跳到主要內容

臺灣博碩士論文加值系統

(3.236.225.157) 您好!臺灣時間:2022/08/15 23:47
字體大小: 字級放大   字級縮小   預設字形  
回查詢結果 :::

詳目顯示

我願授權國圖
: 
twitterline
研究生:魏瑛勳
研究生(外文):Eing Shun Wei
論文名稱:智能障礙者之照顧者支持團體成效之探討
論文名稱(外文):The Effectiveness of Support Groups Toward Caregivers of Persons with Mental Retardation
指導教授:周桂如周桂如引用關係
指導教授(外文):Kuei Ru Chou
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國防醫學院
系所名稱:護理研究所
學門:醫藥衛生學門
學類:護理學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2002
畢業學年度:90
語文別:中文
論文頁數:113
中文關鍵詞:智能障礙照顧者支持團體身心健康社會支持
外文關鍵詞:mental retardationcaregiversupport grouppsychological healthsocial support
相關次數:
  • 被引用被引用:19
  • 點閱點閱:1054
  • 評分評分:
  • 下載下載:0
  • 收藏至我的研究室書目清單書目收藏:8
本研究目的,在探討支持團體對於智能障礙者之照顧者,在身心健康及社會支持方面改變的成效。以縱貫性研究對照組設計,分別於團體前、團體結束及團體結束後四週進行資料收集。
本研究樣本以某機構的智能障礙者之照顧者為對象,採立意取樣方式,實驗組32人,控制組30人,總收案人數共計62人,以每週進行一次、每次90分鐘、共8次的支持團體作為實驗組介入措施。
以廣義估計模式(Generalize Estimating Equation, GEE)進行分析成效之改變。研究研究結果顯示:實驗組在團體後相較於團體前,身心健康狀況及社會支持之改善均優於控制組;四週後追蹤發現,實驗組身心健康狀況及社會支持之改善仍優於控制組。研究結果可證實智能障礙者之照顧者支持團體確實具有成效。
根據本研究結果,建議以團體模式提供護理服務,不但能達成護理目標,亦應廣泛的運用團體治療,作為介入性服務措施,推展成為常規之醫療照護模式;同時護理人員可由相關課程及在職教育方式,完成團體治療領導者的準備。
The purpoes of this study was to explore the effectiveness of caregivers support group of relatives with mental retardation regarding their psychological health and social support. The study was a longitudinal study with a comparison group design. There were three waves of data collection included pre-intervention, post-interventim, and four-week follow-up.
The subjects were selected through purposive sampling from one institution to recruite the caregivers of relatives with mental retardation. A total of 62 subjects recruited in the study included 32 subjects in the experimented group and 30 subjects in the comparison group. The experimental of the group received support group intervention. The format of the group was structured that included 8 weekly short-term sessions. Each session lasted for 1.5 hours were scheduled.
The GEE(General Estimation Equation)was used to analyze the longitudinal data. The result revealed that caregivers psychological health and social support were better than comparison group after participating the support group in both post-intervention and four-week follow-up.
According to the result of the study, recommendations for future clinical practice included (1) provide support group as a care norm in nursing care; and (2) prepare support group in service education for nurses to improve their ability as a leader.
