跳到主要內容

臺灣博碩士論文加值系統

(3.233.217.106) 您好!臺灣時間:2022/08/17 11:55
字體大小: 字級放大   字級縮小   預設字形  
回查詢結果 :::

詳目顯示

我願授權國圖
: 
twitterline
研究生:林正財
研究生(外文):Cheng-Tsai Lin
論文名稱:組織公平與加盟者相似經驗、能力對連鎖企業影響之研究-以連鎖便利商店為例
論文名稱(外文):The Influences of Organizational Justice, Franchisee’s SimilarityExperience, and Competence on the Franchise Organization─ The Case of the Franchise Convenience Store
指導教授:趙沛趙沛引用關係
指導教授(外文):Pei Chao
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立高雄第一科技大學
系所名稱:行銷與流通管理所
學門:商業及管理學門
學類:行銷與流通學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2002
畢業學年度:90
語文別:中文
論文頁數:225
中文關鍵詞:連鎖企業連鎖便利商店工作滿意商店績效離開意願組織承諾
外文關鍵詞:job satisfactionorganizational justicepersonality characterizationintention to leavestore performanceFranchise Organizationorganizational commitmentCVS(Convenience Store)
相關次數:
  • 被引用被引用:11
  • 點閱點閱:588
  • 評分評分:
  • 下載下載:0
  • 收藏至我的研究室書目清單書目收藏:4
組織公平與加盟者相似經驗、能力對連鎖企業的影響之研究─ 以連鎖便利商店為例

論文摘要

連鎖體系儼然已成為未來主要的潮流,但因早期加盟者工作態度的研究受到許多研究方法的限制且僅有少數學者以此為焦點,造成此重要方面的研究不足。

近年來隨著連鎖系統的成熟與市場的飽和,連鎖的未來需要總部更少的控制、建立與加盟者的合作關係,特別是給予一些營業程序和行銷上的自主性以使加盟者更能反應當地市場,且總部也可能因瞭解到加盟者的工作態度而獲利。故本研究以成熟、面臨市場飽和且對加盟者需求眾多的連鎖便利商店為例,探討組織公平與加盟者相似經驗、能力對連鎖企業影響之研究。

本研究採分層便利抽樣,以北區及南區的7- Eleven、全家及OK 連鎖便利商店為抽樣母體,發出600 份問卷,回收361 份,經嚴格挑選後有效問卷為177 份,有效反應率為29.5%。隨後進行相關分析、變異數分析、迴歸分析及干擾與中介效果之檢定,結果發現如下:
1. 加盟者的能力對其商店績效有顯著正面影響;
2. 加盟者相似經驗對其商店績效無顯著影響;
3. 加盟者的組織公平認知對工作滿意有顯著正面影響,且分配公平預測力較高;
4. 加盟者的組織公平認知對組織承諾有顯著正面影響,且程序公平預測力較高;
5. 加盟者的工作滿意對組織承諾有顯著正面影響,且內在工作滿意預測力較高;
6. 加盟者的工作滿意對商店績效有顯著正面影響,且內在工作滿意預測力較高;
7. 加盟者的組織承諾對商店績效有顯著正面影響,且各承諾效果不同;
8. 加盟者的工作滿意對離開意願有負面影響,且內在工作滿意預測力較高;
9. 加盟者的組織承諾對離開意願有負面影響,其預測力較工作滿意大且各承諾中
以規範性承諾預測力最大;
10. 加盟者的商店績效對離開意願有負面影響;
11. 工作滿意為組織公平對其離開意願與市佔率年成長的中介變項;
12. .組織承諾為組織公平對其離開意願的中介變項,且工作滿意與組織承諾兩者同
時產生的效果完全取代組織公平對離開意願的影響;
13. 組織承諾為工作滿意對離開意願的中介變項。

本研究在少有的連鎖文獻上,特別是從加盟者的觀點提出了一些貢獻;研究的發現,也相信可以提供經營連鎖企業的管理者一些有用的資訊,最後強烈期望學者們能為此一連鎖店經營管理的研究領域投入更多的的努力。
The Influences of Organizational Justice, Franchisee’s Similarity Experience and Competence on the Franchise Organization
─ The Case of the Franchise Convenience Store

Student: Cheng-Ts’ai Lin Advisor: Dr. Pei Chao

Department of Marketing and Distribution management
National Kaohsiung First University of Science and Technology

Abstract


Franchise chain has become one of major operation modes widely adopted by
companies. However, research on franchise chain, besides suffering from a number of
methodological weaknesses, has received insufficient attention in literature.
To deal with intensive competition in a saturated market, companies have to adjust
their franchise chain operations rapidly in response to a variety of consumer demands.
One feasible suggestion is that company’s head offices (franchisers) need to release
their strict operational control and delegate some authorities to branch stores
(franchisees) so that they can be better responsive to the conditions of local markets.
Thus, it is important to understand how to contribute to organizational performance
from the perspective of franchisees. This study investigates whether personal
characteristics of franchisees (e.g., similarity experience and competence) and their
perceptions of franchisers (e.g., organizational justice) have impact upon store
performance through the franchisees’ attitudes (e.g., job satisfaction and organization
commitment).

This study adopted a method of stratified connvenience sampling. The franchisees of convenience stores such as 7-11, OK and Family Mart were used as prospective respondents. We sent out about 600 questionnaires and received 361 questionnaires. Only 177 questionnaires became usable. Such statistical methods as correlation analysis,
ANONA, and regression analysis were used for data analysis.

The research findings are that (1) franchisee’s competence has a positive impact on store performance; (2) franchisee’s similarity experience has no significant effect on store performance; (3) franchisee’s perception of organizational justice has a positive
effect on job satisfaction, and distributive justice affects job satisfaction much stronger
than procedural justice; (4) franchisee’s perception of organizational justice has a
positive impact on organization commitment, and the effect of procedural justice on organization commitment is greater than that of distribution justice; (5) franchisee’s job
satisfaction has a positive effect on rganization commitment, and internal job satisfaction affects organization commitment more than external job satisfaction; (6) franchisee’s job satisfaction has a positive impact on store performance, and compared
with external job satisfaction, internal job satisfaction has stronger effect on store
performance; (7) the effect of organization commitment on store performance is significantly positive, and different types of commitment have various degree of influence on store performance; (8) franchisee’s job satisfaction has stronger influence than external job satisfaction; (9) franchisee’s organization commitment has a negative impact on franchisee’s intention to leave, and among different types of commitment,
normative commitment has the strongest effect on intention to leave; (10) the effect of store performance on franchisee’s intention to leave is significantly negative. Further more, this study examined several mediating effects as well. For example,organizational justice affects franchisee’s intention to leave through the two mediators(i.e., job satisfaction and organization commitment). Job satisfaction is mediating the
relationship between job satisfaction and store performance (e.g., market share). And,
organization commitment is a mediating factor between job satisfaction and franchisee’s
intention to leave.

This study trends to fulfill the gap of the scare research on franchise in literature,
particularly from the viewpoint of franchisees. The research findings, we believe, may
provide managers with insightful information for their franchise chain operations.
Finally, we strongly encourage scholars to devote their efforts to examine the field of
franchise chain management.
目錄
中文摘要........................................i
英文摘要......................................iii
誌謝............................................v
目錄...........................................vi
表目錄.......................................viii
圖目錄.........................................xi

第一章緒論..................................... 1
第一節研究背景與動機........................... 1
第二節研究目的................................. 3
第三節本研究重要性............................. 4

第二章文獻探討................................. 6
第一節連鎖店與加盟經營......................... 6
第二節加盟者的特徵與能力...................... 10
第三節組織公平................................ 21
第四節工作滿意................................ 37
第五節組織承諾................................ 46
第六節商店績效................................ 59
第七節離開意願................................ 74

第三章研究方法................................ 95
第一節研究架構................................ 95
第二節研究假設................................ 96
第三節變數的定義與衡量....................... 107
第四節問卷設計與前測執行........................................... 126
第五節正式調查............................... 132
第六節資料分析方法........................... 135

第四章資料分析與討論......................... 137
第一節樣本描述............................... 137
第二節各研究變項相關分析的探討............... 141
第三節個人與商店變項在各研究變項上之差異分析. 146
第四節假設檢定............................... 152
第五節中介歷程之檢測......................... 166

第五章結論與建議............................. 180
第一節研究發現及其管理意涵................... 180
第二節研究建議............................... 185
第三節研究限制與末來研究方向建議............. 188

參考文獻..................................... 191
附錄一正式問卷因素分析附表................... 208
附錄二前測問卷............................... 216
附錄三正式問卷............................... 221


表目錄
表2-1-1 連鎖經營型態比較....................... 9
表2-2-1 KAUFMANA & DANT(1998)所整理的企業家代表性定義.......................................... 10
表2-3-1 組織公平構面.......................... 22
表2-3-2 分配原則之分類彙總表.................. 31
表2-4-1 工作滿意的定義彙總表.................. 38
表2-5-1 組織承諾的操作化/定義................. 46
表2-5-2 組織承諾的分類........................ 47
表2-5-3 忠誠與組織承諾概念的比較.............. 49
表2-5-4 不同程度的組織承諾對組織及個人的影響.. 53
表2-5-5 工作滿意與組織承諾之實證研究.......... 54
表2-5-6 組織公平與組織承諾的相關研究彙總表.... 57
表2-6-1 近期使用新創業績效衡量的彙總.......... 61
表2-6-2 創業績效的揭露比率、內部一致性及互評信度的彙總.......................................... 64
表2-6-3 績效衡量的彙總比較.................... 65
表2-6-4 為學者對影響商店績效因素之研究: ..... 66
表2-7-1 離職的分類............................ 76
表2-7-2 COTTON & TUTTLE(1986)離職相關因素的META-ANALYSIS...................................... 87

