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研究生:張富翔
研究生(外文):Fu-Hsiang Chang
論文名稱:Twofish加解密晶片之設計與實作
論文名稱(外文):Design and Implementation of a Twofish Encryption/Decryption Chip
指導教授:紀新洲
指導教授(外文):Hsin-Chou Chi
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立東華大學
系所名稱:資訊工程學系
學門:工程學門
學類:電資工程學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2002
畢業學年度:90
語文別:中文
論文頁數:67
中文關鍵詞:對稱性區塊密碼
外文關鍵詞:symmetric block cipherFeistel networks
相關次數:
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1997年,美國國家標準技術協會NIST發佈先進資料加密標準AES的要求,以取代行之多年的資料加密標準DES。NIST所要求的設計準則有:區塊密碼系統、比舊標準更大的金鑰長度、更大的區塊、更快的速度以及更有彈性。Twofish是數個符合NIST設計準則的計劃之一。
在區塊密碼系統中,每一回的運算函數是整個系統的核心。複雜的運算函數在分析上有其困難,而且效果不見得會比較為簡單的運算函數好,因此,簡單的運算函數是設計Twofish的指導原則之一。只要具備足夠的運算回合,簡單的運算函數也能夠達成安全上的需求。Twofish是一個128位元的對稱性區塊密碼系統,能接受128、192以及256位元的金鑰長度。
在這論文中,我們提出了一個Twofish區塊密碼系統的VLSI設計與實作,並採用管線的技術以加快晶片的運算速度。此外,為了節省面積,加密、解密與子金鑰的產生設計在同一塊晶片中。我們以0.35μm CMOS技術來實作我們的設計,最後的晶片面積為2.34mmX2.34mm。
In 1997, NIST (National Institute of Standards and Technology) announced the Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) program to replace DES. NIST’s call design criteria are block cipher, a longer key length, larger block size, faster speed, and greater flexibility. Twofish was one of those schemes that meet NIST’s design criteria for AES.
In a cipher, complicated round functions are harder to analyze and are not always better than simple ones. Hence, one of the guiding principles of Twofish is that the round function should be simple enough. With enough rounds, simple round functions can achieve the security requirement. Twofish is a 128-bit symmetric block cipher with key lengths of 128 bits, 192 bits, and 256 bits. The cipher is composed of 16 rounds built similarly to the Feistel network structure.
A VLSI design and implementation of the Twofish block cipher is presented. This cipher is a 16-round Feistel-like network. The modification of the Feistel structure includes XOR operation and rotation by one bit. In this thesis, we present a pipelined structure for the VLSI implementation of the Twofish block cipher. Pipelined structure makes the chip operate faster. In our design, the chip performs data encryption, data decryption, and key generation in a single hardware unit. We have implemented this cipher with 0.35μm CMOS technology and the chip area is around 2.34mm by 2.34mm.
第一章導論…………………………………………………………………………1
1-1 研究動機………………………………………………………………………1
1-2 對稱性與非對稱性加密系統的基本觀念……………………………………1
1-2-1 對稱性加密系統………………………………………………………2
1-2-2 非對稱性加密系統……………………………………………………3
1-3 論文組識………………………………………………………………………8
第二章 Feistel Networks與先進資料加密標準候選演算法……………………9
2-1 Feistel Networks………………………………………………………………9
2-2 先進資料加密標準候選演算法………………………………………………11
第三章 Twofish區塊密碼系統演算法……………………………………………18
3-1 S-boxes………………………………………………………………………...21
3-1-1 q-permutation………………………………………………………22
3-2 Galois Field (28)……………………………………………………………….24
3-2-1 加法…………………………………………………………………...25
3-2-2 乘法…………………………………………………………………25
3-3 Maximum Distance Separable Matrix………………………………………26
3-4 Pseudo-Hadamard Transform與模餘232子金鑰加法運算………………...27
3-5 子金鑰的產生………………………………………………………………….28
3-5-1 子金鑰S……………………………………………………………….28
3-5-2 子金鑰K………………………………………………………………29
第四章 Twofish區塊加解密器架構設計…………………………………………31
4-1 S-boxes架構設計……………………………………………………………...32
4-2 MDS Matrix與RS Matrix架構設計………………………………………...35
4-3 Pseudo-Hadamard Transform與模餘232加法器設計……………………...37
4-3-1 PHT架構設計………………………………………………………...37
4-3-2 模餘232加法器設計…………………………………………………..39
4-4 電路的整合…………………………………………………………………….42
第五章 電路實作與結果…………………………………………………………..44
5-1 電路實作……………………………………………………………………...44
5-1-1 管線設計…………………………………………………………….44
5-1-2 資料路徑與介面設計……………………………………………….45
5-1-3 隨機存取記憶體…………………………………………………….47
5-1-4 加法器效能比較…………………………………………………….49
5-1-5 GF(28)的乘法………………………………………………………..53
5-1-6 S-boxes與Rotation運算……………………………………………54
5-2 模擬結果……………………………………………………………………...55
第六章 結論與未來研究…………………………………………………………..64
參考文獻……………………………………………………………………………..65
附錄…………………………………………………………………………………..68
[1] P. Chodowiec and K. Gaj, “Implementation of the Twofish Cipher Using FPGA Devices,” Technical Report, Electrical and Computer Engineering, George Mason University, July 1999.
