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研究生:林虹谷
研究生(外文):Kung-Ku Lin
論文名稱:製造業即時排程與重排程基礎架構
論文名稱(外文):A Scheduling and Rescheduling Framework for Manufacturing Industries
指導教授:許蒞彥許蒞彥引用關係
指導教授(外文):Li-Yen Shue
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立高雄第一科技大學
系所名稱:資訊管理所
學門:電算機學門
學類:電算機一般學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2002
畢業學年度:90
語文別:中文
論文頁數:106
中文關鍵詞:重排程限制條件滿足問題
外文關鍵詞:reschedulingconstraint satisfaction problem
相關次數:
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在電子商務的時代裡,由於全球化的競爭與市場環境變化快速,製造業的經營環境日益複雜,現在產品的生命週期短、交期短,顧客的需求亦變得多樣化。因此從前是大量化的生產,現在則轉變為量少樣多,客製化與彈性化的生產。無疑地,此種方式的轉變,使得工廠的生產線流程變更頻仍,生產排程的安排上,時程也不能夠太長,而且排程經常需要修正,以隨時應付顧客不同的需求,故重排程是企業在這個新時代裡不可缺少的生產管理功能。
重排程對生產現場而言,是極為複雜且不易處理的問題,傳統上都是以人工經驗來處理重排程問題,然而以人工經驗重排程的結果並不能確保是最好的排程結果,而且重排程的結果亦難以與ERP或MRP等電子化系統整合。而且現在訂單的型態變成量少樣多、交期短,生產型態的轉變成客製化、彈性化的訂單式生產,已經不再是單靠人工經驗就能夠處理重排程的問題,所以製造業目前普遍面臨了無法精確預估交期、缺乏快速回應顧客需求之能力。
本研究主要目的為探討製造業常常發生之重排程問題,並且提出一個可以即時處理製造業排程與重排程問題的基礎架構。在此架構中,先將排程與重排程問題中的變數與限制條件粹取出來,然後以本研究所發展的各種排程中斷事件處理程序,包括插單、抽單、變更交期、機器故障、備料不及與變更訂貨量,將問題表示成CSP(Constraint Satisfaction Problem)的形式,再應用各種 CSP相關的求解方法,如Search Algorithms、Constraint Propagation以及Variable and Value Ordering Heuristics,求解此排程或重排程問題。本研究最後則以Constraint Programming開發工具ILOG SOLVER、SCHEDULER,據此基礎架構實作一排程與重排程系統,並且以南台灣一家筆記型電腦組裝工廠為實例,測試處理排程與插單、抽單、變更交期與機器故障等重排程問題,結果顯示本研究所發展之排程與重排程基礎架構確實能夠有效地處理各種重排程問題。我們亦測試了兩種不同的演算法並且使用不同的重排程目標函式之重排程結果,這兩種演算法為Depth-First Backtracking Search以最小化makespan為重排程目標函式以及Schedule-or-Postponed以最小化change數量為重排程目標函式。
In the era of E-commerce, due to the global competition and rapid changes of markets, the management of manufacturing industries is much more complicated than before. Some distinct features of the present market environment are: shorter product-life, shorter production lead time, and smaller batches of production. The later demand has exerted great pressures on management for greater flexibility in production scheduling, which must meet the customer needs of rapid changing nature. Rescheduling is thus becoming an indispensable capability for modern production management, where activities of a production schedule, before it is completed, must be re-arranged due to requests of cancellation of orders, additions of urging orders, and/or changes of specifications of an existing order.

Rescheduling in the past was usually done manually, which requires expertise of experienced workers who, based on the previous cases, adjust activities and/or processes. However, the lack of systematic and optimal analysis is always an inherent problem of the solution approach that is based on personal experience. As a result, performance of production scheduling may not be efficient, and management may find it difficult to integrate the adjusted production scheduling into eBusiness system easily. Many manufacturing industries in Taiwan, who have no capability in systematic rescheduling, thus cannot predict exact due day for customers. The purpose of this research is to attempt to tackle the rescheduling problem by developing a systematic rescheduling framework for manufacturing industries.

We applied CSP (constraint satisfaction problem) as the solution tool to develop a CSP based scheduling and rescheduling framework for manufacturing industries. In the framework, scheduling or rescheduling problem is represented as a CSP model, which consists of processes for handling scheduling interruption events, including rush orders or order withdraws, work order changes, equipment breakdowns and due day changes. The model works in concert with CSP method such as Search Algorithms, Constraint Propagation and Variable/Value Ordering. The framework was applied to a simplified manufacturing environment of a notebook computer factory in southern Taiwan. We, based on the framework, develop a system using constraint programming tools ILOG Solver and Scheduler. The system is able to handle the scheduling interruption events efficiently and effectively. We also conducted experiments with two rescheduling methods, schedule-or-postponed with objective function of minimize-changes and depth-first backtracking search with objective function of minimize-makespan, and compared their results.
摘要I
ABSTRACTIII
誌謝V
目錄VI
表目錄VIII
圖目錄IX
壹、緒論1
一 研究背景1
二 研究動機2
三 研究目的4
四 研究範圍與限制5
(一)研究範圍5
(二)研究限制5
五 研究流程5
六 論文架構7
貳、文獻探討8
一 排程問題8
二 製造業排程特性分析10
三 Job-Shop Scheduling Problem11
(一) Job-Shop Scheduling問題的特性11
(二) Job-Shop Scheduling問題的相關排程技術11
四 重排程問題12
(一) 重排程因素14
(二) 重排程程序15
(三) 重排程決策17
(四) 重排程架構18
參、限制條件滿足問題(CSP)21
一 簡介21
二 CSP的定義22
三 CSP求解演算法22
(一) Search Algorithm22
(二) Constraint Propagation25
(三) Variable and Value Ordering32
四 Job Shop Constraint Satisfaction Problem35
五 Tools for Solving CSP36
肆、排程與重排程基礎架構38
一 簡介與名詞定義38
二 排程與重排程基礎架構39
三 初始排程階段41
(一)排程元素粹取41
(二)限制條件的轉換48
(三) CSP求解演算法模組57
四 重排程階段62
(一)排程中斷事件62
(二)重排程CSP模型之建立64
伍、系統實作75
一 系統架構75
二 系統實作79
三 系統評估86
(一)系統功能測試87
(二)不同重排程方法與重排程目標之測試91
(三)系統效能測試94
陸、結論與未來研究方向99
一 結論99
二 未來研究方向100
參考文獻101
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