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研究生:黃俊傑
研究生(外文):Hson-Chich Huang
論文名稱:用於行動特殊網路中群播系統應用之權重式叢集路徑選擇演算法
論文名稱(外文):A Weight-Based Clustering Multicast Routing Protocol (WCMP) for Mobile Ad Hoc Networks
指導教授:張瑞雄張瑞雄引用關係
指導教授(外文):Ruay-Shiung Chang
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立東華大學
系所名稱:資訊工程學系
學門:工程學門
學類:電資工程學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2002
畢業學年度:90
語文別:英文
論文頁數:70
中文關鍵詞:無線行動特殊網路叢集被動期主動期移動性權重式架構網狀式架構樹狀式架構群播系統
外文關鍵詞:mobilityproactivereativeclusteringweight-basedmesh-basedMobile ad hoc networkstree-basedmulticast
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未來無線行動特殊網路支援群播系統的應用越來越重要。鑑於此,設計一個好的群播系統的演算法是很迫切由於節點的加入或離開不會破壞群播系統的建構。而無線行動特殊網路屬於無線電傳輸模式,在無線行動特殊網路上的每一個節點都可以自由任意行動。所以無線行動特殊網路比傳統固定式網路遭遇更多的問題,如頻寬的缺乏、連結的失敗等都可能使群播系統的效能降低。目前的群播系統擇路演算法並未有較好的效能在無線行動特殊網路的應用,尤其當移動性高的節點。因此,在這篇論文中我們深入探討這個問題並提出一個用於行動特殊網路中群播系統應用之權重式叢集路徑選擇演算法,簡稱WCMP路徑選擇演算法。此演算法透過權重計算機制選擇適當的叢集管理者去管理叢集成員。我們的方法分成兩個階段維護群播系統的傳送樹和動態的隨選叢集管理者。第一階段為被動期,用來當要尋找叢集管理者時才發出請求,此階段可以降低因請求及回應所產生的控制訊息而影響系統效能;第二階段為主動期,用來維護傳送樹的再重建及權重計算選擇叢集管者當節點的加入或離開,此階段可以快速反應網路拓樸的情況進而加以管理。透過模擬的分析顯示我們提出的樹狀式架構的演算法WCMP比網狀式架構演算法ODMRP好,這樣的結果在高移動性的環境下特別明顯。
The future wireless networks are expected to support multicast applications more and more. To facilitate this, multicast routing protocols are pivotal in enabling new receivers to join a multicast group. However, mobile ad hoc networks use radio propagation model. Each mobile node can freely move around in an ad hoc wireless network. It faces more serious problems than static network in multicast application such as link failures and scarce bandwidth. The current routing protocols do not have good performance between source and group members when source sending multicast datagrams to receivers. When the mobile nodes change their position, there is a change in the wireless network resources that can give rise to uncertainty in network conditions. In ad hoc wireless networks, the high mobility of hosts is usually a major reason for sending packets to all of members. For this reason, we propose a tree-based multicast protocol named, weight-based clustering multicast routing protocol (WCMP), to select appropriate clusterheads to manage the group members. In our method, there are two stages, that is, the reactive stage and the proactive stage, to maintain the multicast delivery tree and on demand determine clusterheads. First, the reactive stage can reduce the query-reply and control messages. Secondly, the proactive stage can quickly reflect the topology in mobile ad hoc networks according to weight mechanism and multicast delivery tree maintenance. We show through simulations that WCMP outperforms a mesh-based multicast routing protocol in terms of the packet delivery ratio and control message overhead, especially in high mobility situation.
DEDICATION……………………………………………………….………………i
Acknowledgements……………………………………….……………..ii
摘要………………………………………………………..……………iii
Abstract……………………………………………………………….....iv
List of Figures……………………………………………………………v
Chapter 1 Introduction…………………………………...………………………..1
1.1 Significance of the Research………………………………...………………….1
1.2 Multicasting……………………………………………………………………..2
1.2.1 The Basic Components of Multicasting…………………………………..3
1.2.2 Multicast Routing Concepts……………………………………...……….3
1.3 Mobile Ad Hoc Networks………………………………………………………4
1.3.1 Catrgorization of the Routing of Mobile Ad Hoc Networks…………...…5
1.3.2 Multicast Protocols for Mobile Ad Hoc Networks…………….………….5
1.4 Problem Description……………………………………………………….……7
1.4.1 Concepts of Hierarchy…………………………………………………….8
1.4.2 Selection of Schemes…………………………………..…………………8
1.4.3 Our Approach………………………………………………...………….10

Chapter 2 Background Knowledge…………………...……………….……….12
2.1 Comparisons of the ZRP and The Cluster Head Technique………………...…14
2.1.1 ZRP Protocol……………………………………………………….……14
2.1.2 The Clusterhead Technique……………………………………….……..16
2.1.3 Hybrid Mechanisms……………………………………………………..17
2.2 Concepts of Flooding………………………………………………………….17
2.3 Weight Concepts………………………………………………………………18

Chapter 3 Related Work……………………………..……...……………………20
3.1 MZR: A Multicast Protocol for Mobile Ad Hoc Networks……………...…….21
3.1.1 Multicast Tree Creation…………………………………………….……23
3.1.2 Tree Refresh……………………………………………………..………25
3.1.3 Reaction to Link Breaks…………………………………………..……..25
3.1.4 Scarcity……………………………………………………………….….26
3.2 Three Heuristics for Clusterhead Selection…………………………..………..27
3.2.1 Highest-Degree Heuristic……………………….……………………….27
3.2.2 Lowest-ID Heuristic……………………………………………………..27
3.2.3 Node-Weight Heuristic………………………………………..…………28
3.3 Analysis………………………………………………………………..………28

Chapter 4 Weight-Based Clustering Multicast Routing Protocol…………30
4.1 Tree Creation……………………………………………………………...…..30
4.2 Clusterhead Selection…………………………………………………………31
4.3 Maintain the multicast Delivery Tree…………………………………………38
4.3.1 Reactive Stage………………………………………………….………..38
4.3.2 Proactive Stage…………………………………………………………..40

Chapter 5 Simulation Results………………………………………...…………47
5.1 Simulation Environment…………………………………………..…………..47
5.2 Results and Analysis………………………………………………….……….48

Chapter 6 Conclusions and Future Work……………………………….…….54
6.1 Conclusions……………………………………………………..……………..54
6.2 Future Work…………………………………………………….……………..55

Reference……………………………………………….………………………….56
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