目 錄
摘要 7
第一章 緒論 10
第一節 研究背景與動機 10
第二節 研究目的 12
第二章 文獻查證 14
第一節 智能障礙 14
第二節 智能障礙者對照顧者的衝擊 19
第三節 社會支持 23
第四節 支持團體 28
第五節 研究假設 35
第六節 研究架構 37
第三章 研究方法 38
第一節 名詞解釋 38
第二節 研究設計 39
第三節 研究對象 40
第四節 團體措施 41
第五節 研究工具 42
第六節 資料分析 45
第七節 倫理考量 46
第四章 結果 47
第一節 研究樣本之基本特性 47
第二節 團體成效之評量 51
第三節 團體過程之評量 77
第五章 討論 84
第一節 研究樣本的特性 84
第二節 身心健康狀況之成效 85
第三節 社會支持之成效 89
第四節 團體目標 93
第五節 團體滿意度之增加 94
第六節 團體氣氛之改善 95
第六章 結論 97
第一節 研究結果 97
第二節 護理上的應用 98
第三節 限制與建議 100
參考文獻 101
中文文獻 101
英文文獻 105
中文文獻
內政部統計處(2001)•身心障礙者狀況分析•台北:內政部。
內政部、行政院衛生署、勞工委員會(1999)•臺閩地區身心障礙者生活需求調查計畫•台北:內政部。
內政部社會司(1992):殘障福利法規彙編。
王文玲(1992)•與慢性病共存-慢性病患者家庭的需要•護理雜誌,39(3),25-30。
王天苗(1985)•智能不足兒童家庭動力與親師態度之探討•師大:特殊教育學刊。
余佩郁(1996)•居家痴呆老人家庭照護品質與相關因素之探討•陽明大學社區護理研究所碩士論文。
何秀玉(2001)•心律調節器病患身心社會調適與社會支持之相關性探討•國立陽明大學臨床護理研究所碩士論文。
李美玲、王國老(1989)•智障人口老化與機構安置照護費用之探討:公立臺南教養院的分析•國立中正大學社會福利學系碩士論文。
邱啟潤、呂淑宜、許玉雲、朱陳宜珍、劉蘭英(1988)•居家中風之病人主要照顧者負荷情形及相關因素之探討•護理雜誌,35(4),69-82。
邱怡玟、黃秀梨(1997)•台北市各級醫療院所發展障礙早期療育資源調查•台北市政府社會局委託計畫。
林麗嬋、歐美、吳肖琪(1997)•長期照護中主要照顧者之家庭功能、社會支持與情緒•護理雜誌,5(1)•77-86。
林惠琦(1997)•社區精神分裂病患主要照護者負荷、社會支持與心理健康•高雄醫學院護理學研究所碩士論文。
林媼彩(1994)•臺北市智障青少年母親壓力、身心症狀與資源之探討•國立台灣大學護理學研究所碩士論文。
林麗玲(1988)•智障者母親社會支持與心理調適之研究•東吳大學社會學研究所碩士論文。
周月清(1985)•智能不足兒童父母社會困擾之研究•東海大學社會學研究所碩士論文。
吳聖良、胡杏佳、姚克明•(1991)•台灣地區居家照顧老人主要照顧者負荷情況及其需求之調查研究•公共衛生,18(3),237-247。
吳慧英(1995)•「非殘障手足」的壓力與心理調適•特教園丁,10(3),24-26。
范心慧、陳震宇、吳文超、王新臺、黃朝慶、高純珠(1999)•不同類型溝通障礙兒在腦部胼胝體面積差異之初報•慈濟醫學,11(3),247-253。
柯俊銘(1998)•喪偶婦女之哀傷反應、社會支持與身心健康--以某支持性社團為例•高雄醫學院行為科學研究所碩士論文。
徐西森(1999)•團體動力與團體輔導•台北:心理
高寶蓮(1998)•裘馨型肌肉失養症患孩父母親的社會支持照顧負荷與生活品質的相關探討•高雄醫學院護理學研究所碩士論文。
教育部(1992)•我國第二次特殊兒童普查報告•台北:教育部。
教育部(1993)•中華民國教育統計•台北:教育部。
教育部(1994)•中華民國教育統計•台北:教育部。
許晉褘(2000)•學習障礙兒童母親之困擾問題及其社會支持•彰化師範大學輔導系碩士論文。
陳永慶(2001)•國內心理治療與諮商輔導效果的整合分研究。高雄醫學院行為科學研究所碩士論文。
陳一蓉(1993)•自閉症兒童的母親的壓力知覺、社會支持與其適應關係的探討•國立中正大學心理學系碩士論文。
陳秋玫(1993)•早產兒母親社會支持系統與母親角色適應之研究•文化大學兒童福利學系碩士論文。
陳凱琳(2000)•影響發展遲緩幼兒家庭社會支持因素之研究•高雄醫學大學行為科學研究所碩士論文。
郭芳嫻(2000)•智能障礙兒童家庭社會支持及其調適-以台北市立陽明教養院院生及申請入院者為例•中國文化大學兒童福利研究所碩士論文。
黃淑文(2000)•早期療育服務介入後對心智障礙兒童家庭的影響•中國文化大學兒童福利研究所碩士論文。
黃璉華(1994)•養育唐氏症兒對家庭的衝擊•護理研究,2(3),253-262。
黃璉華(1994)•談智障者的性教育•護理雜誌,40(4),91-96。
黃璉華(1989)•團體衛生教育•護理雜誌,36(4),27-32。
湯麗玉(1991)•癡呆症老人照顧者的負荷及其相關因素之探討•台灣大學護理學研究所碩士論文。
湯麗玉、葉炳強、陳良娟、謝碧容(2000)•失智症家屬支持團體成效初探•應用心理研究,7,171-189。
張玉婷(1999)•燒燙傷病童出院後母親的關注與需求及相關因素之探討•國立臺灣大學護理學研究所碩士論文。
張郁芬(2001)•國小教師工作壓力、社會支持與身心健康之研究•國立嘉義大學國民教育研究所碩士論文。
楊雅淑(1998)‧癲癇患者社會支持與安適狀態之相關研究‧國立陽明大學護理研究所未發表碩士論文。
