跳到主要內容

臺灣博碩士論文加值系統

(3.229.124.74) 您好!臺灣時間:2022/08/11 07:01
字體大小: 字級放大   字級縮小   預設字形  
回查詢結果 :::

詳目顯示

我願授權國圖
: 
twitterline
研究生:陳世煌
研究生(外文):Shih-Huang Chen
論文名稱:北台灣及金門地區表淺性致病黴菌之分子鑑定與分析
論文名稱(外文):molecular idetification and analysis of superficial pathogenic fungi in northern taiwan
指導教授:李忠信李忠信引用關係
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國防醫學院
系所名稱:病理及寄生蟲學研究所
學門:醫藥衛生學門
學類:醫學學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2002
畢業學年度:90
語文別:中文
論文頁數:80
中文關鍵詞:表淺性致病黴菌紅色毛髮癬菌白色念珠菌胞子菌發芽管試驗台灣北部及金門地區表淺性致病黴陰道炎毛胞子菌屬
外文關鍵詞:dermatophytesvaginitisT. rubrum and Trichosporon spp.dermatomycosesC. glabrataC.albicansvaginal candidiasisC. hemulonii
相關次數:
  • 被引用被引用:0
  • 點閱點閱:328
  • 評分評分:
  • 下載下載:0
  • 收藏至我的研究室書目清單書目收藏:1
表淺性致病黴菌是一種常見於侵犯皮膚或表淺黏膜層的黴菌,最主要有皮膚癬菌及部分念珠菌,為瞭解台灣北部及金門地區近年來流行情況及建立一套表淺性黴菌的有效的鑑定方法,本實驗採用分子生物技術來進行鑑定。自西元2001年8月至2002年4月間,收集金門地區及台灣北部之皮膚癬菌病患者檢體,另外於西元2001年12月至2002年4月間,收集台灣北部陰道炎患者檢體進行實驗,共計收集皮膚癬菌病患118位,取得檢體153件,成功鑑定出154株黴菌;陰道炎患者61位,取得檢體81件,成功鑑定出35株黴菌。皮膚癬菌檢體菌株形態以dermatophytes(40.3﹪)最多,moulds(35.7﹪)居次;陰道炎以yeasts(91.4﹪)最多。而皮膚癬菌檢體中皮膚癬菌以紅色毛髮癬菌(T. rubrum)最常見,非皮膚癬菌則以毛胞子菌(Trichosporon spp.)最多;陰道炎檢體菌株以白色念珠菌(C. albicans)(82.9﹪)最多,禿滑念珠菌(C. glabrata)(5.7﹪)次之。皮膚癬菌病患檢體之皮膚癬菌陽性率為58﹪,另外有部分單一檢體可鑑定不同形態的菌株。就皮膚癬菌病而言,同一病患之不同部位檢體僅有15.2﹪( 5/33 )可鑑定出相同菌株,所以不同部位交互感染的機率不大,皮膚癬菌病患檢體菌株以金門地區鑑定出種類較台灣北部多,但皮膚癬菌陽性率則是台灣北部高於金門地區。

Superficial pathogenic fungi are a group of fungi responsible for the infection of skin or superficial mucosa, and dermatophytes and some Candida spp. constitute the majority of the pathogen. In order to survey the current prevalence of superficial pathogenic fungi in northern Taiwan and Kinmen, and set up a supplement method for identification, this study was performed by using molecular diagnostic method. Between August 2001 and April 2002, 153 specimens were collected from 118 patients of dermatomycoses in northern Taiwan and Kinmen, and 81 specimens were collected from 61 patients of vaginitis in northern Taiwan between December 2001 and April 2002. Totally, 154 isolates obtained from the specimens of dermatomycoses and 35 strains from the specimens of vaginitis were identified. In the specimens of ill persons suffering from dermatomycoses, dermatophytes ( 40.3% ) were the most fungi identified, followed by moulds ( 35.7% ). In the specimens of ill persons suffering from vaginitis, yeasts ( 91.4% ) were the most organisms identified. The most common dermatophytes isolated were T. rubrum and Trichosporon spp. in nondermatophytes. The most common fungi identified in vaginitis were C. albicans ( 82.9% ), followed by C. glabrata ( 5.7% ). The overall positive rate of dermatophytes found in dermatomycoses was 58%. Mixed fungal florae have been demonstrates in some clinical specimens. For patients suffering from dermatomycoses, pure cultures from the different lesions of the same case could be obtained from only 15.2% ( 5/33 ) of cases. The kinds of species identified in Kinmen were more than those in northern Taiwan, but the overall positive rate of dermatophytes in northern Taiwan was higher than that in Kinmen.

