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研究生:汪怡良
研究生(外文):I-Liang Wang
論文名稱:動態演算法之評估與FPGA實現
論文名稱(外文):The Evaluation of Motion Estimation with an Efficient Algorithm based on FPGA
指導教授:陳明輝陳明輝引用關係
指導教授(外文):Ming-Huei Chen
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立高雄第一科技大學
系所名稱:電腦與通訊工程所
學門:工程學門
學類:電資工程學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2002
畢業學年度:90
語文別:中文
論文頁數:69
中文關鍵詞:三步搜尋演算法硬體描述語言現場可程式閘陣列動態預估
外文關鍵詞:VerilogMPEGFPGATSSMotion Estimation
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  在本論文中,我們提出二種可改善三步搜尋演算法的方法,一種是直接增加三步演算法的步驟使其能夠應用在較大的搜尋範圍內,此方法是增加計算量的複雜度來增加圖片的品質,另一個方法是減少計算量的複雜度但圖片的品質在動作緩慢的影片之下幾乎和三步演算法一樣,此方法共有三步每一步有二個樣式,為十字形或交叉形。
此外,我們依據峰值訊號雜音比(peak signal to noise ratio;PSNR)、計算複雜度(Computational complexity)二種客觀的效能和效率量測法,將論文中我們所提出的二種影像動態預估法與傳統的全域搜尋演算法、三步搜尋演算法作一些效能的比較。依我們模擬的結果,我們可發現對方法一而言,很明顯的可以發現圖片的品質比三步演算法好,但計算量比它多了32%。而方法二,在計算量而言比三步演算法少了24%,且圖片的品質幾乎一模一樣(在動作緩慢的影片之下)。
  最後,硬體架構,使用Xilinx 出版的軟體Xilinx Foundation series 3.1i 利用verilog 語言來撰寫硬體程式,最後以FPGA 晶片來實現電路設計。


 In this study, we propose two methods to improve three-step search algorithm. One is directly increasing the steps of three-step search algorithm in order to apply in wider search range, which it increases the computational complexity to improve the quality of image. The other method is to reduce the computational complexity. However, the quality of image is similar to the three-step search algorithm in slow movement image. There are cross and intersect in three steps with two patterns. In addition, we consider two performance and efficiency measurement criteria including peak signal to noise ratio (PSNR) and computational complexity to compare the efficiency of two image motion estimations with traditional methods and full search algorithm and three-step search algorithm.
In simulations study, the result show the better quality of image was obtained under three-step search algorithm even the more 32% computation. In method 2, the same quality of image was obtained in slow motion image, however, the 24 % computation were less than three-step search algorithm.
We also have hardware structure with the hardware program in verilog language with software Xilinx Foundation series 3.1i, Xilinx published in order to approach the circuit design with FPGA chip.


目錄
中文摘要……………………………………………… . i
英文摘要…………..…………………………………. ii
誌謝…………………………………………………... iii
目錄……………………………………………………. iv
圖目錄…..………………….……………………….. vi
第一章、簡介…………………………………………. 1
1.1 前言……………………………………………… 1
1.2 研究動機………………………………………… 2
1.3 本文大綱………………………………………… 2
第二章、動態預估技術之探討…….………………… 3
2.1.1 區塊匹配演算法……………………………… 3
2.1.2 區塊匹配之測量標準.………………………. 4
2.1.3 動態向量的評估……………………………… 6
2.2 各種動態預估的演算法介紹…………………… 6
2.2.1 全區域搜尋演算法….………………………. 7
2.2.2 三步搜尋演算法…………….………………. 8
2.2.3 新三步搜尋演算法…………………………… 10
2.2.4 簡單有效的搜尋演算法……………………… 13
2.2.5 四步搜尋演算法……………………………… 16
2.2.6移動斜逼近搜尋演算法………………………. 20
第三章、有效三步搜尋演算法………………………. 22
3.1 搜尋範圍擴充下改善三步搜尋演算法………… 22
3.1.1 模擬結果…………….………………………. 24
3.2 交錯式三步搜尋演算法….……………………. 29
3.2.1 簡述…………………….………………….… 29
3.2.2 演算法……………………………………..… 30
3.2.3 模擬結果……………………………..……… 34
第四章、硬體電路設計與實現………………………. 40
4.1電路架構………………….……………………… 40
4.1.1 最小絕對差值單元…………………………… 40
4.1.2 動態向量搜尋單元…………………………… 43
4.2電路設計的環境………….……………………… 47
4.3 硬體電路模擬…………………………………… 48
4.3.1 Verilog 硬體描述語言……………………… 48
4.3.2 Verilog 軟體模擬…………………………… 48
第五章、結論與未來發展.…………………………… 53
參考文獻….…………………………………………… 55
附錄一…………………………………………………. 57