廖文炫、孫雯萍(1982)•腦性麻痺兒童家長對患童照顧方式之研究• 復健醫學會雜誌,10,7-9。
蔣欣欣、喻永生(1997)•唐氏症嬰幼兒父母認知真相後之調適過程•護理雜誌,5(1),19-29。
趙明玲、高淑芬、葉健全(1998)•探討父母親照顧家中長期重度慢性疾病兒感受•護理研究,6(3),219-229。
蔡孟岳、王厚中、張敏(2001)•邊緣性智能•臨床醫學,48(2),108-110。
劉可屏(1982)•智能不足兒童的家庭研究•台北:輔大社會工作系
劉城晃(2001)•國小啟智班親職教育方案之發展與成效研究•國小特殊教育,31,69-75。
鄭洵華(1987)•智能不足兒母親壓力知覺與身心適應之研究•東吳大學社會研究所社工組碩士論文。
賴奕志(1988)•注意力缺陷過動症兒童家庭福利需求滿意度、社會支持與親職壓力之相關性研究•中國文化大學兒童福利研究所碩士論文。
賴秀美(1992)•癌症病患家屬的社會支持與生活適應之關聯性研究•東吳大學社會學系社會工作碩士論文。
穆佩芬(1998)•孩童健康有危機之家庭壓力調適-父母親之調適模式•榮總護理,15(2),115-123。
鍾佩芳(1998)•唇顎裂兒童之外觀缺陷與其母親照顧功能及適應的關係•中原大學心理學系碩士論文。
羅高文(1998)•末期腎病學童母親於日常生活照顧病童的親職壓力及社會支持之探討•國防醫學院護理學研究所碩士論文。
英文文獻
Achat, H., Kawachi, S., Levine, S., Berkey, C., Coakley, E., & Colditz, G. (1998). Social network, stress and health-related quality of life. Quality of Life, 7(8), 735-750.
American Association on Mental Retardation. (1992). Mental retardation: definition, classcification, and systems of supports. Washing, DC: Amerucan Association Mental Retardation.
American Psychiatric Association. (1996). Diagnosis and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders.Washinton, DC. (4 ed). American Psychiatric Association.37-46.
Anthony, E. & Benedek, T. (1970). Perenthood. Boston: Little, Brown and Company.
Austin, J. K. (1988). Parental attitude and coping behaviors in families of children with epilepsy. Journal of Neuroscience Nursing, 20 (3), 174-179.
Austin, J. K. (1995). A model of family adaption to new-onset children childhood epilepsy. Journal of Neuroscience Nursing, 28 (2), 82-92.
Barnard, K. E., Booth, C. L., Mitchell, S. K., & Telzrow, R. W. (1988). Newborn nursing models: A Itest of early intervention to high-risk infant and families. In E. D. Hibb(Ed.), Children and families: Studies in prevention and intervention. Madison, WI: International Universities Press.
Barrera, M. & Ainlay, S. (1983). The structure of social support-a conceptual and empirical analysis. Journal of Community Psychology, 11, 133-143.
Beange, H., McElduff, A., & Baker, W. (1995). Medical disorders of adults with mental retardation: a population study. American Journal of Mental Retardation.99 (6): 595-604.
Brown, P. L. (1990). The burden of caring for a husband with Alzheimer’s disease. Home Health Nurse, 9, 33-38.
Byrne, E., Cunningham, C., & Sloper, P. (1988). Families and their children with Down’s Syndrome: One feature in common. London: Routledge.