正文目錄……………………………………………………………………….Ⅰ
表目錄………………………………………………………………………….Ⅱ
圖目錄………………………………………………………………………….Ⅲ
縮寫表………………………………………………………………………….Ⅳ
摘要…………………………………………………………………………….Ⅴ
Abstract……………………………………………………………………….Ⅵ
第一章 緒論…………………………………………………………………..1
第一節 表淺性致病黴菌之簡介………………………………….1
第二節 流行病學之研究………………………………………….6
一、國外表淺性黴菌病之流行病學調查及相關研究….6
二、國內表淺性黴菌病之流行病學調查及相關研究….8
第三節 鑑別表淺性黴菌之方法與技術…………………………10
一、傳統鑑別方法與技術………………………………10
二、分子鑑別方法與技術………………………………12
第四節 本實驗之研究目的及所選用的目標基因………………14
第二章 材料與方法…………………………………………………………16
第一節 材料………………………………………………………16
第二節 方法………………………………………………………18
第三章 結果…………………………………………………………………24
第一節 檢體收集結果與基本資料分析…………………………24
第二節 鑑定結果與形態分類……………………………………25
第三節 皮膚科檢體鑑定結果與分析……………………………26
第四節 婦產科檢體鑑定結果與分析……………………………28
第四章 討論…………………………………………………………………29
第一節 研究對象之基本資料探討………………………………29
第二節 實驗鑑定結果探討………………………………………30
第三節 流行病學調查探討………………………………………34
第四節 表淺性黴菌鑑定方法探討………………………………37
參考文獻………………………………………………………………………71

Annessi, G., Cimitan, A., Zambruno, G. and Di Silverio, A.(1992)Cutaneous phaeohyphomycosis due to Cladosporium cladosporioides. Mycoses. 35, 243-246.
Chao, S.C. and Hsu, M.M.L.(1994)Trichophyton tonsurans infection in Tainan area. Journal of the Formosan Medical Association, 93, 697-701.
Chuan, M.T. and Kuo, W.L.(1993)Tinea capitis in children-A clinical and mycological study of 34 cases. Dermatology Sinica, 11, 25-31.
Crampin, A.C. and Matthews, R.C.(1993)Application of the polymerase chain reaction to the diagnosis of candidosis by amplification of an HSP 90 gene fragment. Journal of Medical Microbiology, 39, 233-238.
Daniel, C.R.3d, Gupta, A.K., Daniel, M.P. and Daniel, C.M.(1997)Two feet-one hand syndrome: A retrospective multicenter survey. International Journal of Dermatology, 36, 658-660.
Elewski, B.E.(1998)Onychomycosis: Pathogenesis, diagnosis and management. Clinical Microbiology Reviews, 11, 415-429.
Elewski, B.E.(2000)Tinea capitis: A current perspective. Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology, 42, 1-20.
Faggi, E., Pini, G., Campisi, E., Bertellini, C., Difonzo, E. and Mancianti, F.(2001)Application of PCR to distinguish common species of dermatophytes. Journal of Clinical Microbiology, 39, 3382-3385.
Fang, K.T., Shih, S.C., Chang, C.H. and Ho, J.C.(1995)Study on cutaneous physio-immuno-pathological status in tinea pedis. Dermatology Sinica, 13, 127-134.
Foxman, B., Barlow, R., D’arcy, H., Gillespie, B. and Sobel, J.D.(2000)Candida vaginitis: Self-reported incidence and associated costs. Sexually Transmitted Diseases, 27, 230-235.
Frey, D., Oldfield, R.J. and Bridger, R.C.(1979)A Colour Atlas of Pathogenic Fungi. London, Wolfe Medical Publications Ltd., 56-59.