表3-3-1 加盟者能力之因素分析結果............. 109
表3-3-2 加盟者能力之信度分析結果............. 109
表3-3-3 企業相似之因素分析結果............... 111
表3-3-4 企業相似之信度分析結果............... 112
表3-3-5 組織公平之因素分析結果............... 114
表3-3-6 組織公平之信度分析結果............... 115
表3-3-7 工作滿意之因素分析結果............... 117
表3-3-8 工作滿意之信度分析結果............... 118
表3-3-9 組織承諾之因素分析結果............... 120
表3-3-10 組織承諾之信度分析結果.............. 121
表3-3-11 商店績效之信度分析結果.............. 122
表3-3-12 離開意願之因素分析結果.............. 124
表3-3-13 離開意願之信度分析結果.............. 124
表3-3-14 商圈競爭程度之因素分析結果.......... 125
表3-3-15 商圈競爭程度之信度分析結果.......... 126
表3-4-1 吳統雄(1984)對信度結果所提的建議標準........................................... 130
表3-4-2 前測問卷之信度分析結果............... 130
表3-4-3 前測問卷經因素及信度分析後所做之變更細目表........................................... 131
表3-5-1 連鎖便利商店店數彙總................. 132
表3-5-2 連鎖體系別有效樣本數................. 134

表4-1-1 加盟店長的人口統計及控制變數描述性分析........................................... 138
表4-1-2 各研究變項的描述性分析............... 141
表4-2-1 企業相似、加盟店長能力與商店績效相關分析表........................................... 142
表4-2-2 組織公平與工作滿意及組織承諾相關分析表........................................... 143
表4-2-3 工作滿意、組織承諾、商店績效與離開意願的相關分析表..................................... 144
表4-2-4 所有研究變項相關分析表............... 145
表4-3-1 個人、商店變項與工作滿意的ANOVA 顯著性檢定........................................... 146
表4-3-2 個人、商店變項與組織承諾的ANOVA 顯著性檢定........................................... 148
表4-3-3 個人、商店變項對商店績效與離開意願之ANOVA 檢定......................................... 149
表4-3-3 個人、商店變項對商店績效與離開意願之ANOVA 檢定(續)..................................... 150
表4-4-1 加盟者能力對商店績效的迴歸分析....... 153
表4-4-2 企業相似對商店績效的迴歸分析......... 154
表4-4-3 企業相似與工作經驗交叉表............. 154
表4-4-4 工作經驗與企業相似二因子ANOVA 檢定... 155
表4-4-5 組織公平對工作滿意的迴歸分析......... 156
表4-4-6 組織公平對工作滿意的迴歸分析......... 157
表4-4-7 組織公平對組織承諾的迴歸分析......... 158
表4-4-8 分配、程序與組織公平對組織承諾的迴歸分析........................................... 159
表4-4-9 工作滿意對組織承諾的迴歸分析......... 160
表4-4-10 工作滿意對商店績效的迴歸分析........ 161
表4-4-11 組織承諾對商店績效的迴歸分析........ 162
表4-4-12 性別、工作滿意對離職意圖的迴歸分析表.163
表4-4-13 組織承諾對其離開意願的迴歸分析表.... 164
表4-4-14 商店績效對其離開意願的迴歸分析表.... 165
表4-5-1 檢測中介效果之迴歸步驟與成立條件..... 166
表4-5-2 工作滿意為組織公平對商店績效與離開意願之中介效果檢定表................................. 168
表4-5-3 工作滿意為組織公平對商店績效與離開意願之中介效果檢定表................................. 169
表4-5-3 工作滿意為組織公平對商店績效與離開意願之中介效果檢定表(續)............................. 170
表4-5-4 組織承諾作為組織公平對商店績效與離開意願的中介結果彙總表............................... 173
表4-5-5 性別、組織公平、承諾與工作滿意對離開意願的迴歸分析..................................... 173
表4-5-6 組織承諾為組織公平對商店績效與離開意願之中介效果檢定表................................. 174
表4-5-6 組織承諾為組織公平對商店績效與離開意願之中介效果檢定表(續)............................. 175
表4-5-7 組織承諾為工作滿意對商店績效與離開意願之中介檢定結果彙總表............................. 177
表4-5-8 組織承諾為工作滿意對商店績效與離開意願之中介效果檢定表................................. 178
表4-5-8 組織承諾為工作滿意對商店績效與離開意願之中介效果檢定表(續)............................. 179

表5-1-1 本研究假設與驗證結果彙總表........... 180

圖目錄

圖2-5-1 Mowday et al.(1982)的組織承諾模式.......52
圖2-7-1 Mobley(1977)的離職決策過程模式......... 78
圖2-7-2 離職行為簡單模式....................... 79
圖2-7-3 員工離職的主要因素與過程的概念呈現..... 82
圖2-7-4 Szilagyi(1979)的離職過程模式............83
圖2-7-5 工作績效在離職過程的整合模式........... 84

