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研究生:盧廷瑋
研究生(外文):Ting-Wei Lu
論文名稱:囊叢枝菌根菌對繖楊、草海桐及臺灣海桐苗木生長及生理特性的效應
論文名稱(外文):Effects of Vesicular-Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi on Growth and Physiological Characteristics of Thespesia populnea, Scaevola sericea and Pittosporum pentandrum Seedlings
指導教授:李明仁李明仁引用關係
指導教授(外文):Prof. Dr. Ming-Jen Lee
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立嘉義大學
系所名稱:林業研究所
學門:農業科學學門
學類:林業學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2002
畢業學年度:90
語文別:中文
論文頁數:136
中文關鍵詞:囊叢枝菌根菌生長生理特性耐鹽性
外文關鍵詞:Vesicular-Arbuscular Mycorrhizal FungigrowthPhysiological Characteristicssalinity
相關次數:
  • 被引用被引用:15
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  • 下載下載:80
  • 收藏至我的研究室書目清單書目收藏:1
本研究調查臺灣海岸林繖楊、草海桐及臺灣海桐林地之根圈菌根菌種類,並篩選繁殖菌根菌進行接種於苗木,及以0%、1%、2%及3%不同土壤鹽分處理,以探討囊叢枝菌根菌及土壤鹽分處理對繖楊、草海桐及臺灣海桐生長及生理特性之效應。研究內容可分為三部分,其一為不同鹽分處理對種子發芽之影響;其二為低溫層積處理對種子發芽之影響;其三為囊叢枝菌根菌對苗木生長及耐鹽性之效應。
研究結果顯示種子發芽率隨著鹽分濃度的增加而降低;低溫層積處理可促進種子的發芽;本研究自繖楊和草海桐林地之根圈土壤分離得到一優勢囊叢枝菌根菌Acaulospora scrobiculata,及自臺灣海桐林地之根圈土壤分離得到一優勢囊叢枝菌根菌Glomus mosseae,將這些囊叢枝菌根菌經繁殖後接種至繖楊、草海桐及臺灣海桐苗木,七個月後觀察其對苗木生長及生理之效應。研究結果發現囊叢枝菌根菌A. scrobiculata可與繖楊及草海桐苗木根部形成良好的囊叢枝菌根,而G. mosseae可與臺灣海桐苗木根部形成良好的囊叢枝菌根,其對苗木高生長、地徑、乾重、葉面積、葉部N、P及K元素濃度均有顯著的增進作用。
苗木以0%、1%、2%及3% NaCl等不同鹽度溶液處理90天後,苗木之各形質生長參數隨著鹽度增加而變化,結果顯示繖楊及草海桐接種菌根菌且以3%鹽分溶液處理者,雖未造成苗木死亡,但生長勢均衰退,且隨著鹽分濃度增加而提早出現病徵;臺灣海桐接種菌根菌且以3%鹽分溶液處理者,導致苗木死亡。就土壤鹽分處理而言,植物體脯胺酸濃度、Cl-、Na+、土壤Na+元素濃度會隨著鹽分濃度增加而增加,然苗高、乾重、葉面積、葉綠素濃度、植物體水勢、光合成速率、植物體K+、Ca2+及Mg2+元素濃度則反之。草海桐葉片肉質程度隨著鹽度增加而增厚,用以稀釋葉片累積之鹽分濃度,但3% NaCl以上高鹽度已對苗木產生毒害作用,增加肉質性對於苗木生長之效應並不明顯。苗木以四種鹽度處理三個月後,葉片光合作用速率以0%處理者最高,並隨著鹽度濃度增加明顯受抑制。SEM觀察結果顯示,0%、1%及2%等三種處理之氣孔數目並無顯著差異,但3%處理者氣孔數則明顯減少。植物體各部位的Cl-和Na+元素濃度均以落葉及葉部大於莖部及根部,顯示苗木將鹽分累積在葉部,藉由落葉將鹽分排出體外。
本研究證實囊叢枝菌根菌A. scrobiculata和G. mosseae可促進繖楊、草海桐及臺灣海桐苗木的生長,在繖楊、草海桐及臺灣海桐之育林作業上具有應用價值。
This study investigated the species of mycorrhizal fungi in the rhizosphere of Bhendi tree (Thespesia populnea (L.) Solander), Scaevola (Scaevola sericea Vahl.), and Pittosporum (Pittosporum pentandrum (Blanco) Merr.) stand in coastal forest in south-west Taiwan. Vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (VAMF) were screened, propagated, and inoculated onto roots and four salinities (0%, 1%, 2% and 3%) of Bhendi tree, Scaevola, and Pittosporum seedlings in order to study the effects of MF and salinities on growth and physiological characteristics of seedlings. This study investigated (1) effects of salinity on germination of seeds. (2) effects of stratification on sprout rate of seeds. (3) effects of vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi on growth and salinity tolerance of seedlings.