Fujita, S.I., Senda, Y., Nakaguchi, S. and Hashimoto, T.(2001)Multiplex PCR using internal transcribed spacer 1 and 2 regions for rapid detection and identification of yeast strains. Journal of Clinical Microbiology, 39, 3617-3622.
Fusaro, R.M. and Miller, N.G.(1984)Onychomycosis caused by Trichosporon beigelii in the United States. Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology, 11, 747-749.
Gené, J., Azón-Masoliver, A., Guarro, J., de Febrer, G., Martínez, A., Grau, C., Ortoneda, M. and Ballester, F.(2001)Cutaneous infecton caused by Aspergillus ustus, an emerging opportunistic fungus in immunosuppressed patients. Journal of Clinical Microbiology, 39, 1134-1136.
Gerdsen, R., Uerlich, M., de Hoog, G.S., Bieber, T. and Horré, R.(2001)Sporotrichoid phaeohyphomycosis due to Alternaria infectoria. British Journal of Dermatology, 145, 484-486.
Ghannoum, M.A., Hajjeh, R.A., Scher, R., Konnikov, N., Gupta, A.K., Summerbell, R., Sullivan, S., Daniel, R., Krusinski, P., Fleckman, P., Rick, P., Odom, R., Aly, R., Pariser, D., Zaiac, M., Rebell, G., Lesher, J., Gerlach, B., Ponce-de-Leon G.F., Ghannoum, A., Warner, J., Isham, N. and Elewski, B.(2000)A large-scale North American study of fungal isolates from nails: The frequency of onychomycosis, fungal distribution, and antifungal susceptibility patterns. Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology, 43, 641-648.
Gianni, C., Morelli, V., Cerri, A., Greco, C., Rossini, P., Guiducci, A., Braidotti, P., Calcaterra, R. and Papini, M.(2001)Usefulness of histological examination for the diagonosis of onychomycosis. Dermatology, 202, 283-288.
Googe, P.B., DeCoste, S.D., Herold, W.H. and Mihm, M.C.(1989)Primary cutaneous aspergillosis mimicking dermatophytosis. Archives of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, 113, 1284-1286.
Goswami, R., Dadhwal, V., Tejaswi, S., Datta, K., Paul, A., Haricharan, R.N., Banerjee, U. and Kochupillai, N.P.(2000)Speces-specific prevalence of vaginal candidiasis among patients with diabetes mellitus and its relation to their glycaemic status. Journal of Infection, 41,162-166.
Gräser, Y., Fari, M.E., Presber, W. Sterry, W. and Tietz, H.J.(1998)Identification of common dermatophytes(Trichophyton, Microsporum, Epidermophyton)using polymerase chain reactions. British Journal of Dermatology, 138, 576-582.
Gräser, Y., Kuijpers, A.F.A., Presber, W. and Hoog, G.S.(2000)Molecular taxonomy of the Trichophyton rubrum complex. Journal of Clinical Microbiology, 38, 3329-3336.
Gupta, A.K., Cooper, E.A., MacDonald, P. and Summerbell, R.C.(2001a)Utility of inoculum counting ( Walshe and English criteria ) in clinical diagnosis of onychomycosis caused by nondermatophytic filamentous fungi. Journal of Clinical Microbiology, 39, 2115-2121.
Gupta, A.K., Jain, H.C., Lynde, C.W., MacDonald, P., Cooper, E.A. and Summerbell, R.C.(2000)Prevalence and epidemiology of onychomycosis in patients visiting physicians’office: A multicenter Canadian survey of 15,000 patients. Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology, 43, 244-248.
Gupta, A.K., Kohli, Y. and Summerbell, R.C.(2001b)Variation in restriction fragment length polymorphisms among serial isolates from patients with Trichophyton rubrum infection. Journal of Clinical Microbiology, 39, 3260-3266.
Halaby, T., Boots, H., Vermeulen, A., van der Ven, A., Beguin, H., van Hooff, H. and Jacobs, J.(2001)Phaeohyphomycosis caused by Alternaria infectoria in a renal transplant recipient. Journal of Clinical Microbiology, 39, 1952-1955.
Han, M.H., Choi, J.H., Sung, K.J., Moon, K.C. and Koh, J.K.(2000)Onychomycosis and Trichosporon beigelii in Korea. International Journal of Dermatology, 39, 266-269.
