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研究生:陳武宏
研究生(外文):Chen Wu Hung
論文名稱:世界主要國際航空公司營運績效之研究
論文名稱(外文):A Study on Operation Performance of World Major International Airlines
指導教授:孫遜孫遜引用關係
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國防管理學院
系所名稱:後勤管理研究所
學門:商業及管理學門
學類:行銷與流通學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2002
畢業學年度:90
語文別:中文
論文頁數:107
中文關鍵詞:資料包絡分析績效評估麥氏指標航空競爭
外文關鍵詞:Data Envelopment AnalysisPerformance MeasurementMalaquist IndexAirline Competition
相關次數:
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本研究的目的在於提出二階段模式,並運用資料包絡分析法(Data Envelopment Analysis, DEA)評估世界主要32家國際航空公司1998-2000年營運績效,並比較我國航空公司與其他國家的差異。第一階段選定5個投入項(營運支出、員工人數、飛航班次、可售座位公里與可售噸公里)及4個產出項(載客人數、載客公里、載運噸公里與營運收入),以評估整體營運績效。第二階段評估國際航空公司的生產與銷售效率,並探討二者間的關係。本研究使用確定區間模式、非控制變數模式、交叉效率、麥氏指標與迴歸分析進行研究。研究發現:(1)在確定區間模式下,只有伊朗航空(1998)具有總體營運績效;在非控制變數模式下,有18家樣本公司具有營運績效;(2)4家處於規模報酬遞增,1家處於固定規模報酬,68家均達規模報酬遞減(3)多數的航空公司都不具有生產及銷售效率;(4)依地區別績效分析,美洲地區有達美航空(1998)及美國航空(1998),亞太地區有伊朗航空(1998),歐洲地區有愛爾蘭雷恩航空(2000)具有總體績效;(5)我國長榮航空營運績效最佳;(6)1998-2000年生產力趨勢平均呈現正成長;(7)內生變數對營運績效據低度影響力。
The purpose of this paper is to propose a two-stage evaluation model for assessing the operation performance of a sample of 32 international airlines over 1998-2000 and making performance comparisons between Taiwanese airlines and other countries’ airlines, using data envelopment analysis (DEA). In the first stage, five inputs (operating expenditures, labor, number of flight, seat-kilometers available, and cargo-ton kilometers) and four outputs (number of passengers, seat-kilometers, cargo-kilometers, operation revenue) were used for overall operation performance measure. In the second stage, productive and selling efficiencies of these airlines were examined. To sharpen our analysis, we used various DEA models and regression analysis. The non-controlled (NCN) model was used to deal with the uncontrollable output of number of passengers; the assurance region (AR) model was employed to take into account of imposing weights restrictions on the inputs and outputs variable; cross efficiency measure is utilized to identify the best performance airline; Malmquist Index was employed to examine the productivity growth of these airlines; finally, regression analysis is used to investigate the impacts of business characteristics on the operation performance. The results of this study show that (1) Iran Air (1998) achieved overall efficiency under the AR model; 18 airlines were rated overall efficiency under NCN model; (2) under the AR model, in general, 4 sample airlines experienced increasing returns to scale, 1 sample airlines experienced constant returns to scale and other 68 sample airlines experienced decreasing returns to scale; (3) the airline that achieved high productive efficiency does not mean it would achieve high selling efficiency; (4) airlines perfored well in different regions are: Delta Airlines and American Airlines in America, Iran Air in Asia, Ryan air in Europe; (5) Eva was the best performance among international airlines; (6) the productivity growth of these airlines over 1998-2000 was increasing; and (7) business characteristics have low impacts on airlines operation performance.