Cobb, S. (1976). Social support as a moderator of life stress. Psychometric Medicine, 38 (5), 300-314.
Cohen, S. & Syme, S. L. (1985). Issues in the study and application of social support. In S. Cohen, & S. L. Syme, (Eds), Social Support and Health. (pp. 3-22). Orlando: Academic Press.
Cohen, S. & Wills, T.A.(1985). Stress, social support, and the buffering hypothesis (review). Psychological Bulletin, 98 (2), 310-357.
Crand, S., Sussman, A., Berthaud, M., Sunderland, A. (1992). Development of a weekly support group for caregivers of children with HIVdisease. AIDS Care. 49 (3), 339-351.
Davidhizar, R, (1992). Understanding powerlessness in family member caregiver of the chronically ill. Geriatric Nursing, 34(1), 66-69.
Drinka, T.J., Smith, J.C., & Drinka, P.J. (1987).Correlates of depression and burden for informal caregivers of patients in a geriatrics referal clinic. Journal of American Geriatrics Society, 35, 522-525.
Drotar, D., Baskiewicz, A.,, Irvin, N., Kennell, J. M. & Klaus, M. H. (1975). The adaption of parents to the birth of an infant with congenital malformation: A hypothetical model. Pediatrics, 56(5), 710-717.
Dunkel-Schetter, C. (1984). Social support in cancer:Findings based on patient interviews and their implications based on patient interview and their implications. Journal of social Issues, 40, 77-98.
Dyson, L. L. (1993). Response to the presence of a child with disabilities: Parental stress and family functioning over time. American Journal of Mental Deficiency, 98, 207-218.
Ericson, M., & Upshur, C. C. (1989). Caretaking burden and social support. American Journal of Memtal Retardation, 94 (3), 250-258.
Evans, R. W. , Manninen, D. K. , Maier, A. , Garrison, L. P. & Hart, L. G. (1985). The quality of life of kidney and heart transplant recipients. Transplantation Proceedings, 17, 1579-1582.
Farran, D. C. & Sparling, J. (1988). Coping styles in families of
handicapped children. In E. D. Hibb (Ed.), Children and families: Studies in prevention and intervention. Madison, WI: International Universities Press.
Friedrich, W. N. & Friedrich, W. L. (1989). Psychosocial assets of parents of handicapped and nonhandicapped children. American Journal of Mental Deficiency, 94, 240-249.
Gallagher, D., Rose, J., Rivera, P., Lovett, S., & Thompson, L. W. (1989). Prevalence of depression in family caregivers.Gerontologist.29(4):449-56.
Gallagher, J. J., Beckman, P., & Cross, A. H. (1983). Families of handicapped children: Sources of stress and its amelioration. Exceptional Children,50,10-19.
Gath, A..(1985). Parental reactions to loss and disappointment: The diagnosis of Down syndrome. Development Medicine & Child Neurology, 27, 392-400.
Gallagher, J. J., Beckman, P. & Cross, A. H. (1983). Families of handicapped children: Source of stress and its amelioration. American Journal of Mental Deficiency, 90,130-139.
Gelder, M., Gath, D., & Mayou, R. (1990). Oxford texbook of psychiatry. Oxford. New York.724-748.
Habbard, J., Neufeld, A., & Harrison, M. J. (1996). Gender differences in the support networks of caregivers. Journal of Gerontological Nursing, 22(9), 15-22.
Happer, S. & Lund, D. A. (1990). Wives, husbands, and daughters caring for institutionalized and non institutionalized demencia patient: toward a model of caregiving durden. International Journal of Aging Humen Development, 30, 241-262.
Hecht, M., & Marston, P. J. (1987). Communication satisfaction and the temporal development of conversations. Communication Research Reports, 4, 60-65.
Heller, T., Roccoforte, J. A., Hsieh, K., Cook, J. A. & Pickett, S. A.
(1997). Benefits of support groups for families of adults with severe mental illness. American Journal Orthopsychiatry, 67, 187-198.
Honing, J. C. (1991). Support and education for the caregiver and client in the home: an inservice project for community health nurse. Journal Community Health Nursing, 8, 155-161.
House, J. S. & Kahn, R. L.(1985). Measures and concepts of social support. In Cohen, S.&Syme, L. (Eds). Social support and health.(pp.83-108). Orlando: Academic Press.