Howell, S.A., Barnard, R.J. and Humphreys, F.(1999)Application of molecular typing methods to dermatophyte species that cause skin and nail infections. Journal of Medical Microbiology, 48, 33-40.
Huang, T.H., Cheng, S.F. and Tsauhong, J.C.(1989)A recent study on dermatophytoses and their etiologic agents in Taichung, Taiwan, R.O.C.. Dermatology Sinica, 7, 1-6.
Jackson, C.J., Barton, R.C., Kelly, S.L. and Evans, E.G.V.(1999)Species identification and strain differentiation of dermatophyte fungi by analysis of ribosomal-DNA intergenic spacer regions. Journal of Clinical Microbiology, 37, 931-936.
Jackson, C.J., Barton, R.C., Kelly, S.L. and Evans, E.G.V.(2000)Strain identification of Trichophyton rubrum by specific amplification of subrepeat elements in the ribosomal DNA nontranscribed spacer. Journal of Clinical Microbiology, 38, 4527-4534.
Jen, T.M.(1981)Manual of medical mycology, 3rd Ed., Medical Library of National Defense Medical Center. 81 pages.
Jen, T.M.(1987)A modified method to detect dermatophytes in the diagnosis of Tinea unguium. Journal of the Formosan Medical Association, 86, 1021-1023.
Jen, T.M.(1995)To study mycoses in a clinical mycology laboratory for more than 30 years. Fungal Science, 10, 56-67.
Jen, T.M., Hwang, T.C., Shei, J.T., Hsueh, W.C. and Shiue, J.J.(1991)Clinical trial of Siccanin ointment for dermatomycoses in Veterans General Hospital-Taipei, Taiwan. Transactions of the Mycological Society of Republic of China, 6, 73-89.
Jeske, J., Lupa, S., Seneczko, F., Glowacka, A. and Ochecka-Szymanska, A.(1999)Epidemiology of dermatomycoses of humans in central Poland. Part Ⅴ. Tinea corporis. Mycoses, 42, 661-663.
Jessup, C.J., Warner, J., Isham, N., Hasan, I. and Ghannoum, M.A.(2000)Antifungal susceptibility testing of dermatophytes: Establishing a medium for inducing conidial growth and evaluation of susceptibility of clinical isolates. Journal of Clinical Microbiology, 38, 341-344.
Jones, M.G. and Noble, W.C.(1982)An electrophoretic study of enzymes as a tool in the taxonomy of the dermatophytes. Journal of General Microbiology, 128, 1101-1107.
Kac, G.(2000)Molecular approaches to the study of dermatophytes. Medical Mycology, 38, 329-336.
Kamihama, T., Kimura, T., Hosokawa, J.I., Ueji, M., Takase, T. and Tagami, K.(1997)Tinea pedis outbreak in swimming polls in Japan. Public Health, 111, 249-253.
Kano, R., Nakamura, Y., Nakamura, Y., Tsujimoto, H. and Hasegawa, A.(1999)Phylogenetic relation of Epidermophyton floccosum to the species of Microsporum and Trichophyton in chitin synthase 1 ( CHS1 ) gene sequences. Mycopathologia, 146, 111-113.
Kano, R., Okabayashi, K., Nakamura, Y., Ooka, S., Kashima, M., Mizoguchi, M., Nakamura, Y. and Hasegawa, A.(2000)Differences among chitin synthase I gene sequences in Trichophyton rubrum and T. violaceum. Medical Mycology, 38, 47-50.
Kao, H.F.(1999)Epidemiological studies of cutaneous fungi in dogs and cats in Taipei area. National Taiwan University Master Thesis, 1-110.
Kawasaki, M., Aoki, M. and Ishizaki, H.(1995)Phylogenetic relationships of some Microsporum and Arthroderma species inferred from mitochondrial DNA analysis. Mycopathologia, 130, 11-21.
Kent, H.L.(1991)Epidemiology of vaginitis. American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology, 165, 1168-1176.
Kick, G. and Korting, H.C.(2001)The definition of Trichophyton rubrum syndrome. Mycoses, 44, 167-171.