圖3-1-1 本研究之觀念性架構圖.................. 95
參 考 文 獻一、中文部分王保進,(2000),視窗版SPSS與行為科學研究,心理出版社。王培志,(1997),”義工參與的決策因素、工作滿足、離職傾向之研究─以高雄地區醫院義工為例”,國立中山大學企業管理研究所,未出版碩士論文。吳統雄,(1984),電話調查理論與方法,聯經出版社。李慕華,(1992),”組織忠誠的內涵意義、影響因素與行為結果之探討─以台灣中小企業為例”,私立輔仁大學應用心理研究所,未出版碩士論文。 杜佩蘭,(1999),”組織承諾、角色衝突與工作滿足及其相關因素之研究─以高雄市政府主計處外派人員為例”,國立中山大學人力資源管理研究所,未出版碩士論文。張紹勳,(2001),研究方法,滄海書局出版。莊孟峰,(2000),”員工工作滿意、組織承諾與組織公民行為關係之實證研究”,私立淡江大學管理科學所,未出版碩士論文。許士軍,(1995),管理學,台北:東華書局。黃俊英,(2000),多變量分析,中國經濟企業研究所出版。經濟部商業司,(2000),連鎖便利商店經營管理實務。董欣寧,(2001),”個人屬性、組織公平與組織承諾關聯性之研究─以中華電信國際電信公司為例”,國立交通大學經營管理研究所,未出版碩士論文。劉豫忠,(1995),”影響連鎖便利商店經營績效因素之研究--以統一麵包加盟店為例”,私立東海大學食品科學研究所,未出版碩士論文。蔡忠林,(2001),”零售商店經營績效評估模型建構之研究”,私立大葉大學事業經營研究所,未出版碩士論文。二、英文部分Abeele, P. V. & Christiaens, I., (1986), “Strategies of high-tech Belgian firms, ” Industrial Marketing Management, Vol.15, pp.299-308.Abelson, M. A., (1987), “Examination of Avoidable and Unabiodable Turnover,” Journal of Applied Psychology, pp.382-386.Adams, J. S., (1963), “Toward An Understanding of Inequity,” Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology, Vol.67, pp.422-236.Adams, J. S., (1965),” Inequity in Social Exchange,” In L. Berkowitz Ed., Advances in Eerimental Social Psychology, Vol.2, pp.267-299, New York: Academic Press.Agrawal, D. & Lal, R., (1995), “Contractual Arrangements in Franchising: An Empirical Investigation,” Journal of Marketing Research, Vol.32, No.2, pp.123-221.Alderfer, C. P., (1969), “An Empirical Test of A New Theory of Human Needs,” Organizational Behavior and Human Performance, pp.142-175.Aldrich, H., Rosen, B. & Woodward, W., (1987), “The Impact of Social Networks on Business Foundings and Profit: A Longitudinal Study,” In Churchill, N. C., Hornaday, J. A., Kirchhoff, B. A., Krasner O. J. & Vesper, K. H. Eds., Frontiers of Entrepreneurship Research, pp.456-478. Wellesley, MA: Babson Center for Entrepreneurial Studies.Alexander, S., & Ruderman, M., (1987), “The Role of Procedural and Distributive Justice in Organization Behavior,” Social Justice Research, Vol.1, No., pp.177-198.Allen, N. J. & Smith, J., (1987), “An Investigation of “Extra-Role” Behaviours within Organizations,” Paper Presented at the Annual Meeting of the Canadian Psychological Association, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada.Allison, P. D., (1974), “Interorganizational Mobility of Academic Scientists”, Paper Presented at the 69th Annual Meeting of the American Sociological Association, Montreal.Angle, H. L. & Perry, J. L., (1981), “An Empirical Assessment of Organizational Commitment and Organizational Effectiveness,” Administrative Science Quarterly, Vol.26, pp.1-14.Babakus, E., Cravens, D. W., Johnston, M. & Moncrief, W. C., (1999), “The Role of Emotional Exhaustion in Sales Force Attitude and Behavior Relationships,” Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, Vol.27, pp.58-70.Barnard, C. I., (1938), The Functions of The Executive, Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.Baron, R. M. & Denny, D. A., (1986), “The Moderator-Mediator Variable Distinction in Social Psychological Research: Conceptual, Strategic, and Statistical Considerations,” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, Vol.51, No.6, pp.1173-1182. Bassett, G. A., (1967), “A Study of Factors Associated with Turnover of Exempt Personnel,” Crotonville, N. Y.: Personnel and Industrial Relations Services, General Electric.Bassett, G., (1994), “The Case Against Job Satisfaction”, Business Horizons, pp.61-68.Bateman, T. S. & Organ, D. W., (1983), “Job Satisfaction and the Good Soldier: The Relationship Between Affect and Employee Citizenship,” Academy of Management Journal”, Vol.26, pp.587-595.Bates, T. , (1995), “Analysis of Survival Rates Among Franchise and Independent Small Business Startups,” Journal of Small Business Management, Vol.33, pp.26-36.Baucus, D. A., Baucus, M. S. & Human, S. E., (1996), “Consensus in Franchise Organizations: A Co-operative Arrangement Among Entrepreneurs,” Journal of Business Venturing, Vol.11, No.5, pp.359-378.Becker, T. E., Billings, R. S., Evelth, D. M. & Gilbert, N. L., (1996), “Foci & Bases of Employee Commitment: Implications for Job performance,” Academy of Management Journal, Vol.39, pp.464-482.Begley, T. M. & Boyd, D. P., (1987), “Psychological Characteristics Associated with Performance in Entrepreneurial Firms and Smaller Businesses,” Journal of Business Venturing, Vol.2, pp.79-93.Begley, T. M. & Czajka, J. M., (1993), “Pannel Analysis of the Moderating Effects of Commitment on Job Satisfaction, Intent to Quit, and Health Following Organizational Change,” Journal of Applied Psychology, Vol.4, pp.552-556.Benkhoff, B., (1997), “Ignoring Commitment is Costly: New Approaches Establish the Missing Link Between Commitment and Performance,” Human Relations, Vol.50, pp.701-726.Bies, R. J. & Moag, J. S., (1986), “Interactional Justice: Communication Criteria for Fairness,” In B. Sheppard Eds., Research on Negotiation in Organizations, Vol.1, pp.43-55, Greenwich, CT:JAI Press.Birch, D. L., (1979), “The Job Generation Process: MIT Program on Neighborhood and Regional Change,” Cambridge, MA: Massachusetts Institute of Technology.Birley, S. & Westhead, P., (1990), “Growth and Performance Contrasts Between Type of Small Firms,” Strategic Management Journal, Vol.11, No.7, pp.535-557.Birley, S., (1987), “New Ventures and Employment Growth,” Journal of Business Venturing, Vol.2, No.2, pp.155-165.Blau, G., & Boal, K., (1987), “Conceptualizing How Job Involvement and organizational Commitment Affect Turnover and Absenteeism,” Academy of Management Review, Vol.12, pp.288-300.Blau, G., J., (1986), “Job Involvement and Organizational Commitment as Interactive Predictors of Tardiness and Absenteeism,” Journal of Management, Vol.12, pp.577-584. Bluedorn, A. C. & Abelson, M. A., (1980), “Employee Performance and Withdrawal from work,” Working Paper, Pennsylvania State University.Bluedorn, A. C., (1982), “A Unified Model of Turnover from Organizations,” Human Relations, Vol.35, pp.135-153.Brayfield, A. H. & Crockett, W. H., (1955), “Employee Attitudes and Employee Performance,” Psychological Bulletin, Vol.52, pp.396-424.Brockhaus, R. H. & Horwitz, P. S., (1986), “The Psychology of the Entrepreneur,” In D. Sexton & R. Smilor & K. Vesper Eds., The Encyclopedia of Entrepreneurship, pp.39-55, Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.Brockner, J. & Wiesenfeld, B. M., (1996), “An Integrative Framework for Explaining Reactions to Decisions: Interactive Effects of Outcomes and Procedures,” Psychological Bulletin, Vol.120, pp.189-208.Brockner, J., Tyler, T. R. & Cooper-Schneider, R., (1992), “The Influence of Prior Commitment to an Institution on Reactions to Perceived Unfairness: The Higher They Are, The Harder They Fall,” Administrative Science Quarterly, Vol.37, pp.241-261.Brooke, P. P., Russell, D. W. & Price, J. L., (1988), ‘Discriminant Validation of Measures of Job Satisfaction,” Job Involvement, and organizational Commitment,” Journal of Applied Psychology, Vol.73, pp.139-145.Brush, C. & Vanderwerf, P., (1992), “A Comparison of Methods and Sources for Obtaining Estimates of New Venture Performance,” Journal of Business Venturing, Vol.7, pp.157-170.Brush, C., (1990), “Market Information Scanning Practices of New Ventures,” Frontiers of Entrepreneurship Research, Wellesley, MA: Babson College, forthcoming.Bucas, G. H., Babakus, E. & Ingram, T. N., (1990), “An Empirical Test of the Job Satisfaction-Turnover Relationship: Assessing the Role of Jo Performance for Retail Managers”, Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, Vol.18, No.3, p.199-208.Bucas, G. H., Babakus, E. & Ingram, T. N., (1990), “An Empirical Test of the Job Satisfaction-Turnover Relationship: Assessing the Role of Job Performance for Retail Managers,” Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, Vol.18, No.3, pp.199-208.Bycio, P., Hackett, R. D. & Alvares, K. M., (1990), “Job Performance and Turnover: A Review and Meta-Analysis,” Applied Psychology: An International Review, Vol.61, pp.468-472.Carlson, R. E., (1965), “A Test of Selected Hypotheses from the Theory of Work Adjustment,” Unpublished Doctoral Dissertation, University of Minnesota.Chandler, G. N. & Hanks, S. H., (1994), “Founder Competence, the Environment, and Venture Performance,” Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, Vol.18, No.3, pp.77-89.Chandler, G. N. & Hanks, S. J., (1993), “Measuring the Performance of Emerging Businesses: a Validation Study,“ Journal of Business Venturing, Vol.8, No.5, pp.391-408.Chandler, G. N. & Jansen, E., (1992), “The Founder’s Self-assessed Competence and Venture Performance,” Journal of Business Venturing, Vol.7, No.3, pp.223-236.Chandler, G. N., (1996), “Business Similarity as a Moderator of the Relationship Between Pre-ownership Experience and Venture Performance,” Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, Vol.20, No.3, pp.51-65.Clawson, J. G., (1999), Level Three Leadership: Getting Below The Surface, Upper Saddl River, NJ: Prentice Hall. Clugston, M., (2000), “The Mediating Effects of Multidimensional Commitment on job Satisfaction and intent to leave,” Journal of Organizational Behavior, Vol.21, No.4, pp.477-486.Cohen, R. L., (1985), “Procedural Justice and Participation,” Human Relations, Vol.38, pp.643-663.Cooper, A. C. & Gimeno-Gascon, F. J., (1992), “Entrepreneurs, Processes of Founding, and New Firm Performance,” In