Jalowiec ,A. & Power, M.J. (1981). Stress and coping in hypertensive and emergency room patients. Nursing Research ,30(1)10-15.
Jensen, S. & Given, B. A. (1991). Fatigue affection family caregivers of cancer patient. Cancer Nursing, 14(4), 181-187.
Johnson, J. E. (1998). Stress, social support, and health in frontier elders. Journal of Gerontological Nursing, 24(5), 29-35.
Johnson, M. P. (1982). Support groups for parents of chronically ill childen. Pediatric Nursing, 6, 160-163.
Jone, D. A. & Vetter, N. J. (1984). A survey of those who care for the elderly at home: their problems and their needs. Journal of Gerontology.19,511-514.
Kendall, N. P. (1992). Difference in dental health observed within a
group of non-instutionalized mentally handicapped adults attending day
centers.Community. Dental Health, 9, 311-318.
Kessler, S., Kessler, H. & Ward, P. (1984). Psychosocial aspects of genetic counseling Ⅲ. Management of guilt and shame. American Journal of Medical Genetics, 17, 673-697.
Kuhlman, G. L., Wilson, H. Y., Hutchinson, S. A. & Wallhagen, M. (1991). Aizheimer’s disease and family caregiving critical synthesis of the literature and research agenda. Nursing Research, 40, 331-336.
Lazarus , R.S. & Folkman , S. (1984). Stress appraisal , and coping . New York:Springer.
Lin, J. D. (2000). Health Needs and Services Provision for People with Intellectual Disabilities in Taiwan.Ph. D. Dissertation, Griffith University, Australia.
Langford, C. P. (1997). Social support: A conceptual analysis. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 25(1), 95-100.
Mercer, R. T. (1977). Nursing care for parents at risk. (pp.41-75). N. J.: Charles, B. Slack. Inc.
Middleton, L. (1984). Alzheimer’s family support groups-A manual for group facilitators. Tampa, FL, USF Medical Center, Suncoat Gerontology, Center.
Miller, J .F.(1992).Coping with chronic illness:Overcoming powerless(2nd ed .,pp19-22). Philadelphia:F. A .Davis Company.
Milne, D. L. (1985). The value of feedback. Nursing Times, 81(8), 34-36.
Minnes, P. M. (1988). Family resources and stree associated with having a mentally retarded child. American Journal of Mental Deficiency, 93, 184-192.
Nixon, C. D. & Singer, G. H. (1993). Group cognitive-behavioral treatment for excessive parental self-blame and guilt. American Journal of Mental Deficiency, 97(6), 665-672.
Norbeck, J. S., Chaftez, L., Skodol-Wilson, H. & Weiss, S. J. (1991). Social support needs of family caregivers of psychiatric patients from three age groups. Nursing Research, 40(4), 208-213.
Norbeck, J. S., Lindsey, A. M., & Carrieri, V. L. (1981). The development of an instrument to measurement social support. Nursing Research, 30(5), 264-269.
Olshansky, S. (1962). Cronic sorrow response to having a mentally defective child. Social Casework, 43, 190-193.
Pahl, J. & Quine, L. (1987). Families with mentally handicapped children. In J. Oxford(Ed), Coping with disorder in the family(pp. 39-61). London:Croom Helm.
Periard, M. E. & Ames, B. D. (1993). Lifestyle changes and coping patterns among caregivers of stroke surviors. Public Health Nurse.10, 252-256.
Reinhardt, J. P. (1996). The importance of friendship and family support in adaptation to chronic vision impairment. Journal of Gerontology: Psychological Sciences, 51(5), 268-278.
Ruchala, P. L. & James, D. C. (1997). Social support, knowledge of infant development, and maternal confidence among adolescent and adult mothers. Journal of Obstetric, Gynecologic, & Neonatal Nursing, 26 (6), 685-689.
Sarason, I.G., Levine, H.M., Basham, R.B., & Sarason, B.R. (1983). Assessing social support: The Social Support Questionnaire. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 44 (1), 127-129.
Scott, A., March, L., & Stokes, M. L. (1998). A survey of oral health in a population of adult with development disabilities: Comparison with a nation oral health survey of the general population, Australian Dental Journal. 43(4),257-261.
Seideman, R. Y. & Kleine, P. F. (1995). A theory of transformed parenting: parenting a child with developmental delay/mental retardation. Nursing Research, 44(1), 38-44.
