對照表………………….67
表4-2-3 教學前後學童熔化概念通過百分率分析表………………….68
表4-2-4 教學前後學童冰熔化概念類型分析對照表………………….71
表4-2-5 教學前後學童蒸發概念通過百分率分析表………………….72
表4-2-6 教學前後學童蒸發概念類型分析對照表…………………….77
表4-2-7 教學前後學童汽化沸騰概念通過百分率分析表…………….78
表4-2-8 教學前後學童沸騰汽化概念類型分析對照表……………….81
表4-2-9 教學前後學童凝結概念通過百分率分析表………………….82
表4-2-10 教學前後學童凝結概念類型分析對照表…………………….90
表4-2-11 教學前後學童物質狀態概念通過百分率分析表…………….92
表4-2-12 學童對物態變化區辨標準分析歸納表……………………….93
表4-2-13 教學前後學童物質狀態概念類型分析對照表……………….99
表4-3-1 教學對學童物質狀態概念學習的影響分析表………………105
表4-3-2 教學對學童熔化概念學習的影響分析表…………………..109
表4-3-3 教學對學童蒸發概念學習的影響分析表…………………..115
表4-3-4 教學對學童解釋聲音傳遞快慢類比應用的分析表………..122
表4-4-1 教學前後高低就學童答對題數分析表……………………..124
表4-4-2 教學後高低成就學童的迷失概念對照表…………………..124
表4-4-3 S5學童教學前後迷失概念減少對應表……………………..126
表4-4-4 S6學童教學前後迷失概念減少對應表……………………..127
表4-4-5 S1學童教學前後迷失概念對應表…………………………..128
圖目錄
圖2-1「同化」的過程……………………………………………………..11
圖2-2「調適」的過程……………………………………………………..11
圖2-3 奧斯貝的學習二向度關係圖……………………………………….14
圖2-4 TWA教學步驟………………………………………………………..26
圖2-5 光從空氣經過玻璃的折射就像一對輪子從紙張滾到地毯……….28
圖2-6 Brown & Clement設計的橋樑式類比物協助學生正向力的存在..31
圖3-1 教學流程…………………………………………………………….47
圖3-2 研究流程…………………………………………………………….49
圖4-1 s6學童上課前後不同想法的省思札記圖………………………..127
圖4-2 s5學童上課前後不同想法的省思札記圖………………………..128
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