D. Sexton & J. Kasarda Eds., The State of the Art in Entrepreneurship, pp.301-340, Boston, MA: PWS Kent Publishing Co.Cooper, A. C., Gimeno-Gascon, F. J. & Woo, C., (1994), “Initial Human and Financial Capital as Predictors of New Venture Performance,” Journal of Business Venturing, Vol.9, No.5, pp.371-396.Cooper, A., Woo, C. & Dunkelberg, W., (1989), “Entrepreneurship and the Initial Size of Firms,” Journal of Business Venturing, Vol.4, pp.317-332.Cooper, R. G., (1984), “How New Product Strategies Impact on Performance,” Journal of Product Innovation Management, Vol.1, pp.5-18.Cotton, J. L. & Tuttle, J. M., (1986), “Employee Turnover: A Meta-Analysis and Review With Implications for Research,” Academy of Management Review, Vol.11, No1, pp.55-70. Cragg, P. B. & King, M., (1988), “Organizational Characteristics and Small Firm’s Performance Revisited,” Entrepreneurship: Theory and Practice, Vol.13, No.2, pp.49-63.Cropanzano, M. A. & Floger, R., (1991), “The Effects of Procedures, Social Accounts, and Benefits Level on Victims’ Layoff Reactions”, Journal of Applied Social Psychology, Vol.21, p.630-650.Cropanzano, R. & Ambrose, M. L. In press, “Procedural and Distributive Justice Are More Similar than You Think: A Monistic Perspective and A Research Agenda,” In J. Greenberg & R. Cropanzano Eds., Advances in Organizational Justice, Lexington, MA: New Lexington Press.Cropanzano, R. & Konovsky, M. A., (1995), “Resolving the Justice Dilemma by Improving The Outcomes: The Case of Employee Drug Screening,” Journal of Business and Psychology, Vol.10, pp.221-243.Cropanzano, R. & Schminke, M. In Press, “Using Social Justice to Build Effective Workgroups,” In M. Turner Ed., Groups at Work: Advances In Theory and Research. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.Crosby, F., (1984), “Relative Deprivation in Organizational Setting,” In B. M. Staw & L. L. Cummings Eds., Research in Organizational Behavior, Vol.6, pp.51-93, Greenwich, CT:JAI Press.Dailey, R. C. & Kirk, D. J. (1992), “Distributive and Procedural Justice as Antecedents of Job Dissatisfaction and Intent to Turnover,” Human Relations, Vol.45, pp.305-317.Dalton, D. Todor, W. & Krackhardt, D., (1982), “Turnover Overstated: The Functional Taxonomy,” Academy of Management Review, Vol.7, pp.117-123.Dess, G. G. & Robinson , R. B., (1984), “Measuring Organizational Performance in the Absence of Objective Measures: The Case of the Privately Held Firm and Conglomerate Business Unit,” Strategic Management Journal, Vol.5, pp.265-274.Deutsch M., (1985), Distributive Justice, New Heaven, CT:Yale University Press.Dicketr, D. N., Roznowski, M. & Harrison, D. A., (1996), Temporal tempering: An Event History Analysis of the Process of Voluntary Turnovers,” Journal of Applied Psychology, Vol.81, pp.705-716.Dittrich, J. E. & M. R. Carrell, (1979), “Organization equity Perceptions, Employee Job Satisfaction, and Departmental Absence and Turnover Rate,” Organizational Behavior and Human Performance, Vol.24, pp.29-40.Doweney, H. K., Sheridan J. E. & Slocum, J. W., (1975), “Analysis of Relationships Between Leader Behavior and Subordinate Job,” Academy of Management Journal, Vol.18, pp.253-262.Dreher, G. F., (1982), “The Role of Performance in the Turnover Process,” Academy of Management Journal, Vol.25, pp.137-147.Drucker, P. F., (1994), “The Theory of the Business,” Harvard Business Review, Vol.72, No.5, pp.95-104.Dunbinsky, A. J. & Levy, M., (1989), “Influence of Organizational Fairness on Work Outcomes of Retail Salespeople,” Journal of Retailing, Vol.65, No.2, pp.221-252.Dunkelberg, W. C. & Cooper A. C., (1982), “Patterns of Small Business Growth,” In K. H. Chung Ed., Proceedings of the Academy of Management, pp.409-413, New York.Dunkelberg, W. C., Cooper, A. C., Woo, C. & Dennis, W., (1987), “New Firm Growth and Performance,” In N. C. Churchill, J. A. Hormaday, B. A. Kirchhoff, O. J. Krasner, & K. H. Vesper Eds., Frontiers of Entrepreneurship Research, pp.307-321, Wellesley, MA: Babson College.Dyke, L. S., Fischer, E. M. & Reuber, A. R., (1992), “An Inter-Industry Examination of the Impact of Owner Experience on Firm Performance,” Journal of Small Business Management, Vol.30, No.4, pp.72-87.Farrell, D. J., (1978), “A Casual Model of Job Satisfaction,” Dissertation Abstracts International, Vol.1, pp.44-99.Farris, G. F., (1971), “A Predictive Study of Turnover,” Personnel Psychology, Vol.24, pp.311-328.Fenwick, G. D. & Strombom, M., (1998), “The Determinants of Franchise Performance: An Empirical Investigation,” International Small Business Journal, Vol.16, No.4, pp.28-45.Fiorito, S. S. & Laforge, R. W., (1986), “A Marketing Strategy Analysis of Small Retailer,” American Journal of Small Business, Vol.10, No.4, pp.7-17.Fisher, C. D., (1980), “On the Dubious Wisdom of Expecting Job Satisfaction to Correlated With Performance,” Academy of Management Review, Vol.5, pp.607-612.Folger, R. & M. A. Konovsky, (1989), “Effects of Procedural and Distributive Justice on Reactions to Pay Raise Decisions,” Academy of Management Journal, Vol.32, pp.115-130.Folger, R., (1986), “Rethinking Equity Theory: A Referent Congnitions Model,” In H.W. Bieferhoff, R. L. Cohem & J. Greenberg Eds., Justice in Social Relation, pp.145-162. New York: Plenum.Folger, R., Konovsky, M. A. & Cropanzano, R., (1992), “A Due Process Metaphor for Performance appraisal,” In B. M. Staw & L. L. Cummings Eds., Research in Organizational Behavior, Vol.13, pp.129-177, Greenwich, CT: JAI Press.Futrell, C. M. & Parasuraman, A., (1984), “The Relationship of Satisfaction and Performance to Salesforce Turnover,” Journal of Marketing, Vol.48, pp.33-40.Gable, M., Hollon, J. C. & Dangello, F., (1984), “Predicting Voluntary Managerial Trainee Turnover in a Large Retailing Organization From Information on an Employment Application Blank,” Journal of Retailing, Vol.60, No.4, pp.43-63.Gable, Myron, Charles J. H. & Dangello, F., (1984), “Prediciting Voluntary Managerial Trainee Turnover in a Large Retailing Organization From Information on an Employment Application Blank,” Journal of Retailing, Vol.60, No.3, pp.43-63.Garbarino, Ellen & Johnson, M. S., (1999), “The Different Roles of Satisfaction, Trust, and Commitment in Customer Relationships,” Journal of Marketing, Vol.63, pp.70-87.Garelik, M., (1984), Hay Compensation Conference Business/Economic Overview, In Hay Compensation Conference Proceedings, pp.7-15, Philadelphia: The Hay Group.Garner, W. M., (1993), “Protection Needed?,” Entrepreneur Magazine’s 14th Annual Franchise 500, pp.86.Gartner, W. B., (1988), “Who Is the Entrepreneur? Is the Wrong Question,” American Journal of Small Business, Vol.2, pp.11-29.Giese, W. J. & Ruter, H. W., (1949), “An Objective of Morale,” Journal of Applied Psychology, Vol.33, pp.421-427.Good, L. K., Page, T. J. & Young, C. E., (1996), “Assessing Hierarchical Differences in Job-Related Attitudes and Turnover Among Retail Managers,” Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, Vol.24, No.2, pp.148-156.Goodman, J., (1980), “Franchisor-Franchisee Conflicts of Interest as Perceived by Selected Non-Food Franchisees,” Dissertation Abstracts International (University Microfilm, No.41/02A).Greenberg , J., & Folger, R., (1983), Procedural Justice, Participation and the Fair Process Effect in Groups and Organizations, In P. B. Paulhus Ed., Basic Group Processes:235-256, New York: Springer-Verlag.Greenberg, (1990b), “Employee Theft as a Reaction to Underpayment Inequity: The Hidden Cost of Pay Cuts,” Journal of Applied Psychology, Vol.75, pp.561-568.Greenberg, J, (1987), “A Taxonomy of Organizational Justice Theories,” Academy of Management Review, Vol.12, No.1, pp.10.Greenberg, J., (1982), “Approaching Equity and Avoiding Inequity in Groups and Organizations,” In J. Greenberg & R. L. Cohen Eds., Equity and Justice in Social Behavior, pp.389-435, New York: Academic Press.Greenberg, J., (1990a), “Organizational Justice: Yesterday, Today, and Tomorrow,” Journal of Management, Vol.16, pp.399-432.Greenhalgh, L. & Jick, T. D., (1979), “The Relationship Between Job Insecurity and Turnover, and Its Differential Effects on Employee Quality Level,” Paper Presented at the 39th National Meeting of the Academy of Management, Atlanta.Greenhaus, J. H. & Badin, I. J., (1974), “Self-esteem, Peformance, and Satisfaction: Some Tests of a Theory,” Journal of Applied Psychology, Vol.59, pp.722-726.Gregersen, H. B., (1993), “Multiple Commitments at Work and Extrarole Behavior during Three Stages of Organizational Tenure,” Journal of Business Research, Vol.26, pp.31-47.Griffeth, R. W., Hom, P. W. & Gaertner, S., (2000), “A Meta-Analysis of Antecedents and Correlates of Employee Turnover: Update, Moderator Tests, and Research Implications for the Next Millennium,” Journal of Management, Vol.26, No.3, pp.463-488.Gullup, (1992), National Franchise Owner Study, Washington, D. C.: International Franchise Association.Gupta, A. K. & Govindarajan, V., (1984), “Business Unit Strategy, Managerial Characteristics, and Business Unit Effectiveness at Strategy Implementation,” Academy of Management Journal, Vol.27, pp.25-41.Hackett, R. D., Bycio, P. & Hausdorf, P. A., (1994), “Futher Assessments of Meyer and Allen’s (1991) Three-Component Model of Organizational Commitment,” Journal of Applied Psychology, Vol.79, pp.15-23.Hackman, J. R. & Oldham, G. R., (1979), “Motivation Through The Design of Work: Test of A