Kim, J.A., Takizawa, K., Fukushima, K., Nishimura, K. and Miyaji, M.(1999)Identification and genetic homogeneity of Trichophyton tonsurans isolated from several regions by random amplified polymorphic DNA. Mycopathologia, 145, 1-6.
Ko, W.C., Peng, C.F. and Shen, T.C.(1982)A survey of dermatophytoses and tinea versicolor among senior high school students in southern Taiwan. Journal of the Formosan Medical Association, 81, 1-8.
Koussidou, T., Devliotou-Panagiotidou, D., Karakatsanis, G., Minas, A., Mourellou, O. and Samara, K.(2002)Onychomycosis in northern Greece during 1994-1998. Mycoses, 45, 29-37.
Kuklová, I. and Kučerová, H.(2001)Dermatophytoses in Prague, Czech Repulic, between 1989 and 1998. Mycoses, 44, 493-496.
Kukner, S., Ergin, T., Cicek, N., Ugur, M., Yesilyurt, H. and Gokmen, O.(1996)Treatment of vaginitis. International Journal of Gynecology and Obstetrics, 52, 43-47.
Kwok, Y.K., Tay, Y.K., Goh, C.L., Kamarudin, A., Koh, M.T. and Seow, C.S.(1998)Epidemiology and in vitro activity of antimycotics against candidal vaginal/skin/nail infections in Singapore. International Journal of Dermatology, 37, 145-149.
Listemann, H., Schönrock-Nabulsi, P., Kuse, R. and Meigel, W.(1996)Geotrichosis of oral mucosa. Mycoses, 39, 289-291.
Liu, D., Coloe, S., Baird, R. and Pedersen, J.(1997)Molecular determination of dermatophyte fungi using the arbitrarily primed polymerase chain reaction. British journal of Dermatology, 137, 351-355.
Liu, D., Coloe, S., Baird, R. and Pedersen, J.(2000a)Application of PCR to the identification of dermatophyte fungi. Journal of Medical Microbiology, 49, 493-497.
Liu, D., Coloe, S., Baird, R. and Pedersen, J.(2000b)Rapid mini-preparation of fungal DNA for PCR. Journal of Clinical Microbiology, 38, 471.
Loeffler, J., Hebart, H., Bialek, R., Hagmeyer, L., Schmidt, D., Serey, F.P., Hartmann, M., Eucker, J. and Einsele, H.(1999)Contaminations occurring in fungal PCR assays. Journal of Clinical Microbiology, 37, 1200-1202.
López-Martinez, R., Neumann, L. and González-Mendoza, A.(1999)Case report: Cutaneous penicilliosis due to Penicillium chrysogenum. Mycoses, 42, 347-349.
Lü, Y.C.(1991)History of medical mycology in Taiwan. Dermatology Sinica, 9, 1-14.
Lupa, S., Seneczko, F., Jeske, J., Glowacka, A. and Ochecka-Szymanska, A.(1999)Epidemiology of dermatomycoses of humans in central Poland. Part Ⅲ. Tinea pedis. Mycoses, 42, 563-565.
Machouart-Dubach, M., Lacroix, C., Chauvin, M.F., Gall, I.L., Giudicelli, C., Lorenzo, F. and Derouin, F.(2001)Rapid discrimination among dermatophytes, Scytalidium spp., and other fungi with a PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism ribotyping method. Journal of Clinical Microbiology, 39, 685-690.
Makimura, K., Mochizuki, T., Hasegawa, A., Uchida, K., Saito, H. and Yamaguchi, H.(1998)Phylogenetic classification of Trichophyton mentagrophytes complex strains based on DNA sequences of nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacer 1 regions. Journal of Clinical Microbiology, 36, 2629-2633.
Makimura, K., Tamura, Y., Mochizuki, T., Hasegawa, A., Tajiri, Y., Hanazawa, R., Uchida, K., Saito, H. and Yamaguchi, H.(1999)Phylogenetic classification and species identification of dermatophyte strains based on DNA sequences of nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacer 1 regions. Journal of Clinical Microbiology, 37, 920-924.
Mayeaux, E.J.(2000)Nail disorders. Primary Care, 27, 333-351.
