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研究生:邱正宏
研究生(外文):Chio-Chen Hong
論文名稱:資訊戰中資訊加密模式之研究
論文名稱(外文):The Research of Information Security Model in Information Warfare
指導教授:陳正鎔陳正鎔引用關係
指導教授(外文):Jonathan Jen-Rong Chen
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國防管理學院
系所名稱:國防資訊研究所
學門:電算機學門
學類:電算機一般學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2002
畢業學年度:90
語文別:中文
論文頁數:94
中文關鍵詞:智慧卡資訊廣播公開金匙非對稱式密碼系統數位認證
外文關鍵詞:Smart CardInformation BroadcastPublic KeyPKIDigital Certification
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近年來,網路科技的快速發展,可謂一日千里,目前正朝向無線網路(Wireless Internet)的目標邁進。而國軍在各項作業處理上,隨著自動化公文處理,亦越來越仰賴電腦。未來極有可能藉由網路及電腦完成各項作業,如:公文傳遞、線上傳輸與零附件申補作業等,都必須經由網路這條公眾通道作為傳遞媒介,特別是在C4ISR的指、管、通、資、情、監、偵系統,更有可能遭受敵人的竊取。
於網路上傳輸國軍重要機密文件,並不十分恰當,因網路雖具有快速、超越地域性等特性,在作戰時能夠將各種情資快速的傳達到每一個角落中,但網路屬於開放式之架構,任何人皆可在網路中進行存取。在兩權相害取其輕的考量下,大多放棄網路傳輸。倘若在傳輸過程中加入必要的密碼系統,網路傳輸仍然是相當安全可靠的,也因此產生許多的加密理論。以近代的加密技術而言,多採用RSA及資料加密標準(Data Encryption Standard, DES)然而其具有以下的缺點:
1)RSA的加密技術乃是將強大質數作為密碼,並將其運用在指數運算上,若非大型電腦是無法勝任的。且以人類的記憶能力而言,是無法記憶長達二、三十位數的數字。
2)DES是一種對稱式的加密系統,必須在傳送端與接收端都具有相同的密碼時,才能夠傳遞訊息。若使用者欲與二、三十位使用者通訊,則必須擁有相同組數的密碼,在保管密碼的工作上,也是一個沈重的負擔。
本論文之研究重點在於針對上述傳統加密方式所面臨的問題進行討論,並且在第三章分三小節加以敘述,第一節針對國軍各級參謀人員,運用智慧卡產生獨一無二之個人身份認證,對所傳送之訊息進行加密:第二節探討在各級組織中,訊息廣播加密模組之研究,以解決傳統對稱式密碼系統與非對稱式密碼系統,在進行需傳送至多人之文件加密過程產生之缺憾:第三節提出偽裝公鑰之密碼系統,以防止系統中心遭駭客入侵所可能遭致之損失。期能為國軍在資訊作戰環境下,尋求適合作戰時期訊息傳遞之加密方式,方能在良好之指、管、通、資、情、監、偵的優勢條件下獲致最後勝利。

In recent years, Internet techniques are developed fast toward an object of wireless Internet. As automatic document process is widely implied, the armed forces are now relying on computers more then ever. It is possible for them to finish their works by computers as well as Internet in the future such as document transmission, group signature and components applications…etc. All of these are expecting to transmit through a public channel such as Internet and surely under an insecure environment especially for C4ISR systems.
It is not the best way to transmit classified documents by Internet, however it has the advantages of fast and inter-area abilities, sending intelligence information to every unit in battlefield immediately. In considering of the risk of insecurity, most of them give up Internet transmission. But if we involve a necessary cryptosystem in the transmission carefully, most of the Internet transmissions will turn out to be quite secured. Therefore, many encryption theories appeared. Contemporary encryption techniques are mostly applied from RSA and DES (Data Encryption Standard), but they are challenged with the disadvantages as follow:
1. RSA encryption technique is based on a strong prime as its private key and usually needs exponentiation calculations, this will require at lest a large computer to finish the job. Furthermore, as human being memory, it is impossible for us to memorize a number up to 20 or even 30 digits.
2. DES is a symmetric cryptosystem; both sender and receiver have to own the same key, so the key copies are as many as the amount of users. It forms a heavy load for key management unit.
This research is focused on working out the traditional encryption issues that I have mentioned above. The details are present in the 3rd chapter and it is divided into three sections: in the first section, we introduce how to create a unique identification for every crew in military staff by smart card. In the second section, the main research is on a message broadcast encryption model to solve the problem that a traditional public key or symmetric cryptosystems may face while sending messages to multi-users. Finally, in the third section, provides a public key camouflage cryptosystem to prevent hackers from invading Certification Authority. We hope that our armed forces will figure out a suitable technique to encrypt messages in wartime under information warfare environment so as to create advantages for command, control, communication, information, intelligence, surveillance and reconnaissance to win a victory.

中文摘要 I
Abstract III
誌謝 V
目錄 VI
圖目錄 IX
表目錄 X
1. 緒論 1
1. 1 研究背景與動機 1
1.1.1 研究背景 1
1.1.2 研究動機 2
1. 2 研究目的與範圍 7
1.2.1 研究目的 7
1.2.2 研究範圍 9
1. 3 研究方法與步驟 10
1.3.1 研究方法 11
1.3.2 研究步驟 14
1.4 論文架構 15
2. 相關文獻探討 17
2.1 基礎密碼學介紹 17
2.1.1 非對稱式密碼系統 17
2.1.2 對稱式密碼系統 21
2.1.3 Shamir機密分享演算法 23
2.1.4 ElGamal數位簽章系統 26
2.1.5 Schnorr數位簽章系統 29
2.2 智慧卡簡介 31
2.3 數學基礎理論 33
2.3.1 原根 33
2.3.2 中國餘數定理 34
3. 研究方法 37
3.1數位身份識別機制之研究 37
3.1.1 智慧卡的時代 37
3.1.2 運作方式及架構 37
3.1.3 系統中心將文件轉發至相關單位 43
3.1.4 具體實例 44
3.1.4 小結 49
3.2 資訊廣播加密模組之研究 50
3.2.1 資訊廣播之演算法 53
3.2.2 具體實例 55
3.2.3 小結 60
3.3 偽裝公鑰在國軍軍事網路系統加密之研究 60
3.3.1 本系統運作模式 61
3.3.2 具體實例 65
3.3.3 小結 68
4. 安全性分析與評估 69
4.1數位身份識別機制之研究安全性分析 69
4.1.1 修改明文部分 69
4.1.2 不修改明文部分 69
4.2 資訊廣播安全性分析 70
4.2.1 自網路中竊取傳遞之資料: 70
4.2.2 串謀攻擊: 71
4.2.3 以系統中心公鑰破解出私鑰 71
4.3 偽裝公鑰系統安全性分析 71
4.3.1 非組織內部成員攻擊 72
4.3.2 組織內部成員攻擊 72
5. 結論與未來研究方向 73
5.1 結論 73
5.2 未來研究方向 74
參考資料 75

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