Silveira, J. M. & Winstead-Fry, P. (1997). The needs of patients with cancer and their caregivers in rural areas. Oncology Nursing Forum, 24(1), 71-76.
Singhi, P., Goyal, L., Pershad, D., Singhi, S., & Walia, B. (1990). Psychosocial problems in families of disabled children. British Journal of Medical Psycholoy. 63 (2), 173-182.
Smith, T., Polloway, E., Patton, J., Dowdy, C. (2001). Teaching student with special needs in inclusive setting. Needham Heights: A Pearson Education Co.
Solomon, M., Pistrang, N. & Barker, C. (2001). The benefits of mutual support groups for parents of children with disabilities. American Journal of Community Psychology, 29(1), 113-132.
Steta, K.M. (1987). Caregiving demands during advanced cancer:The spouse''s needs. Cancer Nursing, 10(5), 260-268.
Stewart, M. J. (1989). Social support instruments created by nurse investigators. Nursing Reserch, 38(5), 268-275.
Tarkka, M., Paunonen, M., & Laippala, P. (1999). Social support provided by public health nurses and the coping of first-time mothers with child care. Public Health Nursing, 16 (2), 114-119.
Tonge, B. & Einfeld, S. (2000). The trajectory of psychiatric disorders in young people with intellectual disabilities, Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry, 34, 80-84.
Warburg, M. & Rattleff, J. (1992). Treatable visual impairment. A study of 778 consecutive patients with mental handicap placed in sheltered workshops. In: (Ed) Roosendahl J. Mental Retardation & Medical Care, Uitgeverij Kerkebosch, Zeist, 350-356.
Warburg, M. (1994). Visual impairment among people with development delay. Journal of Intellectual Disability Research, 38, 423-432.
Williams, A. (1993). Caregivers of persons with stroke: their physical and emotional well-being. Quality of Life Research, 2,213-220.
Wilson, D. & Haire, A. (1992). Health care screening for people with mental handicap in the United Kindom. In (Ed) Roosendaal J. Mental Retardation and Medical Care. Uitgeveril Kerckebosch, Zeist, 58-67.
Woods, N. F., Yates, B. C., & Bach-Peterson, J. (1989). Relatives of the impaired elderly: correlates of feelings of burden. Gerontologist, 20(6) 649-655.
Zetlin, A. G. (1986). Mentally retarded adults and their siblings. American Journal of Mental Deficiency, 91(3), 217-225.
QRCODE
 
 
 
 
 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               
第一頁 上一頁 下一頁 最後一頁 top
1. 黃璉華(1994)•談智障者的性教育•護理雜誌,40(4),91-96。
2. 趙明玲、高淑芬、葉健全(1998)•探討父母親照顧家中長期重度慢性疾病兒感受•護理研究,6(3),219-229。
3. 黃璉華(1994)•養育唐氏症兒對家庭的衝擊•護理研究,2(3),253-262。
4. 劉城晃(2001)•國小啟智班親職教育方案之發展與成效研究•國小特殊教育,31,69-75。
5. 范心慧、陳震宇、吳文超、王新臺、黃朝慶、高純珠(1999)•不同類型溝通障礙兒在腦部胼胝體面積差異之初報•慈濟醫學,11(3),247-253。
6. 蔡孟岳、王厚中、張敏(2001)•邊緣性智能•臨床醫學,48(2),108-110。
7. 湯麗玉、葉炳強、陳良娟、謝碧容(2000)•失智症家屬支持團體成效初探•應用心理研究,7,171-189。
8. 穆佩芬(1998)•孩童健康有危機之家庭壓力調適-父母親之調適模式•榮總護理,15(2),115-123。
9. 吳慧英(1995)•「非殘障手足」的壓力與心理調適•特教園丁,10(3),24-26。
10. 吳聖良、胡杏佳、姚克明•(1991)•台灣地區居家照顧老人主要照顧者負荷情況及其需求之調查研究•公共衛生,18(3),237-247。
11. 邱啟潤、呂淑宜、許玉雲、朱陳宜珍、劉蘭英(1988)•居家中風之病人主要照顧者負荷情形及相關因素之探討•護理雜誌,35(4),69-82。
12. 王文玲(1992)•與慢性病共存-慢性病患者家庭的需要•護理雜誌,39(3),25-30。