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研究生:陳昭獻
研究生(外文):Chao-Shian Chen
論文名稱:銷售人員之人格特質與其長期顧客關係導向之關聯性研究
論文名稱(外文):A Study on the Association Between Salespeople’s Personality Traits and Their Long-Term Customer Relationship Orientation
指導教授:黃鵬飛黃鵬飛引用關係
指導教授(外文):Perng-Fei Huang
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立高雄第一科技大學
系所名稱:行銷與流通管理所
學門:商業及管理學門
學類:行銷與流通學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2002
畢業學年度:90
語文別:中文
論文頁數:150
中文關鍵詞:人格特質長期顧客關係導向營業績效銷售人員
外文關鍵詞:personality traitslong-term customer relationship orientationsales performancesalespeople
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論文摘要
現今行銷管理的一個重要潮流是關係行銷、顧客關係管理及夥伴關係式的銷售,其目的均在建立、維持、及發展與交易夥伴的長期關係。過去的相關研究,大多集中在關係的建立及發展模式、關係的維持動力如關係特別投資、滿意、信任與承諾等關鍵變數、以及資料庫的建立及應用。較少受到注意的領域之一為「長期顧客關係」的影響因素,特別是個人層次的銷售人員之人格特質與其長期顧客關係導向之關聯,以及長期顧客關係導向是否確實與營業績效相關。
本研究跨越心理學、組織行為、銷售管理及關係行銷領域,目的在探討(1)銷售人員的人格特質(A/B型、權謀主義、誠實正直、親和性、外向性、自我監控、內外控、自尊、自我效能、個人/群體主義)與其長期顧客關係導向之間的關係,以及(2)長期顧客關係導向與營業績效之間的關聯。
本研究以問卷為調查工具,用人員訪問與郵寄問卷的方式進行調查,並針對兩種不同產業類型─主動拜訪型銷售人員的企業(如保險業)及被動接受型銷售人員的企業(如超商與百貨公司)─之銷售人員進行調查,以探討前述研究問題並比較兩種類型銷售人員的認知差異以及檢視人口統計變數的干擾效果。本研究問卷共發出1,000份,回收之有效問卷為612份,樣本資料以Pearson相關分析、t檢定、複迴歸分析、多變量變異數分析來加以檢測並驗證研究假設。
本研究之研究結果顯示,在十一項假設中有八項獲得支持,即銷售人員之親和性、正直盡責、外向性、自尊、及自我效能等五項人格特質與長期顧客關係導向呈正相關;銷售人員之權謀主義及個人/群體主義等二項人格特質與長期顧客關係導向呈負相關;而A/B型、自我監控、以及內外控等三項人格特質,則與長期顧客關係導向無顯著之關聯性。還有銷售人員之長期顧客關係導向與其營業績效也為正向關係。本研究進一步發現主動型與被動型銷售人員在權謀主義、長期顧客關係導向、及營業績效等三變數中具有顯著差異,其餘變數則無顯著差異。

本研究主要為探討銷售人員之人格特質與其長期顧客關係導向,以及後者與營業績效之關聯性研究,雖然僅為一初探性之研究,但已為此方面的研究做出貢獻,可稍微彌補關係行銷研究上較少以銷售人員之個人層次作為研究單位以及欠缺探討個人個性特質與長期顧客關係導向之關係的研究缺口。本研究的結果也可以幫助業界人士了解哪些個性特質與長期顧客關係有關,以協助彼等有效甄選具長期關係導向的銷售人員以提高其關係行銷的效果。最後,本研究依據研究發現對學術界與企業界提出一些建議,並指出本研究之限制與未來研究的方向。
ABSTRACT

