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研究生:吳華春
論文名稱:由正義知覺與關係品質的觀點探討領導者權力對員工工作投入影響之實證研究
論文名稱(外文):An empirical study of the relationships between power of leaders and the employee's job involvement from perceived justice and relatonship quality perspectives
指導教授:廖國鋒廖國鋒引用關係蔡祥智蔡祥智引用關係
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國防管理學院
系所名稱:資源管理研究所
學門:商業及管理學門
學類:其他商業及管理學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2002
畢業學年度:90
語文別:中文
論文頁數:91
中文關鍵詞:領導者權力正義知覺LMX關係品質工作投入
外文關鍵詞:Power of LeadersPerceived JusticeLMX Relationship QualityJob Involvement
相關次數:
  • 被引用被引用:48
  • 點閱點閱:1886
  • 評分評分:
  • 下載下載:701
  • 收藏至我的研究室書目清單書目收藏:13
本研究主要從不同的角度導入,探討領導者的權力透過正義知覺及關係品質之中介角色對員工工作投入的影響。儘管權力是組織中一種無形的力量,然而對權力及其影響過程的研究,在組織研究領域長期受到歡迎,而且持續引發注意。因此,有關領導者的權力運作及其影響結果,實值得吾人深入瞭解。近年來,組織正義的議題也頗受學界重視,實際上,在領導者與成員之間關係發展差異化的LMX理論已經浮現組織正義的問題。本研究試圖從全貌性的觀點,討論過去學者鮮少研究的課題,期望某些存在的模糊關係能夠獲得適度釐清。尤其是有關非經濟性權力基礎與分配正義的關聯性,過去理論一直存在研究缺口,少有學者加以探討,希望經過本研究的分析後,在觀念上能夠得到些許啟發,補充過去文獻之不足,並且提供後續相關研究領域參考。
在整個研究過程,首先藉由回顧與整合過去理論文獻,構建本研究的立論基礎,繼而推導確立研究架構並且提出相關假設,做為後續驗證檢測之依據。本研究為求能夠擴大涵蓋層面而且跨越不同領域,兼顧代表性及客觀性,以北中南地區34個不同組織的員工做為問卷調查對象,共發出1067份問卷,回收有效問卷數844份。在問卷回收後,運用線性結構關係模式(LISREL)進行實證分析,驗證各變項間的因果路徑與研究假設的相符程度,同時透過巢狀模式理論加以評估,比較相對優劣性,以選定最佳的配適模式。茲摘述重要研究發現如下:
一、非經濟性權力基礎與分配正義存在顯著正向關係,亦即當領導者擁有專家權、合法權及參考權的程度越高,越會得到重視分配結果之部屬的認同。
二、其次,忠誠對工作投入的影響為負向關係,但不具顯著水準。揆其原因,可能是領導者與部屬在互動進行過程,部屬為求受到領導者的注意或肯定,會極力對領導者展現忠誠,然而,此種並非真正發自內心的表面忠誠,或者僅是忠於人而無法相對忠於事的忠誠,其目的乃在滿足個人的慾望需求,顯然無助於對工作的投入。此一結果可能是一種警訊,值得領導者加以重視。
三、此外,領導者所擁有的非經濟性權力也會因為程序正義以及情感受重視程度的差異,對部屬的工作投入產生不同的影響,此一結論再度強化本研究架構的合理性。因此,身為領導者應該正視程序正義以及情感扮演的關鍵角色,落實分配的程序公平性,建立人際互動網絡機制,促使部屬能夠經由認同進而全力投入自己的工作,期能有效發揮加乘效果,加速達成組織追求的目標。
This thesis is in different aspect to explore the effect of the power of leaders on the employees’ job involvement through the perceived justice and relationship quality. Despite the said power is actually intangible force in organizations, the related study still get warmest welcome and continue to get much attention in this field. Therefore result of the said power operation and its influence is worthy to study deeply. Currently the topic with perceived justice is valued by academic circle, but in fact which has been emerged from the LMX theory of development discrepancy between leadership and membership. This study is attempting to discuss the rare research for scholar before in full view of point, and which is expected to obtain clarification from some existing blurred relationship, especially there still exists study gap in theory between non-economical powers and distributive justice, and which is almost hardly explored. After this study and analysis we hope to get some extent of edification in concepts and supply this deficiency in the literature and offer the alternatives of research for further related researches on this topic.
