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研究生:林繼彥
研究生(外文):Lin, Ji-yen
論文名稱:北愛爾蘭族群衝突研究:根源與本質
論文名稱(外文):The Study of Ethnic Groups Conflict in Northern Ireland: the Origins and Nature
指導教授:許仟許仟引用關係
指導教授(外文):Hsu, Qien
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:南華大學
系所名稱:歐洲研究所
學門:社會及行為科學學門
學類:區域研究學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2002
畢業學年度:90
語文別:中文
論文頁數:220
中文關鍵詞:北愛爾蘭問題族群衝突新舊教徒二元文化認同二元政治認同
外文關鍵詞:Northern Ireland Questionethnic groups conflictProtestants and Catholicspolarised cultural identitiespolarised political identities
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曾經有專家這麼說,北愛爾蘭此一地區對英國而言,有如一根雞肋骨,「食之無味,棄之可惜」。此涵義大致是說,因內部兩大族群認同差異而引發層面擴及社會諸多層面的衝突,導致北愛爾蘭政經發展停滯,形成英國治下最貧瘠的一區,令英國挹注大量資金企圖帶動北愛爾蘭發展並解決所謂的「北愛爾蘭問題」 (the Northern Ireland Question) 。隨著冷戰的終結,美蘇和解帶動東西方冰凍的關係解凍、升溫,全球邁入「後現代」紀元,全球化開始影響地球村每一份子以及各個層面。昔日伴隨民族國家「現代化」所必然帶來的,中央集權內化與國家主權外化,所形成壁壘分明的國家疆界,越形模糊,而原本隱藏在國家一統局面的諸多區域性衝突便因此越形明顯。英國亦不例外。愛爾蘭的新舊教徒經歷了幾個世紀的衝突,在愛爾蘭獨立後,愛爾蘭共和軍的恐怖主義更顯示新舊教徒關係惡劣至無以復加,而成為著名的北愛爾蘭問題。因此究竟北愛爾蘭族群衝突淵源為何,其本質又為何,在歐洲聯盟整合成功的今日,格外令人好奇。
本論文之研究方法主要採取歷史研究法,本研究務求釐清北愛爾蘭族群衝突與對立之根源、本質與過程。並輔以比較研究法,分析文化認同(宗教信仰特殊性)與政治認同(憲政立場)與一個分歧社會之關連性,其在於北愛爾蘭此一個案上的特殊性,以瞭解北愛爾蘭新舊教徒兩大族群衝突、對立之本質。本文章節以北愛爾蘭族群衝突之淵源與本質為命題核心,首先透過北愛爾蘭之人文、地理與歷史背景之探源,接著探討北愛爾蘭族群對立之三個面向:首先是文化面向,探索宗教信仰如何在北愛爾蘭形成族群衝突之認同基礎,並形成族群對立的那一道界線;接著是政治面向,瞭解北愛爾蘭衝突兩造之政治認同、北愛爾蘭政治機器如何運作、其間各政治勢力競爭與衝突之狀態又為何;社會經濟面向上,瞭解北愛爾蘭族群對立如何影響北愛爾蘭社會隔離,影響層面及於何處。最後,再藉由1972年以後為新舊教徒所做的政治妥協─和平進程,討論發生在北愛爾蘭之族群衝突本質為何,是否可以訴求政治妥協。
北愛爾蘭問題與其它族群衝突個案之不同在於,它根本上是一個多元、多層次的問題,它摻雜了認同對立與多種地位不平等─政治、社會、經濟等問題。認同對立與地位不平等皆歸因於政治、文化認同之差異。組成北愛爾蘭社會之兩大族群,新舊教徒各自的社會主體在兩項認同上針鋒相對。在文化認同上,新舊教徒之區分不僅是宗教信仰差異之單純問題,各自社會主體文化分別以教派特色為基本元素。因為認同差異導致之對立在特殊歷史推波助瀾下,各種不平等逐漸加諸於屬於少數族群的天主教徒身上使其成為弱勢族群。而各種不平等再強化各種認同的分歧,兩者關係形成循環。
In British politics, the troubles that result from the conflict between the two ethnic groups, Protestants and Catholics, did great confuse to the British. The conflict between them not only results many victims, the riots during the troubles almost cease the economic development and business activity. To British Government, Northern Ireland is almost the greatest financial burden of the four territories of the United Kingdom. During the postmodern era, while the European integration movement seemed to be functioning well, the conflict between the Protestants and the Catholic in the island of Ireland, which rooted from the conquest of the Normans and the Tudors Kings, is still bothering the British when the IRA campaigns rose up during the 20th centuries. So the origins and the nature of the ethnic groups conflict in Northern Ireland are the key points of this study.