Theory,” Organizational Behavior & Human Performance, Vol.16, pp.250-279.Hauenstein, N. M. A., McGonigle, T. & Finder, S., (1997), “Meta-Analysis of the Relationship Between Procedural and Distributive Justice,” Paper presented at the annual meeting of the Society of Industrial/Organizational Psychology, St. Louis.Herzerg, F., Mausner, B & Synderman, B., (1959), The Motivation to Work, New York: Wiley.Hofer, C. W. & Sandberg, W. R., (1987), “Improving New Venture Performance: Some Guidelines for Success,” Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, Vol.12, No.3, pp.11-21.Hofer, C. W., (1983), “ROVA: A New Measure for Assessing Organizational Performance,” In R. Lamb., Ed., Advances in Strategic Management, Vol.2, pp43-55, New York: JAI Press, Hom, P. W. & Griffeth, R. W., (1995), Employee Turnover, Cincinnati: South/ Westeern.Hom, P. W., Caranikas-Walker, F., Prussia, G. E. & Griffeth, R. W., (1992), “A Meta-Analytical Structural Equations Analysis of a Model of Employee Turnover,” Journal of Applied Psychology, Vol.77, pp.890-909.Hom, P. W., Katerberg, R. & Hulin C. L., (1979), “Comparative Examination of Three Approaches to the Prediction of Turnover,” Journal of Applied Psychology, Vol.64, pp.280-290.Homans, G. C., (1961), Social Behavior: Its Elementary Forms, New Work: Harcourt, Brace & World.Hoppock, R., (1935), Job Satisfaction, New York: Happer & Row.Hoy, F. & Hellriegel, D., (1982), “The Killman and Herden Model of Organizational Effectiveness Criteria for Small Business Managers,” Academy of Management Journal, Vol.25, No.2, pp.308-322.Hrebiniak , L. G. & Alutto, J. A., (1972), “Personal and Role Related Factors in the Development of Organizational Commitment,” Administrative Science Quarterly, Vol.18, pp.555-573.Hrebiniak, L. G. & Alutto, J. A., (1972), “Personal and Role Related Factors In The Development of Organizational Commitment,” Adminstrative Sociological Quarterly, Vol.17, pp.555-573.Hulin, C. L. & Blood, M. J., (1960), “Job Enlargement, Individual Differences, Worker Responses,” Psychological Bulletin, Vol.69, pp.41-55.Hunt, S. D., Chonko, L. B. & Wood, V. R., (1985), “Organizational Commitment and Marketing,” Journal of Marketing, Vol.49, pp.112-126.Iaffaldano, M. T. & Muchinsky, P. M., (1985), “Job Satisfaction and Job Performance: A Meta-Analysis,” Psychological Bulletin, pp.251-273.Ibrahim, A. B. & Goodwin, J. R., (1986), “Perceived Causes of Success in Small Business,” American Journal of Small Business, Vol.10, No.2, pp.41-49.Jackofsky, E. F. & Peters, L. H., (1983), “The Hypothesized Effects of ability in the Turnover Process,” Academy of Management Review, Vol.8, pp.46-49.Jackofsky, E. F., (1984), “Turnover and Job Performance: An Intergrated Process Model”, Academy of Management Review, Vol.9, No.1, pp.74-83.Jackofsky, E. F., Ferris, K. R. & Breckenridge, B. G., (1986), “Evidence for a Curvilinear Relationship Between Job Performance and Turnover,” Journal of Management, Vol.12, pp.105-111.Johns, G., (1989), “Performance and Turnover Cognitions Among Managers,” Canadian Journal of Administrative Science, Vol.6, pp.37-42.Johnston, M W., Varadarajan, P., Futrell, C. M. & Sager, J., (1987), “The Relationship Between Organizational Commitment, Job Satisfaction, and Turnover Among New Salespeople,” Journal of Personal Selling & Sales Management, Vol.7, pp.29-38.Joy, V. L. & Witt, L. A., (1992), “Delay of Gratification As A Moderator of The Procedural Justice-Distributive Justice Relationship,” Group and Organization Management, Vol.17, pp.297-308.Judge, T. A., (1993), “Does affective disposition Moderate the Relationship Between Job Satisfaction and Voluntary Turnover?,” Journal of Applied Psychology, Vol.78, pp.395-401.Justis, R. T., & Judd, R., (1986), “Master Franchising: A New Look,” Journal of Small Business Management, Vol.24, pp.16-21.Kaufmann, P. J. & Dant, R. P., (1998), “Franchising and The Domain of Entrepreneurship Research”, Journal of Business Venturing, Vol.14, p5-16.Kaufmann, P. J. & Stanworth, J., (1995), “The Decision to Purchase a Franchise: A Study of Prospective Franchisees,” Journal of Small Business Management, Vol.33, No.4, pp.22-33.Keats, B. W. & Bracker, J. S., (1988), “Toward a Theory of Small Firm Performance: A Conceptual Model,” American Journal of Small Business, Vol.12, No.20, pp.41-58.Keaveney, S. M., (1992), “An Empirical Investigation of Dysfunctional Organizational Turnover Among Chain and Non-Chain Retail Store Buyers,” Journal of Retailing, Vol.68, No.2, pp.145-173.Keller R. T., (1997), “Job Involvement and Organizational Commitment as Longitudinal Predictors of Job Performance: A Study of Scientists and Engineers,” Journal of Applied Psychology, Vol.82, No.4, pp.539-545.Kim, J. & Mueller, C. W., (1978), “Factory Analysis: Statistical Methods and Practical Issues,” Newbury Park, CA: Sage.Kirchoff, B. A. & Phillips, B. D., (1987), “Examining Entrepreneurship’s Role in Economic Growth,” In N.C. Churchill, J. A. Hornaday, B. A. Kirchhoff, O.J. Krasner & K. H. Vesper, Eds., Frontiers of Entrepreneurship Research, pp.57-71, Wellesley, MA: Babson Center for Entrepreneurial Studies,Knight, R. M., (1984), “The Independence of the Franchisee Entrepreneur,” Journal of Small Business Management, Vol.22, No.2, pp.53-61.Ko, J. W., Price, J. L. & Mueller, C. W., (1997), “Assessment of Meyer and Allen’s Three-Component Model of Organizational Commitment in South Korea,” Journal of Applied Psychology, Vol.82, No.6, pp.961-973.Konovsky, M. A. & Folger, R., (1989), “Effects of Procedural and Distributive Justice on Reactions to Pay-Raise Decisions,” Academy of Management Journal, Vol.32, pp.115-130.Konovsky, M. A. & Folger, R., (1989), “Effects of Procedural and Distributive Justice on Reactions to Pay-Raise Decisions,” Academy of Management Journal, Vol.32, pp.115-130.Konovsky, M. A. & R. Cropanzano, (1991), “Perceived Fairness of Employee Drug Testing As a Predictor of Employee Attitudes and Job Performance,” Journal of Applied Psychology, Vol.76, pp.698-707.Konovsky, M. A., (2000), “Understanding Procedural Justice and Its Impact on Business Organizations,” Journal of Management, Vol.26, No.3, pp.489-511.Konovsky, M. A., R. Folger & R. Cropanzano, (1987), “Relative effects of Procedural and Distributive Justice on Employee Attitudes,” Representative Research in Social Psychology, Vol.17, pp.15-24.Koys, D. J., (2001), “The Effects of Employee Satisfaction, Organizational Citizenship Behavior, and Turnover on Organizational Effectiveness: A Unit-Level, Longitudinal Study,” Personnel Psychology, Vol.54, pp.101-114.Kunkel, S. W., (1991), “The Impact of Strategy and Industry Structure on New Venture Performance, “ Ph.D. Dissertation , University of Georgia.Lafuente, F. & Salas, G., (1989), “Types of Entrepreneurs and Firms: The Case of New Spanish Firms,” Strategic Management Journal”, Vol.10, No.1, pp.17-30.LaRocco, J. M., Pugh, W. M. & Gunderson, E. K., (1977), “Identifying Determinants of Retention Decision,” Personnel Psychology, Vol.30, pp.199-215.Lawler, E. A. & Porter, L. W., (1967), “The Effect of Performance on Job Satisfaction,” Industrial Relations, Vol.7, pp.20-28.Lawler, E. E. & Hall, D. T., (1970), “Relationship of Job Characteristics to Job Involvement, Satisfaction and Intrinsic Motivation,” Journal of Applied Psychology, Vol.54, No.4, pp.305-312.Lawler, E. E., (1981), Pay and Organizational Development, Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley.Lawler, E. E., (1989), Pay for Performance: A Strategic analysis, In L. R. Gomez-Mejia Ed., Compensation and Benefits, pp.136-181, Washington, DC: Bureau of National Affairs.Lazarsfeld, P. F. & Thielens, W.,(1958), “The Academic Mind: Social Scientists in a Time of Crisis,” Glencoe, Ill.: The Free Press.Lee, T. W. & Mowday, R. T., (1987), “Voluntarily Leaving an Organization: An Empirical Investigation of Steers and Mowday’s Model of Turnover,” Academy of Management Journal, Vol.30, No.4, pp.721-743.Lee, T. W., Mitchell, T. R., Holtom, B. C., McDaniel, L. S. & Hill, J. W., (1999), “The Unfolding Model of Voluntary Turnover: A Replication and Extension,” Academy of Management Journal, Vol.42, pp.450-462.Lefkowitz, J. & Katz, J. L., (1969), “Validity of Exit Interviews,” Personnel Psychology, Vol.22, pp.445-455.Leventhal, G. S., (1976), “The Distribution of Rewards and Resources in Groups and Organizations,” Advances in Experiemntal Sociall Psychology, Vol.9, pp.91-131.Leventhal, G. S., (1980), “What Should Be Done With Equity Theory? ,” In K. J. Gergen, M. S. Greenberg, & R. H. Willis Eds., Social Exchange: Advances in theory and research, pp.27-55.Leventhal, G. S., J. Karuza & W. R. Fry, (1980), “Beyond Fairness: A Theory of Allocation Preferences,” In G. Mikula Ed., Justice and Social Interaction, pp.167-218, New York: Springer-Verlag.Leviatan, U., (1978), “Organizational Effects of Managerial Turnover in Kibbutz Production Branches,” Human Relations, Vol.31, pp.1001-1018.Likert, R., (1961), New Pattern of Management, New York: McGraw-Hill Book Company, pp.104.Lind, E. A. & T. R. Tyler, (1988), The Social Psychology of Procedural Justice, New York: Plenem.Lind, E. A., Kulik, C. T., Ambrose, M. & de Vera Park, M. V., (1993), “Individual and Corporate Dispute Resolution: Using Procedural Fairness As A Decision Heuristic,” Administrative Science Quarterly, Vol.38, pp.224-251.Linda, K. G., Thomas, J. Page, Jr. & Clifford, E. Young, (1996), “Assessing