Mochizuki, T., Takada, K., Watanabe, S., Kawasaki, M. and Ishizaki, H.(1990)Taxonomy of Trichothyton interdigitale(Trichothyton mentagrophytes var. interdigitale)by restriction enzyme analysis of mitochondrial DNA. Journal of Medical and Veterinary Mycology, 28, 191-196.
Murakawa, G.J., Kerschmann, R. and Berger, T.(1996)Cutaneous Cryptococcus infection and AIDS. Report of 12 cases and review of the literature. Archives of Dermatology, 132, 545-548.
Nakagawa, T., Nakashima, K., Takaiwa, T. and Negayama, K.(2000)Trichosporon cutaneum ( Trichosporon asahii ) infection mimicking hand eczema in a patient with leukemia. Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology, 42, 929-931.
Ninomiya, J., Ide, M., Ito, Y. and Takiuchi, I.(1998)Experimental penetration of Trichophyton mentagrophytes into human stratum corneum. Mycopathologia, 141, 153-157.
Nishio, K., Kawasaki, M. and Ishizaki, H.(1992)Phylogeny of the genera Trichophyton using mitochondrial DNA analysis. Mycopathologia, 117, 127-132.
O’Connor, M.I. and Sobel, J.D.(1986)Epidemiology of recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis: Identification and strain differentiation of Candida albicans. The Journal of Infection Diseases, 154, 358-363.
Odom, R.(1993)Pathophysiology of dermatophyte infections. Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology, 28, S2-S7.
Patel, P., Ramanathan, J., Kayser, M. and Baran, J.(2000)Primary cutaneous cryptococcosis of the nose in an immunocompetent woman. Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology, 43, 344-345.
Piérard, G.(2001)Onychomycosis and other superficial fungal infections of the foot in the elderly: A pan-European survey. Dermatology, 202, 220-224.
Reiss, E., Tanaka, K., Bruker, G., Chazalet, V., Coleman, D., Debeaupuis, J.P., Hanazawa, R., Latgé, J.P., Lortholary, J., Makimura, K., Morrison, C.J., Murayama, S.Y., Naoe, S., Paris, S., Sarfati, J., Shibuya, K., Sullivan, D., Uchida, K. and Yamaguchi, H.(1998)Molecular diagnosis and epidemiology of fungal infections. Medical Mycology, 36, 249-257.
Rezaie, S., Ban, J., Mildner, M., Poitschek, C., Brna, C. and Tschachler, E.(2000)Characterization of a cDNA clone, encoding a 70 kDa heat shock protein from the dermatophyte pathogen Trichophyton rubrum. Gene, 241, 27-33.
Romano, C., Massai, L., Asta, F. and Signorini, A.M.(2001)Prevalence of drematophytic skin and nail infections in diabetic patients. Mycoses, 44, 83-86.
Rosenthal, S.A., Scott, J.S., Summerbell, R.C. and Kane, J.(1998)First isolation of Trichophyton fischeri in the United States. Journal of Clinical Microbiology, 36, 3389-3391.
Rupke, S.J.(2000)Fungal skin disorders. Primary Care, 27, 407-427.
Saferstein, H.L. and Blank, F.(1967)Tinea corporis caused by Trichophyton mentagrophytes var. granulosum. Mycopathologia et Mycologia Applicata, 31, 266-267.
Salkin, I.F., Gordon, M.A. and Stone, W.B.(1976)Cutaneous infection of a porcupine(Erethizon dorsatum)by Aureobasidium pullulans. Sabouraudia, 14, 47-49.
Salkin, I.F., Padhye, A.A. and Kemna, M.E.(1997)A new medium for the presumptive identification of dermatophytes. Journal of Clinical Microbiology, 35, 2660-2662.
Seeburger, J. and Scher, R.K.(1998)Long-term remission of two feet-one hand syndrome. Cutis, 61, 149-151.
Seneczko, F., Lupa, S., Jeske, J., Glowacka, A. and Ochęcka-Szymańska, A.(1999)Epidemiology of dermatomycoses of humans in central Poland. Part І-Superficial infections caused by yeasts and moulds. Mycoses, 42, 297-305.
Sheu, M.J., Wang, C.C., Wang, C.C., Shi, W.J. and Chu, M.L.(1994)Rhodotorula septicemia: Report of a case. Journal of the Formosan Medical Association, 93, 645-647.