The results showed that germination percentage of seeds of Bhendi tree, Scaevola, and Pittosporum decreased when salinities increased ; stratification can enhance germination percentage of seeds. In this study, two dominant VAMF, i.e., Acaulospora scrobiculata and Glomus mosseae were isolated. These VAMF were propagated and inoculated onto Bhendi tree, Scaevola, and Pittosporum seedlings. Seven months later, effects of these VAMF on growth and physiological characteristics of seedlings were measured and analyzed. The results indicated that A. scrobiculata could form vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizas with roots of Bhendi tree and Scaevola seedlings, and that G. mosseae can form vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizas with roots of Pittosporum seedlings, and there were significant enhancements in height growth, root collar diameter, dry weight, leaf area, N, P, and K element contents.
Seedlings were grown in different concentrations of salinity containing 0%, 1% ,2% and 3% NaCl for 90 days. The results showed that 3% salinity treatment caused death of inoculated Pittosporum seedlings; but did not cause death of Bhendi tree and Scaevola. However, it retarded growth of seedlings and caused obvious symptoms. As salinity increased, proline, Cl and Na element contents of plants, and Na element content of soil were increased. However, the height growth, dry matter weight, leaf area, chlorophyII content, water potential, photosynthetic rate and K, Ca and Mg element contents of plants were decreased. Experimental results further indicated that leaf succulence of Scaevola increased with increases in salinity. This process may maintain a reasonable amount of salt concentration. Photosynthesis characteristics were studied for seedlings grown under a variety of saline conditions. According to experimental results, the net photosynthetic rate were highest in 0% salinity. In addition, all net photosynthetic rate decreased when salinities increased. Ultrastructural study revealed that there were no significant differences among stomatal densities of seedlings cultured at 0%, 1% and 2% NaCl concentrations. However, the stomatal densities of seedling decreased significantly in 3% NaCl treatment. Cl and Na accumulated in various tissues of seedlings, Cl and Na content was decreased as follows: droped leaves and leaves > shoot and root. When old leaves aged and drop out, the salt accumulated in those left the seedlings.
This study demonstrated that A. scrobiculata and G. mosseae could stimulate the growth of Bhendi tree, Scaevola, and Pittosporum seedlings, and will be beneficial to the silvicultural practice of Bhendi tree, Scaevola, and Pittosporum in coastal plantation of Taiwan.
中文摘要 ---------------------------------------------- I
英文摘要 ---------------------------------------------- III
目次 -------------------------------------------------- VI
表目次 ----------------------------------------------- VIII
圖目次 ------------------------------------------------ XII
壹、緒言 ---------------------------------------------- 1
貳、前人研究 ------------------------------------------ 3
一、繖楊、草海桐及臺灣海桐之生長分佈及生理特性 ---- 3
二、囊叢枝菌根菌的感染過程及繁殖體 ---------------- 3
三、菌根之功能 ------------------------------------ 5
四、鹽分逆境對植物之影響 -------------------------- 7
五、鹽分逆境對植物產生之傷害 ---------------------- 12
六、植物之抗鹽性 ---------------------------------- 15
七、植物對鹽分逆境的適應性 ------------------------ 18
參、材料與方法 ---------------------------------------- 20
一、研究材料 -------------------------------------- 20
二、研究方法 -------------------------------------- 21
肆、結果 ---------------------------------------------- 32
試驗一:不同鹽分處理對種子發芽之影響 -------------- 32
試驗二:低溫層積處理對種子發芽之影響 -------------- 35
試驗三:囊叢枝菌根菌對苗木生長及生理特性之效應 ---- 37
伍、討論 ---------------------------------------------- 95
一、不同鹽分處理對種子發芽之影響 ------------------ 95
二、低溫層積處理對種子發芽之影響 ------------------ 96
三、接種囊叢枝菌根菌對苗木生長之效應 -------------- 97
四、囊叢枝菌根菌與土壤鹽分處理對植物形態之影響 ---- 97
五、接種菌根菌與鹽分處理對土壤化學性質之影響 ------ 107
陸、結論 ---------------------------------------------- 108
柒、引用文獻 ------------------------------------------ 111
捌、附錄 ---------------------------------------------- 122
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1. 13. 王塗發、林向愷、林萬億,<臺灣永續發展規劃模式之建構>,《自由中國之工業(Industry of Free China)》,第91卷第1期(台北市:行政院經濟建設委員會,2001年6月),頁25-54。
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