Hierarchical Differences in Job-Related Attitudes and Turnover Among Retail Managers,” Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, Vol.24, No.2, pp.148-156.Lissak, R. L., Mendes, H. & Lind, E. A., (1983), “Organizational and Non-organizational Influences on Attitudes toward Work,” Manuscript, University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign.Locke, E. A., (1976), “The Nature and Causes of Job Satisfaction,” In M. D. Dunnette, Ed., Handbook of Industrial and Organizational Psychology, pp.1319-1328, Chicago: Rand McNally.Low, M. B. & MacMillan I. C., (1988), “Entrepreneurship: Past Research and Future Challenges,” Journal of Managgement, Vol.14, No.2, pp.139-151.Lucas, G, Parasuraman, A., Robert A. D. & Ben M. E., (1987), “An Empirical Study of Salesforce turnover,” Journal of Marketing, Vol.51, pp.34-59.Lucas, G. H., Babakus, E. & Ingram, T. N., (1990), “An Empirical Test of the Job Satisfaction-Turnover Relationship: Assessing the Role of Job Performance for Retail Managers,” Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, Vol.18, No.3, pp.199-208.Lusch, R. F. & Serpkenci, R. R., (1990), “Personal Differences, Job Tension, Job Outcomes, and Store Performance: A Study of Retail Store Managers,” Journal of Marketing, Vol.54, pp.85-101.MacMillan, I. C., Siegel, R. & SubbaNarisimha, P. N., (1985), “Criteria Used by Venture Capitalists to Evaluate New Venture Proposals,” Journal of Business Venturing, Vol.1, No.1, pp.119-128.Maithieu, J. E. & Farr, J. L., (1991), “Further Evidence for the Discriminant Validity of Measures of Organizational Commitment, Job Involvement, and Job Satisfaction,” Journal of Applied Psychology, Vol.76, pp.127-133.March, J. G. & Simon, H. A., (1958), Organizations, New York: Wiley.Marsh, R. M. & Mannari, H., (1977), “Organization Commitment and Turnover: A Prediction Study,” Administrative Science Quarterly, Vol.22, pp.57-75.Martin, C. L. & N. Bennett, (1996), “The Role of Justice Judgment in Explaining The Relationship Between Job Satisfaction and Organizational Commitment,” Group and Organization Management, Vol.21, pp.84-104.Martin, J., (1981), “Relative Deprivation: A Theory of Distributive In Justice for an Era of Shrinking Resources,” In L. L. Cummings & G. M. Staw Eds., Research in Organizational Behavior, Vol.3, pp.53-107, Greenwich Ct JAI Press.Martin, T. N., Price, J. L. & Mueller, C. W., (1981), “Job Performance and Turnover,“ Journal of Applied Psychology, Vol.66, pp.116-119.Mathieu, J. E, & Zajac, D. M., (1990), “A Review and Meta-Analysis of the Antecedents, Correlates, and Consequences of Organizational Commitment,” Psychological Bulletin, Vol.18, pp.171-194.Mayer , R. & Schoorman, F, (1992), “Predicting Participation and Production Outcomes Through a two dimensional model of Organizational Commitment,” Academy of Management Journal, Vol.35, pp.671-684.Mayo, D., R. Robicheaux & E. Ferrell, (1989), “Franchisee Satisfaction: Its Relationship to the Contractual Agreement,” Unpublished Manuscript.Mayo, E., (1933), The Human Problems of Industrial civilization, New York: Macmillan.McClelland, D. C., (1967), The Achieving Society, Noew York: Free Press.McEvoy, G. M. & Cascio, W. F., (1987), “Do Good or Poor Performers Leave? A Meta-analysis of the Relationship between Performance and Turnover,” Academy of Management Journal, Vol.30, pp.744-762.McFarlin, D. B. & P. D. Sweeney, (1993), “Workers’ Evaluations of The “Ends” and The “Means”: An Examination of Four Models of Distributive and Procedural Justice,” Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, Vol.55, pp.23-40.McFarlin, D. B. & Sweeney, P. D., (1992), “Distributive and Procedural Justice as Predictors of Satisfaction with Personal and Organizational Outcomes,” Academy of Management Journal, Vol.35, pp.626-637.McGregor, D., (1960), The Human Side of Enterprise, New York: McGraw-Hill.Meyer, J. P. & Allen, N. J., (1986), “Development and Consequences of Three Components of Organizational Commitment,” Paper presented at the annual meeting of the Administrative Sciences Association of Canada, Whistler, British Columbia, Canada.Meyer, J. P. & Shack, J. R., (1989), “The Structural Convergence of Mood and Personality: Evidence for Old and New Directions,” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, Vol.57, pp.691-706.Meyer, J. P., Allen, N. J. & Smith, C. A., (1993), “Commitment to Organizations and Occupations: Extension and Test of a Three-Component Conceptualization,” Journal of Applied Psychology, Vol.78, pp.538-551.Meyer, J. P., Paunonen, S. V., Gellatly, I. R., Goffin, R. D. & Jackson, D. N., (1989), “Organizational Commitment and Job Performance: It’s he Nature of the Commitment That Counts,” Journal of Applied Psychology, Vol.74, pp.152-156.Michaels, C. E. & Spector, P. E. (1982), “Causes of Employee Turnover: A test of the Mobley, Griffeth, Hand and Meglino Model,” Journal of Applied Psychology, Vol.67, pp.53-59.Milkovich , G. T. & Newman, J. M., (1993), Compensation, Homewood, IL: Irwin.Miller, D. & Toulouse, J. M., (1986), “Strategy, Structure, CEO Personality and Performance in Small Firms,” American Journal of Small Business, Vol.10, No.3, pp.47-62.Miller, H. E., Katerberg & Hulin, C. L., (1979), “Evaluation of the Mobley, Horner, and Hollingsworth Model of Employee Turnover,” Journal of Applied Psychology, Vol.64, pp.509-517.Mintzberg, H. & Waters, J. A., (1982), “Tracking Strategy In an Entrepreneurial Firm,” Academy of Management Journal, Vol.25, No.3, pp.465-499.Mitchel, J. O., (1981), “The Effect of Intertions Tenure, Personal, and Organizational Variables on Managerial Turnover,” Academy of Management Journal, Vol.24, No.4, pp.742-751.Mobley, W. H., (1977), “Intermediate Linkages in the Relationship Between Job Satisfaction and Employee Turnover,” Journal of Applied Psychology, Vol.62, No.2, pp.237-240.Mobley, W. H., (1982),”Some Unanswered Questions in Turnover and Withdrawal Research,” Academy of Management Review, Vol.7, pp.111-116.Mobley, W. H., Griffeth, Hand, H. H. & Meglino, B. M., (1979), “Review and Conceptual Analysis of the Employee Turnover Process,” Psychological Bulletin, Vol.86, No.3, pp.493-522.Mobley, W. H., Horner, S. O. & Holllingsworth, A. T., (1978), “An Evaluation of Precursors of hospital employee turnover,” Journal of Applied Psychology, Vol.63, pp.408-414.Moorman, R. H., (1993), “The Influence of Cognitive and Affective Based Job Satisfaction Measures on the Relationship Between Satisfaction and Organizational Citizenship Behavior,” Human Relations, Vol.46, pp.759-776.Moorman, Robert H., Niehoff, Brian P. & Organ, Dennis W.,(1993), “Treating Employees Fairly and Organizational Citizenship Behavior: Sorting the Effects of Job Satisfaction, Organizational Commitment, and Procedural Justice,” Employee Responsibilities and Right Journal, Vol.6, No.3, pp.209-225.Morris, J. H. & Sherman, J. D., (1981), “Generalizability of An organizational Commitment Model,” Academy of Management Journal, Vol.24, pp.512-516.Morrison, K. A., (1996), “An Empirical Test of a Model of Franchisee Job Satisfaction,” International Small Business Journal, Vol.34, No.2, pp.27-41.Morrison, K. A., (1997), “How Franchise Job Satisfaction and Personality Affects Performance, Organizational Commitment, Franchisor Relations, and Intention to Remain,” International Small Business Journal, Vol.35, No.3, pp.39-67.Morrow, P. G., (1983), “Concept Redundancy In Organizational Research: The Case of Work Commitment,” Academy of Management Review, Vol.8, pp.486-500.Mossholder, K. W., Bedeian, A. G., Norris, D. W., Giles, W. F. & Fiald, H. S., (1988), “Job Performance and Turnover Decisions: Two Field Studies,” Journal of Management, Vol.14, pp.403-414.Mowday, R. T., L. Porter & R. Dubin, (1974), “Unit performance, Situational Factors, and Employee Attitudes in Spatially Separated Work Units,” Organizational Behavior and Human Performance, Vol.12, pp.231-248.Mowday, R. T., Porter, L. M. & Steers, R. M., (1982), “Employee-Organization Linkages: The Psychology of Commitment, Absenteeism, and Turnover,” New York: Academic Press.Mowday, R. T., R. M. Steers & L. W. Porter, (1979), “The Measurement of Organizational Commitment,” Journal of Vocational Behavior, Vol.14, pp.224-247.Murphy, G. B., Trailer, J. W. & Hill, R. C, (1993), “Measuring Performance in Entrepreneurship Research: A Review of the Empirical Literature,” Proceedings of the Eigth Annual United States Association for Small Business and Entrepreneurship National Conference, pp.163-170.Newman, J. E., (1974), “Prediction Adsenteesim and Turnover: A Field Comparsion of Fishbein’s Model and Tradtional Jog Attitude Measure,” Journal of Applied Psychology, Vol.59, pp.610-615.Nord, W. R. & Doherty, E. M., (1994), “Toward An Improved Framework for Conceptualizing The Conflict Process,” Research on Negotiations In Organizations, Vol.4, pp.173-240, Greenwich, CT: JAI Press.Nunnally, J. C., (1978), Psychometric Theory, New York: McGraw Hill.O’ Reilly, C. A. III & Caldwell, D., (1981), “The Commitment and Job Tenure of New Employees: A Process of Post-Decisional Justification,” Administrative Science Quarterly, Vol.26, pp.597-616.Organ, D. W., (1988), “A Restatement of the Satisfaction-Performance Hypothesis,” Journal of Management, Vol.14, pp.547-557.Ostroff, C, (1992), “The Relationship Between Satisfaction, Attitudes, and Performance: An Organizational