[1] ISO/IEC JTC1/SC29/WG11, “ISO/IEC CD 11172:information technology,” MPEG-1 Committee Draft, Dec. 1991.[2] ISO/IEC JTC1/SC29/WG11, “ISO/IEC CD 13818:information technology,” MPEG-2 Committee Draft, Dec. 1993.[3] International Telecommunication Union, “Video coding for audiovisual services at px64kbits,” ITU-T Recommendation H.261, Mar. 1993.[4] International Telecommunication Union. “Video coding for low bitrate communication,” ITU-T Recommendation H.263, July 1995.[5] Netravali,A.N. &J.D.Robbins,”Motion-Compensated Television coding:part I, ”Bell Sysy, Tech.N., vol.58, pp.631-670,1979.[6] J.R. Jain and A.K. Jain,”Displacement Measurement and its Application in Interframe Image Coding,” IEEE Trans. Commun, vol.29, pp.1799-1808, Dec.1981.[7] M. Ghanbari, ”The cross search algorithm for motion estimation”, IEEE Trans. Commum, vol. 38, pp.950-953, July. 1990.[8] R Li, B Zeng, and M. L. Liou, “A new Three-Step Search Algorithm for Block Motion Estimation,” IEEE Trans. Circuits Syst. Video Technol, vol. 4, no. 4, pp.438-442, Aug. 1994.[9] L.k. Liu and E. Feig “A Block-based gradient descent search algorithm for block motion estimation in video coding”, IEEE Trans. On Circuit and Systems for Video Technology, vol. 6, no. 4, pp.419-423, Aug. 1996.[10] L. Po and W. MA, “A novel four-step search algorithm for fast block motion estimation ,” IEEE Trans. On Circuit and Systems for Video Technology, vol. 6, no. 3, pp.313-317, Jun. 1996.[11] J.Y Tham, S. Ranganath, M. Ranganath and A. Kassim,”A novel unrestricted center-biased diamond search algorithm for motion estimation”, IEEE Trans. Circuits Syst. Video Technol, vol. 8, no. 4,pp.369-377, Aug. 1998.[12] J. Lu and M. Liou, “A simple and efficient search algorithm for block —matching motion estimation,” IEEE Trans. On Circuits and Systems for Video Technology, vol. 7, no. 2, pp.429-433, Apr. 1997.[13] K. T. Wang and O.T.-C. Chen, “Motion Estimation an efficient four-step search method,” Circuits and Systems, 1998. ISCAS ‘98. Proceedings of the 1998 IEEE International Symposium on , Volume: 4 , 1998. [14] 吳振揚, “動態搜尋演算法之研究與電路設計”,國立成功大學電機工程研究所碩士論文,1996.[15] Habili, N.; Moini, A.R.; Burgess, N. “ A variable search count block-matching algorithm for video coding ,” TENCON 99. Proceedings of the IEEE Region 10 Conference , Volume: 1 , 1999 Page(s): 108 -111 vol.1

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