In this thesis, the historical research method, and mainly the analysis of documents shall be the major research approach. In order to examine the differences between this case study and others to analysis the importance of religion among the dynamics of the conflict in Northern Ireland, the comparison method shall be the research method of certain categories. The origins or dynamics and the nature are the core of this study, and the items as follow are: first, the cultural dimension which is about whether religion is basic dynamic or not; second, the political dimension which is about what elements consist of polarized political identity and how they contribute to the way of political interaction; third, the eco-socio dimension which is about how separate the eco-socio interaction between the two groups. To sum up, the political reconciliation process set by the British government throughout the Direct Rule could be take to examine the nature of the conflict between Protestants and Catholics in Northern Ireland.
To conclusion, the special character of the ethnic groups conflict in Northern Ireland would be its multi-unit and multi-layer nature. The Northern Ireland could be said a problem of politics, culture, and eco-socio inequalities. The roots of it came from the polarized political and cultural identities that result from its special historical background. The historical events contribute to the formation of anti-Protestant/Catholic identity and the British / Irish identity. And such conflicting and polarized identities among Ulster results in the special way of daily life: intolerance and prejudice to the other community make them separate, and separation make them had more prejudice. And such way of life enhanced the polarized identities and more easily to discriminate the other community.
《目次》
第一章 緒論 1
第一節 研究動機與目的 1
第二節 研究方法與架構 4
一、 研究方法 4
二、 研究架構 4
第三節 研究範圍與限制 6
第四節 文獻分析 7
第五節 名詞界定 10
一、 族群衝突 10
二、 新舊教徒 11
第二章 北愛爾蘭人文背景與歷史淵源 12
第一節 北愛爾蘭人文地理背景 14
一、 人文地理 14
二、 歷史淵源 15
第二節 殖民愛爾蘭時期 19
第三節 自治運動(Home Rule Movement)時期 25
第四節 公民權運動(Civil Rights Movement)時期 31
第三章 二元文化認同 39
第一節 宗教信仰與二元文化認同 39
第二節 雙重教育系統 52
一、 教會主導下雙重教育系統之沿革 52
二、 雙重教育系統之運作與影響 61
第三節 小結 67
第四章 對立的政治文化與政治組織 69
第一節 對立的政治認同 69
一、 聯合主義者 69
二、 民族主義者 73
第二節 史鐸蒙制度之運作與影響 76
一、 選舉制度與代表性問題 76
二、 史鐸蒙體制公共行政制度 78
第三節 二元化的政黨支持 83
一、 聯合主義者政黨 83
二、 民族主義者政黨 89
三、 中間路線政黨 92
第四節 政治暴力與其影響 96
第五節 小結 98
第五章 二元化社會 102
第一節 分隔的居住社區 102
第二節 不平等的社會經濟政策與效應 117
第三節 小結 126
第六章 和解進程與試驗 129
第一節 第一階段和平協議─太陽谷協議之試驗與失敗 129
一、 首度聯合政府試驗(1972-1974年) 130
二、 英國對北愛爾蘭政策之僵局:撤退或合併之抉擇(1974-1981年) 139
第二節 英愛協議 145
第三節 第二階段和平進程與新和平協議 153
一、 和平進程第二階段初始(1988年至1994年) 154
二、 邁向和平之路的第二段和平進程─耶穌受難日協議(1994年以降) 161
第四節 小結 177
第七章 結論 181
附錄一 大事紀 189
附錄二 關鍵文件與條約節錄 194
相關參考文獻 207
相關參考文獻
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66. Osborne, Robert, Cormack, Robert and Gallagher, Anthony (ed.). After Reforms: Education and Policy in Northern Ireland. Aldershot and Brookfield: Avebury, 1993.
67. Purdie, Bob. Politics in the Streets: The Origins of the Civil Rights Movement in Northern Ireland. Belfast: The Blackstaff, 1990.
68. Roche, Patrick J. and Barton, Brian (ed.). The Northern Ireland Question: Myth and Reality. Aldershot and Brookfield: Avebury, 1991.
69. Rose, Peter. How the Trouble Came to Northern Ireland. Basingstoke and New York: Palgrave, 2001.
70. Rose, Richard. Northern Ireland: Time of Choice. Washington D.C.: American Enterprise Institute for Public Policy Research, 1976.