Level Analysis,” Journal of Applied Psychology, Vol.77, No.6, pp.963-974.Pavett, C. M. & Lau, A. W., (1983), “Managerial Work: The Influence of Hierarchical Level and Functional Specialty,” Academy of Management Journal, Vol.26, No.1, pp.170-177.Peterson, A. & Dant, R., (1990), “Perceived Advantages of the Franchise Option from the Franchisee Perspective: Empirical Insights from a Service Franchise,” Journal of Small Business Management, pp.46-61.Petty, M. M., McGee, G. W. & Cavender, J. W., (1984), “A Meta-Analysis of the Relationship Between Individual Job Satisfaction and Individual Performance,” Academy of Management Review, Vol.3, p712-721.Phan, P. H., Butler, J. E. & Lee, S. H., (1996), “Crossing Mother: Entrepreneur-Franchisees Attempts to Reduce Franchisor Influence,” Journal of Business Venturing, Vol.11, No.5, pp.379-402.Porter, A., (1973), “The Factorial Structure of Modernity: Empirical Replications and a Critique,” American Journal of Sociology, Vol.79, No.1, pp.15-44.Porter, L. W. & Lawler, E. E., (1968), Managerial Attitudes & Performance, Homewood, Illinos: Dorsey Press.Porter, L. W., & Steers, R. M., (1973), “Organizational Work, and Personal Factors in Employee Turnover and Absenteeism,” Psychological Bulletin, Vol.80, pp.151-176.Porter, L. W., Crampon, W. J. & Smith, F. J., (1976), “Organizational Commitment and Managerial Turnover: A Longitudinal Study,” Organizational Behavior and Human Performance, Vol.15, pp.87-98.Porter, L. W., Crampon, W. J. & Smith, F. J., Crampon & Smith, (1976), “Organizational Commitment and Managerial Turnover: A Longitudinal Study,” Organizational Behavior and Human Performance, Vol.15, pp.87-98.Porter, L. W., Steers, R. M., Mowday, R. T. & Boulian, P. V., (1974), “Organizational Commitment, Job Satisfaction and Turnover Among Psychiatric Technicians,” Journal of Applied Psychology, Vol.59, pp.603-609.Porter, M. E., (1980), Competitive Strategy: Techniques for Analyzing Industries and Competitors, New York: Free Press.Price, J. L. & Mueller, C. W., (1981), “A causal Model of Turnover for Nurses,” Academy of Management Journal, Vol.24, pp.543-565.Price, J. L. & Mueller, C. W., (1986), Handbook of Organization Measurement, Marshfield, MA: Pitman.Price, J. L., (1977), The Study of Turnover, Ames, Iowa: Iowa State Press.Randall, D. M., (1987), “Commitment and the organization: The Organization Man Revisited,” Academy of Management Review, Vol.12, No.3, pp.460-471.Randall, D. M., (1990), “The Consequences of Organizational Commitment: Methodological Investigation,” Journal of Organizational Behavior, Vol.11, pp.361-378.Rawls, J., (1973), A Theory of Justice, Cambridge, MA: Belknap Press of Harvard University Press.Reichers, Arnon E., (1985), “A Review and Reconceptualization of Organizational Commitment,” Academy of Management Review, Vol.10, No.3, pp.465-476.Reitz, H. J., (1977), Behavior in Organization, Illinois: Richard D. Irwin, Inc.Reuber, A. R. & Fischer, E. M., (1994), “Entrepreneurs’ Experience, Expertise, and the Performance of Technology-Based Firms,” IEEE Transactions on Engineering Management, Vol.4, No.41, pp.365-374.Reuber, A. R. & Fischer, E. M., (1994), “Entrepreneurs’ Experience, Expertise, and the Performance of Technology-Based Firms,” IEEE Transactions on Engineering Management, Vol.4, No.41, p365-374.Reuber, A. R., Dyke, L. S. & Fischer, E. M., (1990), “Experientially Acquired Knowledge and Entrepreneurial Venture Success,” In L. R. Jauch and J. L. Wall, Eds., Academy of Management Best Proceedings, pp.69-73, San Francisco.Reynolds, P. D., (1987), “New Firms: Social Contribution Versus Survival Potential,” Journal of Business Venturing, Vol.2, No.3, pp.231-246.Roberts J. A., Coulson K. R. & Chonko, L. B., (1999), “Salesperson Perceptions of Equity and Justice and Their Impact on Organizational Commitment and Intent to Turnover,” Journal of Marketing Theory and Practice, pp.1-16.Robinson, Jr., R. B. Salem, M. Y., Logan, J. E. & Pearce, II, J.A., (1986), “Planning Activities Related to Independent Retail Firm Performance,” American Journal of Small Business, Vol.11, No.1, pp.19-26.Robinson, K. C., (1998), “An Exanmination of The Influence of Industry Structure on Eight Alternative Measures of New Venture Performance for High Potential Independent New Ventures,” Journal of Business Venturing, Vol.14, pp.165-187.Romanoff, K., Boehm, k. & Benson, B., (1986), “Pay Equity: Internal and External Considerations,” Compensation and Benefits Review, Vol.18, pp.17-25.Rosemary, L. H. & Vodanvich, S. J., (1995), “A Field Study of Distributive and Procedural Justice as Predictors of Satisfaction and Organizational Commitment,” Journal of Business and Psychology, Vol.10, No.1, pp.99-114.Rosse, J. G., & Miller, H. E., (1984), “Relationship of Absenteeism and other employee behaviors,” In P. S. Goodman & R. S. Atkins Eds., Absenteeism: New Approaches to Understanding, Measuring, and Managing Employee Absence, pp.194-228, San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.Rousseau, D. M., (1985), “Issues of Level in Organizational Research: Multi-Level and Cross Level Perspctives,” Research in Organizational Behavior, Vol.7, pp.1-37.Rusbult, C. E. & Farrell, D., (1983), “A Longitudinal Test of The Investment Model: The Impact on Job Satisfaction, Job Commitment, and Turnover of Variations in Rewards, Costs, Alternatives, and Investments,” Journal of Applied Psychology, Vol.68, pp.429-438.Sager, J. K, Futrell, C. M. & Varadarajan, R., (1989), “Exploring Salesperson Turnover: A Causal Model,” Journal of Business Research, Vol.18, pp.303-326.Sager, J. K. & Johnston, M. W., (1989), “Antecedents and Outcomes of Organizational Commitment: A Study of Salespeople,” Journal of Personal Selling and Sales Management, Vol.9, pp.30-41.Sager, J. K., (1990), “How To Retain Salespeople,” Industrial Marketing Management, Vol.19, pp.155-166.Sager, J. K., (1991), “A Longitudinal Assessment of Change in Sales Force Turnover,” Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, Vol.19, No.1, pp.25-36.Sandberg, W. R. & Hofer, C. W., (1987), “The Effects of Strategy and Industry Structure on New Venture Performance,” In R. Ronstadt et al., Eds., Frontiers of Entrepreneurship Research, pp.224-266, Wellesley, MA: Babson College Center For Entrepreneurial Studies. Sandberg, W. R., (1986), New Venture Performance: The Role of Strategy and Industry Structure, Lexington, MA: Lexington Books.Sapienza, H. J., (1989), “Variations in Venture Capitalist-Entrepreneur Relations: Antecedents and Consequences,” Ph.D. Dissertation, The University of Maryland at College Park.Sapienza, H.J., Smith, K. G. & Gannon, M. J., (1988), “Using Subjective Evaluations of Organizational Performance in Small Business Research,” American Journal of Small Business, Vol.12, No.2, pp.45-53.Schein, E. H., (1987), “Individuals and Careers,” In J. Lorsch(Ed.), Hanndbok of organization Behavior, pp.155-171, Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.Schell. B. & McGillis, S., (1990), “Personality and Attitudinal Predictors of Commitment for Franchisees,” Journal of Small Business and Entrepreneurship, Vol.7, pp.40-62.Schermerhorn J. R., (1996), Management, New York: John Wiley & Son Inc.Schnake, M., (1991), “Organizational Citizenship: A Review, Proposed Model and Research Agenda,” Human Relations, Vol.44, pp.735-759.Schneider, B. & Bowen, D. E., (1985), “Employee and Customer Perceptions of Service in Banks: Replication and extension,” Journal of Applied Psychology, Vol.70, pp.423-433.Scoot, W. G., (1988), “The Management Governance Theories of Justice and Liberty," Journal of Management, Vol.14, pp.277-298.Seashore, S. E. & Taber, T. D., (1975), “Job Satisfaction and Their Correlations,” American Behavior and Scientists, Vol.18, pp.333-368.Sexton, D. L. & Bowman, N. B., (1984), “Comparative Entrepreneurships: Chararcteristics of Students”, In J. Hornady, J. Timmons & K. Vesper Eds., Frontiers of Entrepreneurship Research, pp.513-529, Wellesley, MA: Babson College.Seybolt, J. W., Pavett, C. & Walker, D. D., (1978), “Turnover Among Nurses: It can be managed”, Journal of Nursing Administration, Vol.8, No.9, pp.4-9.Shapiro, D. L. & Kirkman, B. L., (1999), “Employees’ Reaction to The Change to Work Teams: The Influence of “Anticipatory” Injustice,” Journal of Organizational Change Management, Vol.12, pp.51-66.Sheppard, B. H., Lewicki, R. J. & Minton, J. W., (1992), “Organizational Justice,” The Search for Fairness in the Workplace, New York. NY: Lexington Books.Sheridan, J. E. & Vredenburgh, D. J., (1979), “Structural Model of Leadership Influence in a Hospital Organization,” Academy of Management Journal, Vol.22, pp.6-21.Shore, L. M. & Martin, H. J., (1989), “Job Satisfaction and Organizational Commitment in Relation to Work Performance and Turnover Intentions,” Human Relations, Vol.42, pp.625-638.Shore, L. M., arksdale, K. & Shore, T. H., (1995), “Managerial Perceptions of Employee Commitment to the Organization,” Academy of Management Journal, Vol.38, pp.1593-1615.Siders, Mark A., George, Gerard & Dharwadkar, Ravi, (2001), “The Relationship of Internal and External Commitment Foci to Objective Job Performance Measures,” Academy of Management Journal, Vol.44, No.3, p570-579.Simth, P. C., Kendall, L. M. & Hulin, C. L., (1969), The Measurement of Satisfaction in Work and Retirement, Chicago: Rand McNally.Singer, M. S., (1992), “Procedural Justice