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研究生:蘇子炘
研究生(外文):Tzu-Hsin Su
論文名稱:模糊理論應用於顧客價值定位之研究
論文名稱(外文):Applying Fuzzy Theory on Customer Value Position
指導教授:徐村和徐村和引用關係
指導教授(外文):Tsuen-Ho Hsu
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立高雄第一科技大學
系所名稱:行銷與流通管理所
學門:商業及管理學門
學類:行銷與流通學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2002
畢業學年度:90
語文別:中文
論文頁數:118
中文關鍵詞:顧客價值定位模糊測度模糊多準則資訊整合理論
外文關鍵詞:information-integrated theorycustomer value positionfuzzy measuringfuzzy multi-criteria method
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顧客價值本身包含了效用、價值、利益與品質等概念在其中,使顧客心中的知覺價值往往是一個模糊的概念,不容易具體化且易受不同情境影響,更增加衡量與比較這些概念的困難度。因此,本研究結合模糊理論與資訊整合理論,發展一套正確、客觀的顧客價值評估模式。並採用效用導向觀點建立顧客價值的評估準則,研究目的包括:1.透過資訊整合實驗,分析不同零售業消費者的價值資訊整合型態。2.建構模糊多準則評估方法,以測度消費者知覺價值的模糊認知。3.在評估過程中,結合資訊整合實驗所獲致之結果,以客觀且正確的整合模式來進行運算,使評估結果更具實務性與可靠性,並發展顧客價值定位分析工具。
資訊整合實驗結果顯示,便利商店、超級市場、百貨公司與量販店之消費者皆採用「平均模式」,與效用導向觀點一致,即顧客價值=獲得效用+交易效用。顧客價值模糊測度結果則發現,不管環境變動程度( 值)與消費者的悲觀程度( 值)如何改變,便利商店、超級市場、百貨公司與量販店的顧客價值排序並無改變的情形發生,百貨公司與便利商店大致為一、二名,而量販店與超級市場大致為為三、四名,因此在四種零售業中,百貨公司與便利商店的競爭優勢較量販店與超級市場為佳。顧客價值定位分析之結果發現,便利商店、超級市場與百貨公司應從服務品質與產品品質兩方面著手來增加獲得效用方面的正面訊息;量販店應從知覺貨幣效用著手來增加交易效用方面的正面訊息,如此可以有效提升顧客價值。
本研究之主要貢獻如下:
一.提供在進行顧客價值測度時,有一客觀且正確的整合模式可茲運用,避免主觀上採用特定之資訊整合方式。
二.建立顧客價值綜合指數之層級架構。
三.在進行顧客價值模糊測度時,結合顧客價值資訊整合實驗之分析結果並據以發展為良好的顧客價值定位分析工具。
四.採用先行建構之模糊語意尺度,取代主觀決定均等劃分的模糊語意尺度,修正Liang and Wang (1991)所提出模糊數整合方法,如此可以更正確測度出受訪者的知覺價值認知程度。
五.提供廠商正確的顧客價值定位分析,以做為顧客價值管理的依據,如此才能有效提升顧客價值,進而增加廠商的競爭力及獲利能力。
Customer value itself contains utility, worth, benefits and quality concepts. They always are fuzzy concepts and affected by different situations, so it not easy to make it concrete and measure accurately. Therefore, this study combine fuzzy theory and information-integrated theory to develop an accurate and objective model for evaluating customer value. There are there research purposes. First, analyzing the customer value of different retailing consumers through information-integrated experiments. Second, establishing fuzzy multi-criteria evaluating model to measure consumers’ fuzzy concepts of perceived value. Third, combining the results of information-integrated experiments to build an objective and correct integrated model, which can increase reliability and practical utilities and help to develop customer value position tools.