Silva-Tavares, H., Alchorne, M.M.A. and Fischman, O.(2000)Tinea cruris epidemiology(São Paulo, Brazil). Mycopathologia, 149, 147-149.
Singri, P. and Brodell, R.T.(1999)‘Two feet-one hand’syndrome. A recurring infection with a peculiar connection. Postgraduate Medicine, 106, 83-84.
Smith, K.J., Welsh, M. and Skelton, H.(2001)Trichophyton rubrum showing deep dermal invasion directly from the epidermis in immunosuppressed patients. British Journal of Dermatology, 145, 344-348.
Sugita, T. and Nakase, T.(1998)Trichosporon japonicum sp. nov. isolated from the air. International Journal of Systematic Bacteriology, 48, 1425-1429.
Sugita, T., Nishikawa, A., Ikeda, R. and Shinoda, T.(1999)Identification of medically relevant Trichosporon species based on sequences of internal transcribed spacer regions and construction of a database for Trichosporon identification. Journal of Clinical Microbiology, 37, 1985-1993.
Summerbell, R.C., Haugland, R.A., Li, A. and Gupta, A.K.(1999)rRNA gene internal transcribed spacer 1 and 2 sequence of asexual, anthropophilic dermatophytes related to Trichophyton rubrum. Journal of Clinical Microbiology, 37, 4005-4011.
Sun C.C. and Lü, Y.C.(1980)The changing incidence of skin diseases among school children in Kinmen. Journal of the Formosan Medical Association, 79, 338-344.
Symoens, F., Willenz, P., Rouma, V., Planard, C. and Nolard, N.(1989)Isoelectric focusing applied to taxonomic differentiation of the Trichophyton mentagrophytes complex and the related Trichophyton interdigitale. Mycoses, 32, 652-663.
Tietz, H.J., Hopp, M. and Gräser, Y.(2002)First isolation of Trichophyton raubitschekii ( syn. T. rubrum ) in Europe. Mycoses, 45, 10-14.
Turin, L., Riva, F., Galbiati, G. and Cainelli, T.(2000)Fast, simple and highly sensitive double-rounded polymerase chain reaction assay to detect medically relevant fungi in dermatological specimens. European Journal of Clinical Investigation, 30, 511-518.
Turner, R.R. and Testa, M.A.(2000)Measuring the impact of onychomycosis on patient quality of life. Quality of Life Research, 9, 39-53.
van Burik, J.A., Schreckhise, R.W., White, T.C., Bowden, R.A. and Myerson, D.(1998)Comparison of six extraction techniques for isolation of DNA from filamentous fungi. Medical Mycology, 36, 299-303.
Vidotto, V., Guevara, O.L., Ponce, L.M., Tello, G.M., Prada, G.R., Bruatto, M.(1992)Vaginal yeast flora of pregnant women in the Cusco region of Peru. Mycoses, 35, 229-234.
Vidotto, V., Ruggenini, A. and Cervetti, O.(1982)Epidermiology of dermatophytosis in the metropolitan area of Turin. Mycopathologia, 80, 21-26.
Wang, J.J., Satoh, H., Takahashi, H. and Hasegawa, A.(1990)A case of cutaneous mucormycosis in Shanghai, China. Mycoses, 33, 311-315.
Weitzman, I., Chin, N.X., Kunjukunju, N. and Della-Latta, P.(1998)A survey of dermatophytes isolated from human patients in the United States from 1993 to 1995. Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology, 39, 255-261.
Weitzman, I. and Summerbell, R.C.(1995)The dermatophytes. Clinical Microbiology Reviews, 8, 240-259.
White, T.J., Bruns, T., Lee, T. and Taylor, J.(1990)Amplification and direct sequencing of fungal ribosomal RNA genes for phylogenetics. In: Innis, M.A., Gelfand, D.H., Sninsky, J.J. and White, T.J.(eds)PCR protocols. A guide to methods and applications. San Diego, CA, Academic Press. 315-322.
任天民(2001)對抗黴菌病的經驗: 1961-2001. 台灣醫界, 44, 23-26.

QRCODE
 
 
 
 
 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               
第一頁 上一頁 下一頁 最後一頁 top