in Managerial Selection: Identification of Fairness Determinants and Associations of Fairness Perceptions,” Social Justice Research, Vol.5, pp.49-70.Smith, Frank J., (1977), “Work Attitudes as Predictors of Specific Day Attendance,” Journal of Applied Psychology, Vol.62, pp.16-19.Stanworth, J., (1984), “The Impact of Franchising on the Development Prospects of Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises”, International Journal of Small Business Management, Vol.12, No.2, pp.12-20.Stanworth, J., (1994), “Penetrating the Mists Surrounding Franchise Failure Rates: Some Old Lessons from New Business,” International Small Business Journal, Vol.2, No.1, pp.59-63.Staw, B. M., Bell , N. E. & Clausen, J. A., (1986), “The Dispositional Approach to Job Attitudes: A Lifetime Longitudinal Test,” Administrative Science Quarterly, pp.56-77.Stearns, T. M., Carter, N. M., Reynolds, P. D. & Williams, M. L., (1995), “New Firm Survival: Industry, Strategy, and Location,” Journal of Business Venturing, Vol.10, No.1, pp.23-42.Steel, R. P. & Ovalle, N. K., (1984), “A Reive and Meta-Analysis of Research on the Relationship between Behavioral Intentions and Employee Turnover,” Journal of Applied Psychology, Vol.69, pp.673-686.Steers, R. M., (1977), “Antecedents and Outcome of Organization Commitment,” Administrative science quarterly, Vol.22, pp.46-56.Stuart, R. W. & Abetti, P. A., (1987), “Start-up Ventures: Towards the Predictions of early Success,” Journal of Business Venturing, Vol.2, pp.215-230.Stuart, R. W. & Abetti, P. A., (1990), “Impact of Entrepreneurial and Management Experience on Early Performance,” Journal of Business Venturing, Vol.5, pp.151-162.Stumpf, S. A. & Dawley, P. C., (1981), “Predicting Voluntary and Involuntary Turnover Using Absenteeism and Performance Indices”, Academy of Management Journal, Vol.24, pp.148-163.Sturman, M. C. & Trevor, C. O., (2001), “The Implications of Linking the Dynamic Performance and Turnover Literatures”, Journal of Applied Psychology, Vol.86, No.4, pp.684-696.Sweeney, P. D., McFarlin, D. B. & Inderrieden, E. J., (1990), “Using Relative Deprivation Theory to Explan Satisfaction with Income and Pay Level: A Multistudy Examination,” Academy of management Review, Vol.33, pp.423-436.Sykes, H. B., (1986), “Lessons from a new ventures program,” Harvard Business Review, pp.69-74.Szilagyi, A. D., (1979), “Keeping Employee Turnover under Control, Personnel,” The Management of People at Work, pp.42-52.Tang, Thomas Li-Ping & Sarsfield-Baldwin, Linda J., (1996), “Distributive and Procedural Justice as Related to Satisfaction and Commitment,” Sam Advance Management Journal , pp.25-31.Tannenbaum, J. A., (1993), “Disclosure Guidelines Advance; Texas Bill is Rewritten,” The Wall Street Journal, pp.31, B2.Teel, K. S., (1986), “Are Merit Raises Really Based on Merit?,” Personnel Journal, Vol.65, pp.88-95.Tett, R. P. & Meyer, J. P., (1993), “Job Satisfaction, Organizational Commitment, Turnover Intention, and Turnover: Path Analyses Based on Meta-Analytical Findings,” Personnel Psychology, Vol.46, pp.259-293.Thibaut, J. & Walker, L., (1976), “A Theory of Procedure,” California Low Review, Vol.66, No. , pp.541-566.Thibaut, J., and Walker, L., (1975), Procedural Justice: A Psychological Analysis, Hillsdale, NJ:Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.Thompson, A. A. & Strickland, A. J., (1989), Strategic Management: Concepts and Cases, Plano, TX: Business Publications Inc.Timmons, J. A., (1990), New Venture Creation: Entrepreneurship in the 1990s, Homewood, IL:Irwin.Timmons, J. A., Muzyka, D. F., Stevenson, H. H. & Bygrave, W. D., (1987), “Opportunity Recognition: The Core of Entrepreneurship,” In N. C. Churchill, J. A. Hornaday, B. A. Kirchhoff, O. J. Krasner, and K. H. Vesper, Eds., Frontiers of Entrepreneurship Research, pp.109-123, Wellesley, MA; Babson Center for Entrepreneurial Studies.Trembly, M., Sire, B. & B. B. David, (2000), “The Role of Organizational Justice in Pay and Employee Benefit Satisfaction, and Its Effects on Work Attitudes,” Group and Organization Management, Vol.25, pp.269-290.Trevor, C. O., (2001), “Interactions Among Actual Ease-of-Movement Determinants and Job Satisfaction in the Prediction of Voluntary Turnover,” Academy of Management Journal, Vol.44, No.4, pp.621-638.Trevor, C. O., Gerhart, B. & Boudreau, J. W., (1997), “Voluntary Turnover and Job Performance: Curvilinearity and the Moderating Influences of Salary Growth and Promotions,” Journal of Applied Psychology, Vol.82, pp.44-61.Tripp, T. M., Sondak, H. & Bies, R. J., (1995), “Justice As Rationality: A Relational Perspective on Fairness in Negotiations. In R. Bies, R. Lewicki & B. Sheppard Eds., Research on Negotiation In Organizations, Vol.5, pp.45-64, Greenwich, CT: JAI Press.Tyebjee, T. T. & Bruno, A. V., (1984), “A Model of Venture Capitalist Investment Activity,” Management Science, Vol.30, No.9, pp.1051-1066.Tyler, T. R., (1989), “The Psychology of Procedural Justice: A test of the Group-Value Model,” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, Vol.57, pp.853-883.Van Avermaet, E., McClintock, C. & Moskowitz, J., (1978), “Alternative approaches to equity: Dissonance Reduction, Pro-social Motivation and Strategies Accommodation,” European Journal of Social Psychology, Vol.8, pp419-437.Van De Ven, A. H., Hudson, R. & Schroeder, D. M., (1984), “Designing New Business Start-ups: Entrepreneurial, Organizational, and Ecological Considerations,” Journal of Management, Vol.10, No.1, pp.87-107.Van den Bos, K., Lind, E. A., Vermunt, R. & Wilke, H. A. M., (1997), “How Do I Judge My Outcomes When I Do Not Know The Outcome of Others? The Psychology of The Fair Process Effect”, Journal of Personality and Socail Psychology, Vol.72, p1034-1046.Venkatraman, N. & Ramanujam, V., (1986), “Measurement of Business Performance in Strategy Research: A Comparison of Approaches,” Academy of Management Review, Vol.11, pp.801-814.Vroom, V. H., (1962), “Ego-Involvement, Job Satisfaction and Job Performance,” Personnel Psychology, Vol.15, pp.159-177.Vroom, V. H., (1964), Work and Motivation, pp.99, New York: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.Walker, B. J., (1971), “An Investigation of Relative Overall Position Satisfaction and Need Gratification Among Franchised Businessmen,” Dissertation Abstracts International (University Microfilms No.72-17, 308)Walker, L, Lind, E. A. & Thibaut, J., (1979), “The Relation Between Procedural Justice and Distributive Justice,” Virginia Law Review, Vol.25, pp.1401-1420.Wallace, J., (1995), “Organizational and Professional Commitment in Professional and nonprofessional Organizations,” Administrative Science Quarterly, Vol.40, pp.228-255.Walsh, J. A. & White, J. F., (1981), “Small Business Ration Analysis: A Cautionary note to Consultants,” Journal of Small Business Management, Vol.3, pp.20-23.Walster , E, H. & Berscheted, E., (1978), Interpersonal Attraction, 2nd Ed., Reading, MA: Addition-Wesley.Walster, E., G. W. Walster & E. Berscheid, (1978), Equity: Theory and research, Boston: Allynand Bacon.Wanous, J. P., Stumpf, S. A. & Bedrosian, H., (1979), “Job Survival of New Employees,” Personnel Psychology, Vol.32, pp.651-662.Weinrauch, J.D., (1986), “Franchising an Established Business,” Journal of Small Business Management, Vol.24, No.3, pp.1-7.Weitz, J., (1952), “A Neglected Concept in the Study of Job Satisfaction,” Personnel Psychology, Vol.5, pp.201-205.Wells, D. L. & Muchinsky, P. M., (1985), “Performance Antecedents of Voluntary and Involuntary Turnover,” Journal of Applied Psychology, Vol.70, pp.329-336.Whellen T. L. & Hunger, J. D., (1989), Strategic Management and Business Policy, Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley.Whitener, E. M. & Walz, P. M., (1993), “Exchange Theory Determinants of Affective and Continuance Commitment and Turnover,” Journal of Vocational Behavior, Vol.42, pp.265-281.Whyte, W., (1956), The Organization Man, Garden City, New York: Doubleday Anchor Books.Wiener, Y., (1982), “Commitment in Organizations: A Normative View,” Academy of Management Review, Vol.7, pp.418-428.Williams L. J. & Anderson S. E., (1991), “Job Satisfaction and Organizational Commitment as Predictors of Organizational Citizenship and In-Role Behaviors,” Journal of Management, Vol.17, No.3, pp.601-617.Williams, C. R. & Livingstone, L. P., (1994), “Another Look at the Relationship between Performance and Voluntary Turnover,” Academy of Management Journal, Vol.37, pp.269-298.Williams, Larry J. & Hazer, John T., (1986), “Antecedents and Consequences of Satisfaction and Commitment in Turnover Models: A Reanalysis Using Latent Variable Structural Equation Methods,” Journal of Applied Psychology, Vol.71, No.2, pp.219-231.Withane, S., (1991), “Franchising and Franchisee Behavior: An Examination of Opinions. Personal Characteristics and Motives of Canadian Franchisee Entrepreneurs,” Journal of Small Business Management, Vol.29, No. , pp.22-29.Woo, C. Y., Cooper, A. C. & Dunkelberg, W. C., (1991), “The Development and Interpretation of Entrepreneurial Typologies,” Journal of Business Venturing, Vol.6, No.2, pp.93-114.Young, B. S., Worchel, S. & Woehr, D. J., (1998), “Organizational Commitment Among Public Service Employees,” Public Personnel Management, Vol.27, No.3, pp.339-350.
QRCODE
 
 
 
 
 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               
第一頁 上一頁 下一頁 最後一頁 top
無相關期刊