During the whole studying process, the priority is to review and integrate the past literatures which composes the basic theory for this study, and then confirm research framework along with hypothesis as the following verification & test for reference. For sake of expanding the involved theater and striding across different field without losing its representative and objective, there are 1067 sheets of questionnaires which are sent to totally 34 different units subordinate who lived in north, middle and south Taiwan. After retrieving 844 sheets, the next work is to use LISREL to analyze if the path derived from each variables matches the hypothesis, and to use nest-model theory to estimate at the same time, which will result in relative discrimination and is helpful to get optimum model. The important highlight include as followings.
1. There exists remarkable positive relationship between non-economical powers and distributive justice, which means that much more degree that the leaders who have the powers of expert, legitimate and referent, much more agreement that employee who pay more attention to the result of allocation.
2. There exists negative relationship that the loyalty and job involvement but without so much significant. It is possible that subordinate express the loyalty to salute leader in order to get respect, but which kind of loyalty is exterior or is just faithful to person and is also not helpful to the job involvement. This shows a kind of warning, which is necessary to pay attention by the leader.
3.Non-economical power of leaders will influence the employees’ job involvement in some degree that depends on the procedural justice along with affect. The above inclusion is again to strengthen the rationality of this study framework. Therefore the leader should not ignore the key role of justice along with affect, and go to implement the procedural justice, and establish network mechanism for public relationship, which can make job involvement through job agreement by employee, and further speed up pursuing organization goal.
頁次
中文摘要……………………………………………………………Ⅰ
英文摘要……………………………………………………………Ⅱ
誌 謝……………………………………………………………Ⅳ
目 錄……………………………………………………………Ⅴ
圖 目 錄……………………………………………………………Ⅶ
表 目 錄……………………………………………………………Ⅷ
第一章 緒論………………………………………………………1
1.1研究動機……………………………………………………… 1
1.2研究目的……………………………………………………… 2
1.3研究流程……………………………………………………… 3
第二章 文獻探討…………………………………………………6
2.1領導者權力相關理論………………………………………… 6
2.2正義知覺相關理論……………………………………………17
2.3領導者─成員交換關係品質相關理論………………………24
2.4組織員工工作反應相關理論…………………………………32
第三章 研究方法……………………………………………… 35
3.1研究架構………………………………………………………35
3.2研究假設………………………………………………………37
3.3操作性定義及衡量方法………………………………………44
3.4抽樣設計………………………………………………………46
3.5量測工具敘述…………………………………………………47
3.6分析方法介紹…………………………………………………49
3.7信度分析………………………………………………………50
3.8效度分析………………………………………………………51
3.9研究限制………………………………………………………54
第四章 資料分析與結果……………………………………… 55
4.1敘述性統計分析………………………………………………55
4.2假設路徑的驗證結果…………………………………………58
4.3模式評估與理論修正…………………………………………63
第五章 結論與管理意涵……………………………………… 69
5.1研究結論………………………………………………………69
5.2管理意涵………………………………………………………73
5.3未來研究方向…………………………………………………75
參考文獻………………………………………………………… 77
附錄一 預試問卷……………………………………………… 92
附錄二 正試問卷……………………………………………… 95
圖 目 錄
頁次
圖1.1 研究流程圖……………………………………………… 5
圖2.1 Etgar權力修正模型…………………………………… 13
圖2.2 權力的來源與基礎………………………………………16
圖2.3 權力的基礎與來源………………………………………17
圖2.4 領導者─成員交換理論…………………………………27
圖3.1 研究架構圖………………………………………………36
圖4.1 模式M3-3影響路徑圖……………………………………66
表 目 錄
頁次
表2.1 學者對權力的定義……………………………………… 7
表2.2 權力觀念的分類架構…………………………………… 8
表2.3 權力來源區分……………………………………………14
表2.4 LMX構面衡量…………………………………………… 30
表2.5 工作投入觀點比較………………………………………34
表3.1 研究對象統計表…………………………………………47
表3.2 預試問卷各變項構面Cronbach’s α係數…………… 48
表3.3 正式問卷發放與回收數量統計表………………………49
表3.4 正式問卷各變項構面Cronbach’s α係數…………… 51
表3.5 驗證性因素分析結果……………………………………52
表3.6 收斂效度、區別效度負荷量與T檢定值……………… 53
表3.7 各構面驗證性因素分析比較結果………………………53
表4.1 樣本結構分析表…………………………………………56
表4.2 相關係數矩陣表…………………………………………57
表4.3 假設路徑驗證結果………………………………………58
表4.4 中介效果巢狀模式比較分析結果………………………62
表4.5 理論模式(刪除路徑)的巢狀模式比較分析結果……64
表4.6 理論模式(增加路徑)的巢狀模式比較分析結果……65
表4.7 各變項直接、間接效果及總效果綜合分析結果………67
表4.8 研究假設驗證結果彙整…………………………………70
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