Information-integrated experiments show that the consumers’ integrated models of convenience stores, super markets, department stores, and shopping malls all are “average model” the same with “utility-oriented value view”(value = acquisition utility + transaction utility). Customer value fuzzy measuring finds that no matter how large does the environment change( ratio)and how pessimistic are consumers’ attitude( ratio), the customer value rank is stable. Among them, department stores and convenience stores are almost the first and the second, however shopping malls and super markets are almost the third and the fourth. Therefore, department stores and convenience stores are more competitive than shopping malls and super markets. Finally, customer value position finds that convenience stores, super markets, and department stores will increase customer value by providing better service quality and product quality about acquisition utility and shopping malls should provide more perceived monetary utilities about transaction utility.
The main contributions of this thesis include:First, providing an objective and accurate integrated model to measure customer value avoiding using designated information-integrated model. Second, building the customer value hierarchic structure for customer value fuzzy measuring. Third, customer value fuzzy measuring combines customer value information-integrated experiments’ results to develop good customer value position tools. Fourth, adapting pre-building fuzzy linguistic scales to replace subjective fuzzy linguistic scale, which can correct the integrated methods(Liang and Wang 1991) to measure perceived value more accurately. Fifth, providing enterprises an accurate customer value tool to do better customer value management. Then, they can increase customer effectively and increase their competitive advantages and profitable abilities.
目 錄
中文摘要 ……………………………………………………I
英文摘要 ……………………………………………………III
誌謝 …………………………………………………………V
目錄…………………………………………………………VI
表目錄……………………………………………………VIII
圖目錄………………………………………………………IX
第一章 緒論…………………………………………………1
第一節 研究背景……………………………………………1
第二節 研究動機與目的……………………………………3
第三節 研究方法……………………………………………4
第四節 研究範圍……………………………………………4
第五節 研究流程……………………………………………5
第二章 文獻探討……………………………………………7
第一節 顧客價值……………………………………………7
一 、 顧客價值之概念源起與定義…………………………7
二 、 顧客價值構面與衡量方式…………………………10
三 、 顧客價值的內涵……………………………………19
四 、 討論與評析…………………………………………23
第二節 資訊整合理論……………………………………24
一 、 資訊整合理論………………………………………24
二 、 資訊整合模式………………………………………25
三 、 認知代數模式彙整…………………………………31
四 、 資訊整合模式之策略意涵…………………………32
五 、 資訊整合理論在行銷研究上的應用情形…………33
六 、 討論與評析…………………………………………34
第三節 模糊理論…………………………………………35
一 、 模糊集合理論………………………………………35
二 、 模糊多準則評估方法………………………………37
三 、 模糊理論在行銷研究上的應用情形………………39
四 、 討論與評析…………………………………………42
第三章 研究方法…………………………………………44
第一節 研究架構…………………………………………44
第二節 變項操作性定義…………………………………45
