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研究生:張祐銘
研究生(外文):You-Ming Chang
論文名稱:金屬加工業之磨削屑泥回收處理
論文名稱(外文):Recovery of Recyclable Materials from the Swarf Generated in the Metal Working Industry
指導教授:張一岑
指導教授(外文):I-Chen Chang
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立高雄第一科技大學
系所名稱:環境與安全衛生工程所
學門:工程學門
學類:環境工程學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2002
畢業學年度:90
語文別:中文
論文頁數:93
中文關鍵詞:磨削屑泥回收
外文關鍵詞:swarfrecovery
相關次數:
  • 被引用被引用:2
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切削泥(Swarf)是一種混有金屬粉末、切削油及磨粒殘骸的泥狀物質,為金屬加工過程中所產生之廢棄物。廢棄的切削泥中切削油含量在30-50%,而且由於切削油的配方不同,部分切削泥中亦含氯化合物,在國內外此類型或是會溶出重金屬離子之切削泥,皆歸類為有害事業廢棄物,因此無法直接以掩埋方式處理。目前國內尚無適當之處理方法,仍停留於傳統過濾階段,過濾後之乾切削泥再交由代處理公司處理。由於切削泥中含有大量的金屬與切削油,經濟價值高,如能加以分離並回收再利用,不但可解決廢棄物問題,更可節省可觀之廢棄物代處理費用,對於降低生產成本及減輕環境衝擊皆有很大的助益。
本研究試圖以界面活性劑清洗及溶劑萃取的方式,去除切削泥中的油脂,確認每一清洗步驟之技術可行性,尋找最佳之清洗方式,以提高切削泥清洗效率。除循環利用清洗液外,並探討以微波方式分離界面活性劑中之油脂,以作為後續研究及日後經濟考量的參考依據。
實驗的結果,以Amway SA8與POE(10) Nonyl Phenyl Ether兩種界面活性劑對切削泥的清洗效率最好。SA8及POE(10)的清洗效率分別可達到94.9%與98.6%。改變攪拌時間,SA8清洗效率只增加5.3%,POE(10)則增加12.9%,以整體清洗時間來考量,提高攪拌時間並無顯著的幫助。清洗時預先調整清洗液pH值至9以上,可預防二價以上之金屬離子溶出。SA8清洗液循環至第3次,清洗效率降為93.2%;POE(10)循環8次,清洗效率尚可達到96.1%。
清洗液以微波照射的結果,溫度快速升高至69℃左右,溶液會分成雙液面,至74℃時,則呈現三液面現象。至於溶於清洗液中之切削油含量約只有0.02g,含量甚少,以微波去乳化回收清洗液中的切削油效益低。
乾洗油方面,清洗三次可達到99%以上的清洗效率,清洗後之溶劑以蒸餾方式即可回收再生,並無循環清洗而造成清洗效率降低的問題。
切削泥在回收熔融時,規定磷含量為0.03%以下,切削油及非金屬部分則須低於5%及3%。經界面活性劑清洗過後的切削泥,分析磷含量為0.01%,切削油殘餘量小於3%,完全符合廢金屬再利用的容許規格。


The manufacture of high-speed steel (HSS) cutting tools produces a large amount of solid waste, called grinding swarf. The swarf is a mixture of small metal particles、cooling fluid、lubricants and residuals from grinding media such as stone wheels. Currently, the swarf is landfilled either as a solid or a hazardous waste depending on the regulatory definition and the composition. Since the swarf still contains 50%-70% of metal and 30-50% of cutting oil after filtering. It is a valuable resource of recovery. The purpose of this research program is to recover the cutting oil from the swarf using surfactant washing and solution extraction.
Among many surfactants tested, only Amway SA8 and POE (10) Nonyl Phenyl Ether yield satisfactory results. The percentages of oil removal are 94.9% and 98.6% respectively. The washing solution can be reused again. Amway SA8 solution was able to recover 93% after the third scrubbed and POE (10) was able to recover 96.1% of oil after 8 times of reuse.
Using PCE as the extraction solution, 99% of oil could be removed from the swarf. The extract solution can be recovered by distillation.
The metal residue after either the surfactant washing or PCE extraction contains only 0.01% phosphorous and less than 3% of oil. It meets the quality requirement set by the metal industry and can be reused as the feedstock.


中文摘要 ------------------------------------------------ I
英文摘要 ---------------------------------------------- III
誌謝 ---------------------------------------------------- V
目錄 --------------------------------------------------- VI
表目錄 ------------------------------------------------VIII
圖目錄 ------------------------------------------------- IX
第一章緒論 ------------------------------------------ 1
1.1 前言 ----------------------------------------- 1
1.2 實驗緣起 ------------------------------------- 2
1.3 研究目的 ------------------------------------- 3
第二章文獻回顧 -------------------------------------- 4
2.1 切削泥 --------------------------------------- 4
2.2 界面活性劑 ----------------------------------- 6
2.3 污物去除原理 --------------------------------- 12
2.4 切削泥清洗 ----------------------------------- 24
2.5 微波 ----------------------------------------- 28
第三章研究設備與方法 -------------------------------- 32
3.1 實驗設備 ------------------------------------- 33
3.2 實驗材料 ------------------------------------- 34
3.3 實驗方法 ------------------------------------- 35
3.4 微波 ----------------------------------------- 41
3.5 溶劑萃取 ------------------------------------- 42
3.6 分析方法 --------------------------------------- 42
第四章結果與討論 ------------------------------------ 45
4.1 切削泥之組成成分 ----------------------------- 45
4.2 最佳濃度 ------------------------------------- 46
4.3 清洗次數 ------------------------------------- 51
4.4 pH值 ----------------------------------------- 55
4.5 攪拌時間 ------------------------------------- 57
4.6 溫度 ----------------------------------------- 59
4.7 循環 ----------------------------------------- 62
4.8 微波 ----------------------------------------- 66
4.9 溶劑清洗 ------------------------------------- 68
4.10 分析數據 ------------------------------------- 70
第五章結論與建議 ------------------------------------ 72
5.1 結論 ----------------------------------------- 72
5.2 文獻比較 ------------------------------------- 74
5.3 處理程序之經濟評估 -------------------------------- 75
5.4 建議 --------------------------------------------- 80
參考文獻 ----------------------------------------------- 82
附錄A -------------------------------------------------- 87
附錄B -------------------------------------------------- 90


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