頁次
中文摘要…………………………………………………. Ⅰ
英文摘要………………………………………………….. Ⅱ
誌謝………………………………………………………………… Ⅲ
目錄………………………………………………………………… Ⅳ
表目錄……………………………………………………………… Ⅶ
圖目錄……………………………………………………………… Ⅸ
第一章緒論………………………………………………………… 1
1.1研究動機……………………………………………………… 1
1.2研究目的與問題……………………………………………… 1
1.3研究方法與步驟……………………………………………… 3
1.4研究範圍與限制……………………………………………… 5
1.5研究內容……………………………………………………… 5
第二章文獻探討…………………………………………………… 6
2.1非DEA應用文獻……….…………………………………… 6
2.2 DEA應用文獻……………………………………………… 18
2.3 DEA理論文獻……………………………………………… 27
第三章研究方法…………………………………………………… 40
3.1研究流程……………………………………………………… 40
3.2 研究設計……………………………………………………. 42
3.2.1 績效觀念評估模式….…………………………………... 42
3.2.2 決策單位選擇………………………………….......... 47
3.2.3定義與選擇變數…………………………………………. 49
3.2.4分析模式…………………………………………………. 52
第四章實證分析…………………………………………………… 54
4.1一階段模式分析..……………………………………………. 54
4.1.1效率分析.………………………………..………………. 54
4.1.2參考群體分析………………………………………….. 60
4.1.3差額變數分析…………………………………………… 60
4.1.4目標改善分析……………………………………………. 64
4.2二階段模式分析……………………………………………… 67
4.3地區別績效分析……………………………………………… 71
4.4生產力指標趨勢分析.……………………………………….. 82
4.5迴歸分析……………………………………………………… 94
第五章結論與建議.…..………………………………………… 96
5.1結論………….………..……………………………………….96
5.2建議………….………………………………………….……. 99
參考文獻………………….…………………………………………100
一、中文文獻…………………………………………………….. 100
二、英文文獻…………………………………………………….. 101
表 目 錄
頁次
表2.1非DEA應用文獻整理表…….……………………………… 11
表2.2非DEA評估方法表…….…………………………………… 17
表2.3應用DEA評估航空公司文獻摘要表……………………… 22
表2.4資料包絡分析法適用性說明表…………….……………… 25
表2.5 DEA模式使用表……………………………………………. 38
表3.1文獻使用變數歸納表……….……………………………… 42
表3.2不同區域評估模式整理表…………………………….…… 46
表3.3研究對象表…………………….……………………………..48
表3.4變數定義表…..………………………………………………49
表3.5變數敘述統計表………..……………………………………50
表3.6變數相關係數表.……………………..………………………51
表4.1總體效率值表..………………………………………………58
表4.2差額變數表……………………………………………………61
表4.3改善目標表……………………………………………………65
表4.4生產/銷售效率值表…………………………………………...68
表4.5美洲地區效率值表..…………………………………………73
表4.6美洲地區與我國效率值表……………………………………75
表4.7亞太地區效率值表………………………………………… 77
表4.8歐洲地區效率值表……………………………………………79
表4.9歐洲地區與我國效率值表……………………………………81
表4.10 1998年為基準生產力指標變動值…………………………83
表4.11 1999年為基準生產力指標變動值…………………………87
表4.12 1998~2000年為基準生產力指標變動值…………………..91
表4.13迴歸分析表………………………………………………… 95
圖 目 錄
頁次
圖1.1研究步驟圖……………………………………………….. 4
圖2.1交叉效率矩陣圖…………………………………….……. 34
圖3.1研究流程圖……………………………………………….…..41
圖3.2變數影響圖……………………………………………………44
圖3.3一階段績效觀念模式圖……………………………….……..45
圖3.4二階段績效觀念模圖…………………………………….…..46
圖4.1生產效率與銷售效率關係圖…………………………….…..71
圖4.2 1998年技術效率變動圖…………………………………… 84
圖4.3 1998年技術變革變動圖…………………………………… 84
圖4.4 1998年純技術效率變動圖………………………………… 85
圖4.5 1998年規模效率變動圖…………………………………… 85
圖4.6 1998年總效率變動圖……………………………………… 86
圖4.7 1999年技術效率變動圖…………………………………… 88
圖4.8 1999年技術變革變動圖…………………………………… 88
圖4.9 1999年純技術效率變動圖………………………………… 89
圖4.10 1999年規模效率變動圖…………………………………..89
圖4.11 1999年總效率變動圖………………………………. 90
圖4.12 1998-2000年技術效率變動圖…………………………….92
圖4.13 1998-2000年技術變革變動圖…………………………….92
圖4.14 1998-2000年純技術效率變動圖………………………….93
圖4.15 1998-2000年規模效率變動圖…………………………….93
圖4.16 1998-2000年總效率變動圖……………………………….94
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