第三節 問卷設計…………………………………………47
第四節 顧客價值資訊整合實驗…………………………49
第五節 顧客價值模糊綜合指數建構……………………55
第四章 研究結果與討論…………………………………66
第一節 顧客價值資訊整合實驗分析……………………66
一 、 實驗變項操控的檢驗………………………………66
二 、 群體分析……………………………………………67
三 、 顧客價值資訊整合模式綜合討論…………………73
第二節 顧客價值模糊綜合指數建構……………………75
一 、 效度與信度分析……………………………………75
二 、 顧客價值模糊綜合指數實例分析…………………76
三 、 顧客價值模糊測度綜合討論………………………85
第三節 顧客價值定位分析………………………………86
一 、 獲得效用與交易效用整體定位分析………………86
二 、 個別零售業之定位分析……………………………88
三 、 顧客價值定位分析綜合討論………………………92
第五章 結論與建議………………………………………93
第一節 研究結論…………………………………………93
第二節 行銷意涵…………………………………………96
第三節 研究貢獻…………………………………………98
第四節 研究限制…………………………………………100
第五節 後續研究之建議…………………………………101
參考文獻………………………………………………… 102
中文參考文獻 ……………………………………………102
英文參考文獻……………………………………………104
附錄一 顧客價值資訊整合實驗…………………………109
附錄二 顧客價值模糊測度問卷…………………………116
表 目 錄
表2-1-1 價值理論的分類…………………………………………8
表2-1-2 顧客價值定義……………………………………………10
表2-1-3 顧客價值(單一構面)國外相關文獻…………………12
表2-1-4 顧客價值(單一構面)國內相關文獻…………………14
表2-1-5 顧客價值(多重構面)國外相關研究…………………15
表2-1-6 顧客價值(多重構面)國內相關研究…………………16
表2-1-7 顧客價值衡量方式………………………………………17
表2-2-1 資訊整合理論國外相關研究……………………………33
表2-2-2 資訊整合理論國內相關研究……………………………34
表2-3-1 模糊語意變數之應用……………………………………40
表2-3-2 模糊多層級分析之應用…………………………………41
表2-3-3 模糊綜合評判之應用……………………………………42
表3-3-1 各研究變項的衡量………………………………………46
表3-4-1 受試者內實驗設計概念…………………………………50
表4-1-1 獲得效用的操控檢驗(N=120) …………………………67
表4-1-2 交易效用的操控檢驗(N=120) …………………………67
表4-1-3 受試者在各種實驗刺激下知覺價值的變異數分析……68
表4-1-4 受試者在各種實驗刺激下知覺價值的變異數分析……70
表4-1-5 受試者在各種實驗刺激下知覺價值的變異數分析……71
表4-1-6 受試者在各種實驗刺激下知覺價值的變異數分析……73
表4-1-7 顧客價值資訊整合公式…………………………………74
表4-2-1 本研究問卷的信度分析…………………………………75
表4-2-2 模糊語意尺度……………………………………………76
表4-2-3 次準則重要性程度統計表(單位:人次)……………78
表4-2-4 準則重要性程度統計表(單位:人次)………………78
表4-2-5 次目標重要性程度統計表(單位:人次)……………78
表4-2-6 模糊權重集………………………………………………79
表4-2-7 標準化權重集……………………………………………79
表4-2-8 次準則模糊效用評價集…………………………………80
表4-2-9 各零售業準則模糊效用評價集…………………………81
表4-2-10 各零售業次目標模糊校評價集 ………………………81
表4-2-11 顧客價值綜合指數( 及 ) …………………………82
表4-3-11 時,在不同 值下各零售類型之顧客價值綜合評價…83
表4-2-12 時,在不同 值下各零售類型之顧客價值綜合評價…84
表4-2-13 時,在不同 值下各零售類型之顧客價值綜合評價…84
表4-3-1 各零售類型顧客價值決定因素…………………………87
表5-1-1 顧客價值定位分析………………………………………95
圖 目 錄
圖1-5-1 本研究流程…………………………………………………6
圖2-1-1 有關價格、品質與價值之MEANS-END MODEL………20
圖2-1-2 顧客價值金三角……………………………………………22
圖2-2-1 資訊整合理論之函數衡量圖………………………………25
圖2-3-1 三角模糊數…………………………………………………36
圖3-4-1 資訊整合實驗程序…………………………………………51
圖3-5-1 顧客價值評估準則層級分析架構…………………………56
圖3-5-2 顧客價值模糊測度發展流程………………………………57
圖3-5-3 模糊語意尺度建構流程……………………………………58
圖3-5-4 模糊德菲法示意圖…………………………………………59
圖3-5-5 模糊語意尺度圖……………………………………………61
圖4-1-1 受試者(N=30)知覺價值之因子圖形(含關鍵測試)…68
圖4-1-2 受試者(N=30)知覺價值之因子圖形(含關鍵測試)…69
圖4-1-3 受試者(N=30)知覺價值之因子圖形(含關鍵測試)…71
圖4-1-4 受試者(N=30)知覺價值之因子圖形(含關鍵測試)…72
圖4-2-3 時,在不同 值下各零售類型之顧客價值綜合評價模擬圖…83
圖4-2-4 時,在不同 值下各零售類型之顧客價值綜合評價模擬圖…84
圖4-2-5 時,在不同 值下各零售類型之顧客價值綜合評價模擬圖…85
圖4-3-1 獲得效用與交易效用定位圖…………………………………86
圖4-3-2 獲得效用與交易效用之關係圖………………………………87
圖4-3-3 顧客價值定位圖………………………………………………89
圖4-3-4 顧客價值決定因素關係圖……………………………………89
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