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研究生:林斐霜
研究生(外文):Lin, Fei Shuang
論文名稱:中年喪偶婦女生活經驗之研究
論文名稱(外文):The Lived Experiences of Middle Adulthood Widows
指導教授:高淑清高淑清引用關係
指導教授(外文):Kao, Shu-Ching
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立嘉義大學
系所名稱:家庭教育研究所
學門:教育學門
學類:其他教育學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2002
畢業學年度:90
語文別:中文
論文頁數:141
中文關鍵詞:詮釋現象學生活經驗中年喪偶婦女
外文關鍵詞:hermeneutic phenomenologylived experiencemiddle adulthood widows
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本研究運用詮釋現象學方法論,目的是了解中年喪偶婦女的生活經驗、與調適策略,並且了解她們的力量、問題與需求。透過對於六位喪偶婦女的深度訪談,發現:
1. 丈夫去世讓婦女無難過日子,充滿無力感。她不只悲痛於丈夫的死亡,尚必須單獨面對與適應整個生活的改變。一大堆的負面情緒由然而生。例如剛開始整天哭泣,後來麻木、非常疲累、不知日子要如何過。丈夫的死亡對她們而言是無法承受的痛苦與折磨。此一現象顯露女人的脆弱;那可能源自傳統婚姻對女性潛力發展的限制以及讓女人對男人的經濟依賴。
2. 雖然家庭與社區提供喪偶婦女的支持與安慰,但也有時會讓婦女感受壓力,甚至干擾或騷擾。因此悲傷的婦女感受社會隔離,以及可怕的孤單。
3. 受訪者在喪偶初期,會讓自己忙碌,或完全以孩子為生活重心。可能會因悲傷以致身體健康有問題,需要藥物。孩子是她們的生命意義的主要來源。她們或許是持有「家庭結構模式」觀點,認為家庭結構完整孩子才有成就,單親媽媽的家庭是有缺陷的。
4. 宗教讓喪偶婦女獲得心靈空間與生命意義。她們對死亡獲得新的意義。有些受訪者相信有來世,所以丈夫還活著,在另一個美麗世界。她相信,旅途雖單獨,但不孤獨。
5. 她們會面臨性的問題,有人感覺挫敗。她們會有性與親密的需求,但總覺得事情並非容易。她們擔心遇人不淑,所以她們多半放棄再婚的努力與希望。
6. 在這些喪偶婦女家庭,親子關係通常呈現過度期望。撫養子女的信念著重:長子女的模範角色、小心照護不能出差錯、爭氣表現好。在紀律培養上,不會使用傳統體罰方式,但是會較用心,很怕別人說孩子是沒有父親的小孩。
7. 調適良好的喪偶婦女,會認為悲傷只是個事件,不是過程。她們經過整理之後,讓一切重新開始。她們恢復元氣,找到工作。工作賦予她們新的生命意義,所以她們將時間與精力用在工作上。不過若工作與教養孩子發生衝突時,她們會選擇後者。她們已經改寫生命腳本,生命充滿希望與目標。
基於上述發現,本研究建議:
1. 政府應該更注意喪偶婦女的心理健康與教育需求,例如情緒管理、親職教育,以舒緩她們的悲傷情緒,並幫助她們調適家庭與社區生活。
2. 幫助喪偶婦女建立及維持社會支持網絡,例如組織自助性的支持團體。
3. 教育婦女自立自強,對自己的潛力與生涯的發展做最大的努力,成為一個獨立個體。
Abstract
This research, using hermeneutic phenomenological methodology, was to understand the lived experience and coping strategies of middle adulthood widows and to explore the strength, issues and needs of them. Drawing on in-depth interviews with six widows, this research founds:
1. When husbands died, the widows experience powerlessness. They were left not only grieving physical losses but also experiencing and feeling the huge changes of having to adapt loneliness. A widow will tackle a lot of emotional work. The new widow will cry all day long, then, probably feel numb, and then, there''s terrible fatigue, and she doesn’t know how the job is done. Death represents unbearable pains and suffering. This phenomenon represents women''s vulnerability that is mainly from the traditional marriage that limits their potentials and keeps the economic support of a man.
2. Family and community indeed provide support and consolation; however, they also push the widow with pressure, bothering and harassment. Therefore the grieving woman suffers social isolation and terrible loneliness.
3. The interviewees in this study may try to get busier or immerse herself in her children. She may try to medicate herself. After her husband’s gone, her children have very important positions as a symbol of life meaning. They embrace the idea of “family structure model” that emphasizes the fundamental importance of family structure for children''s attainment and leads to viewing families headed by single mothers as deficient.
4. Religion gives spouse-lost women space of spirit and meaning of life. Death has taught them otherwise. Some believe that there is an afterlife. She takes comfort in knowing that her loved one still exists and is in a wonderful place. She believes that the journey is alone, but not lonely.
5. Sexual problems, especially frustration, were evident among many widows. The widows have sexual and intimate needs, but things are not so easy. They are afraid that there may be risky on the way of searching a male confidant. So they give up the effort and hope to give in remarriage.
6. The parent-child relationship in these single-mother families was usually seen as “over expected”. The child-rearing ideas of the single-mother emphasize the role-modeling of the first child, the importance of care-taking and performance. In disciplinary situations, they won’t employ the old strategy of spanking; instead, they consider using other forms of discipline. They did their best to take care of children to avoid the discrimination by others.
7. Well-adjusted widows considered that grief felt like an event, not a process. This is a time in their life for reflections and making a new beginning. They’ve found a job when the strength raised up. Work itself endows widows with new life meaning, so they devoted time and energies to work. When there were conflict between work and children rearing, they always chose the latter. They are now mapping a new script that there is something to look forward to and that there is still a purpose to life here.
Base on these findings, this study proposed some recommendations:
1. Government should pay more attention to the spouse-lost women''s psychological health and educational demands, such as emotional management, parenting education. Government could take an active role on leading to relieve their grief reactions, and helping them adjust to their lives in family and community.
2. To help widows establish and maintain social support network, such as forming self-help support groups.
3. To educate women to do the best for their own personal and career development as an independent person.
目錄
第一章 緒論
第一節 研究動機與問題背景概要 1
第二節 研究目的與研究問題 5
第三節 研究的重要性 6
第四節 重要概念陳述 7
第二章 文獻探討
第一節 面對配偶的死亡 9
第二節 喪偶婦女的心理轉變 11
第三節 喪偶婦女的生活適應 16
第三章 研究方法
第一節 研究方法論的選擇 20
第二節 研究設計 21
第三節 研究的嚴謹性與可信性 29
第四節 研究者的角色 30
第四章 中年喪偶婦女之生活經驗
第一節 無奈中求生存 32
第二節 轉變與適應 44
第三節 教養子女與追尋工作 63
第四節 重新出發 86
第五章 討論與研究者的反思
第一節 討論 100
第二節 研究者的反思 107
第六章 結論與建議
第一節 結論 112
第二節 建議 116
參考書目 120
附錄一 訪談同意書 125
附錄二 訪談回饋函 126
附錄三 受訪者的訪談回饋 129
附錄四 受訪婦女基本資料表 130
附錄五 主題分析 131
附錄六 受訪者孩子的近況 139
附錄七 喪偶婦女的寓言故事 141
圖目次
圖1-1 研究者之先前理解 19
圖5-1 喪偶婦女走過悲傷歲月的生活經驗 100
表目次
表3-1 受訪婦女基本資料表 22
表3-2 受訪婦女職業、經濟狀況及居住安排表 23
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