71. Ruane, Joseph and Todd, Jennifer. The Dynamics of Conflict in Northern Ireland: Power, Conflict and Emancipation. New York: Cambridge University Press, 1996.
72. Sheehan, Maura and Tomlinson, Mike. The Unequal Unemployed: Discrimination, Unemployment and State Policy in Northern Ireland. Aldershot and Brookfield: Ashgate, 1999.
73. Smith, David J. and Chambers, Gerald. Inequality in Northern Ireland. New York: Oxford University, 1991.
74. Somerset Fry, Fiona and Peter. A History of Ireland. London and New York: Rouledge, 1988
75. Suzman, Mark. Ethnic Nationalism and State Power: The Rise of Irish Nationalism, Afrikaner Nationalism and Zionism. London and New York: Macmillan and St, Martin’s, 1999.
76. Townshend, Charles and Farrell, Brian (ed.). Consensus in Ireland: Approaches and Recessions. New York: Oxford University Press, 1988.
77. Whyte, John. Interpreting Northern Ireland. New York: Oxford University Press, 1990.
78. Wichert, Sabine. Northern Ireland since 1945. New York: Longman, 1991.
79. Wilson, Andrew J. Irish America and the Ulster Conflict, 1968-1995. Washington D.C. and Belfast: The Catholic University of America and the Blackstaff, 1995.
80. Wilson, Tom. Ulster: Conflict and Consent. Oxford and New York: Basil Blackwell, 1989.
81. Van Horne, Winston A. ed. Global Convulsions: Race, Ethnicity, and Nationalism at the End of the Twentieth Century. Albany: The State University of New York Press, 1997.
82. Vaughan, W. E. ed. A New History of Ireland V: Ireland under the Union, I, 1801-70. New York: Oxford University Press, 1989.
(二)英文期刊論文
1. Basinger, David. “Religious Diversity: Where Exclusivists often Go Wrong“ International Journal for Philosophy of Religion, Vol. 47, No. 1, Feb. 2000, pp. 43-55.
2. Bloomfield, Kenneth. “Devolution: Lessons from Northern Ireland?“ The Political Quarterly, Vol. 67, No. 2, April-June 1996, pp. 135-140.
3. Boyle, Kevin and Hadden, Tom. “The Peace Process in Northern Ireland” International Affairs, Vol. 71, No. 2, April 1995, pp. 269-283.
4. Delanty, Gerard. “Northern Ireland in a Europe of Regions” The Political Quarterly, Vol. 67, No. 2, April-June 1996, pp. 127-133.
5. Djupe, Paul A.. “Religious Brand Loyalty and Political Loyalties” Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion, Vol. 39, No. 1, March 2000, pp. 78-89.
6. Evans, Geoffrey and O’Leary, Brendan. “Northern Irish Voters and the British-Irish Agreement: Foundation of a Stable Consociational Settlement?” The Political Quarterly, Vol. 71, No. 1, January-March 2000, pp. 78-101.
7. Gallagher, A. M. “Social Identity and the Northern Ireland Conflict “. Human Relations, Vol. 42, No. 10, 1989, pp. 917-935.
8. Hickman, Mary. “’Binary Opposites’ or ‘Unique Neighbours’? The Irish in Multi-ethnic Britain” The Political Quarterly, Vol. 71, No. 1, January-March 2000, pp. 50-58.
9. Hutchinson, John. “Ethnicity and Modern Nations” Ethnic and Racial Studies, Vol. 23, No. 4, July 2000, pp. 651-669.
10. O’Neill, Shane. “Pluralist Justice and its Limits: the Case of Northern Ireland”. Political Studies, 1994, XLII, pp. 363-377.
三、網路資料
(一)網站
1. 北愛爾蘭辦公室(The Northern Ireland Office),(URL:http://www.nio.gov.
-uk/)。
2. 北愛爾蘭政府(the Northern Ireland Executive),(URL:http://www.northern
-ireland.gov.uk/)。
3. 北愛爾蘭議會(the Northern Ireland Assembly),(URL:http://www.ni-assembl
-y.gov.uk/)。
4. 北愛爾蘭統計與研究局(the Northern Ireland Statistics and Research),(URL: http://www.nisra.gov.uk/)
5. 北愛爾蘭衝突線上檔案Conflict Archive on the Internet: The Northern Ireland Conflict (1968 to the Present),(URL: http://cain.ulst.ac.uk/)。
(二)線上新聞
1. 泰晤士報,(URL:http://www.thetimes.co.uk/)。
2. 獨立報,(URL:http://news.independent.co.uk/uk/ulster/)。
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