[2] J. Daemen, V. Rijmen, “AES Proposal: Rijndael,” 1st AES conference, Ventura, CA, August 1998.
[3] H. Feistel, “Cryptography and Computer Privacy,” Scientific American, v. 228, n. 5, May 1973, pp. 15-23.
[4] H. Feistel, W.A. Notz, and J.L. Smith, “Some cryptographic Techniques for Machine-to-Machine Data Communications,” Proceedings on the IEEE, v. 63, n. 11, 1975, pp. 1545-1554.
[5] N. Ferguson, “Twofish Technical Report #5 Impossible differentials in Twofish,” October 19, 1999.
http://www.counterpane.com/twofish.html
[6] Viktor Fischer, “Realization of the Round 2 AES Candidates using Altera FPGA,” MICRONIC s. r. o., Dunajska 12, Kosice, Slovakia.
[7] J. Kelsey, “Twofish Technical Report #7 Key Separation in Twofish,” April 7, 2000.
http://www.counterpane.com/twofish.html
[8] J. Kilian and P. Rogaway, “How to Protect DES Against Exhaustive Key Search,” Advances in Cryptology – CRYPTO ’96 Proceedings, Springer-Verlag, 1996, pp. 252-267.
[9] Benjamin Leperchey and Charles Hymans, “FPGA implementation of the Rijndael algorithm,” June, 2000.
http:/www.di.ens.fr/~jv/HomePage/pamette/
[10] J. Nechvatal, E. Barker, L. Bassham, W. Burr, M. Dworkin, J. Foti, and E. Roback, “Report on the Development of the Advanced Encryption Standard,” Computer Security Division Information Technology Laboratory, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Technology Administration, U.S. Department of Commerce, October 2, 2000.
[11] National Bureau of Standards, NBS FIFS PUB 46, “Data Encryption Standard,” National Bureau of Standards, U.S. Department of Commerce, Jan 1977.
[12] Perter Pirsch, Architectures for Digital Signal Processing, John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 1998.
[13] W. Stallings, Cryptography and Network Security, Principles and Practice, Prentice Hall International, Inc. 1999. pp. 57-65, 79-83.
[14] B. Schneier and D. Whiting, “A Performance Comparison of the Five AES Finalists,” 15 March, 2000.
[15] B. Schneier, J. Kelsey, D. Whiting, D. Wagner, C. Hall, and N. Ferguson, “Twosifh: A 128 bit Block Cipher,” 15 June, 1998.
http://www.counterpane.com/twofish.html
[16] B. Schneier, J. Kelsey, D. Whiting, D. Wagner, C. Hall, and N. Ferguson, “Performance Comparison of the AES Submissions,” Version 2.0 February 1, 1999.
http://www.counterpane.com/twofish.html
[17] D. Whiting and B. Schneier, “Twofish Technical Report #3 Improved Twofish Implementations,” December 2, 1998.
http://www.counterpane.com/twofish.html
[18] D. Whiting, J. Kelsey, B. Schneier, D. Wagner, N. Ferguson, and C. Hall, “Twofish Technical Report #4 Further Observations on the Key Schedule of Twofish,” March 16, 1999.
http://www.counterpane.com/twofish.html
[19] http://www.counterpane.com/twofish-products.html
[20] http://www.nist.gov/public_affairs/releases/aesq&a.htm
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