Nowadays one important steam in the field of marketing management concentrates on the study of relationship marketing, customer relationship management, and partnership selling. However, most researches have focued on the modeling of relationship initiation and development, the antecedents and outcomes of relationships maintenance such as relationship-specific investment, satisfaction, trust, and commitment, and the creation and application of database. Relatively less noticed areas include the study of the individual level relationships between salespeople personality traits and their long-term customer relationship orientation, and of the association between long-term orientation and sales performance.
The purpose of the study is to integrate the fields of psychology, organizational behavior, sales management, and relationship marketing to examine:(1) the relationships between ten sorts of personality traits of salespeople and their long-term customer relationship orientation, and (2) the relationship between long-term orientation and sales performance.
The respondents to the questionnaire survey of the study include 612 salespeople from two different types of industries: salespeople with active searching-for-customers (e.g., in insurance firms) and those with passive receiving-customers (e.g., in convenience stores and department stores). The aim of this design is to compare perceptions between two types of the salespeople, and to explore possible moderating effects of demographic variables. The study employed Pearson correlation analysis, t-test, multiple regression analysis, and multivariate analysis of variance to analyze the data and to test the hypotheses.
Research results of the study revel that the relationships between five sorts of salespeople personality traits (agreeableness, conscientiousness, extraversion, self-esteem, and self-efficacy) and their long-term customer relationship orientation were significantly and positively related, and that the relationships between two sorts of personality traits (machiavellianism and individualism/collectivism) and long-term customer relationship orientation were negatively connected. However, the relationships between salespeople three sorts of personality traits(type A/B, self-monitoring, and locus of control and long-term customer relationship orientation were not significant. In addition, the relationship between salespeople long-term customer relationship orientation and their sales performance was found to be positive. Results also indicate that different types of salespeople were characterized differently in machiavellianism, long-term customer relationship orientation, and sales performances.
Although this study is simply exploratory in nature, it should have some contributions for relationship marketing research. It may offset the inadequacy of using salespeople as units of analysis in relationship measurement, and has addressed the research gap on the relationships between personality traits and long-term customer relationship orientation. The research findings can also help practitioners know what sorts of personality traits are strongly connected with long-term customer relationship orientation, which in turn may assist practitioners in selecting ”right” employees for improving their relationship marketing efforts. Finally, some directions for future research have been suggested.
目 錄
中文摘要……………………………………………………………………………….Ⅰ
英文摘要……………………………………………………………………………….Ⅲ
誌謝…………………………………………………………………………………….Ⅴ
目錄…………………………………………………………………………………….Ⅵ
表目錄………………………………………………………………………………….Ⅷ
圖目錄………………………………………………………………………………….XI

第一章緒論…………………………………………………………………….1
第一節研究背景與動機……………………………………………………….1
第二節研究目的及研究問題………………………………………………….3
第三節本研究的重要性……………………………………………………….4

第二章文獻探討……………………………………………………………...5
第一節人格特質……………………………………………………………….5
第二節人格特質與組織成員行為之間的關聯……………………………...20
第三節本研究未採用的人格特質類型……………………………………...32
第四節長期顧客關係導向. ………………………………………………….39
第五節銷售人員的人格特質、長期顧客關係導向及營業績效之間的關聯43

第三章研究方法…………………………………………………………….……..50
第一節研究架構……………………………………………………………...50
第二節研究假設……………………………………………………………...51
第三節變數的定義與衡量…………………………………………………...57
第四節研究設計……………………………………………………………...65
第五節前測與實測…………………………………………………………...68

第四章資料分析與討論…………………………………………………………...76
第一節樣本描述……………………………………………………………...76
第二節信度分析……………………………………………………………...82
第三節變數之描述性統計分析……………………………………………...83
第四節假設檢定……………………………………………………………...86
第五節人格特質變數對長期顧客關係導向之相對重要性………………...92
第六節不同銷售人員類型在人格特質變數與長期顧客關係導向之關聯性以及
在長期顧客關係導向與營業績效間之關聯性的比較………...95
第七節人格統計變數之影響………………………………………………...97

第五章結論與建議……………………………………………………………….109
第一節研究發現與行銷涵意……………………………………………….109
第二節建議………………………………………………………………….116
第三節研究限制與未來研究方向………………………………………….118

參考文獻…………………………………………………………….………………..120
附錄一…………………………………………………………….…………………..137
附錄二…………………………………………………………….…………………..142
附錄三…………………………………………………………….…………………..147







表 目 錄

表2-1:A型人格特質………………………………………………………………….10
表2-2:B型人格特質…………………………………………………………………10
表2-3:權謀主義人格特質……………………………………………………………11
表2-4:自我監控者的特徵……………………………………………………………15
表2-5:內外控者的特徵………………………………………………………………17
表2-6:自尊的特徵……………………………………………………………………18
表3-1:先前研究對A/B型人格特質的衡量方式……………………………………58
表3-2:本研究對A/B型人格特質的衡量方式………………………………………58
表3-3:先前研究對權謀主義特質的衡量方式………………………………………58
表3-4:本研究對權謀主義人格特質的衡量方式……………………………………58
表3-5:先前研究對正直盡責特質的衡量方式………………………………………59
表3-6:本研究對正直盡責人格特質的衡量方式……………………………………59
表3-7:先前研究對親和性特質的衡量方式…………………………………………59
表3-8:本研究對親和性人格特質的衡量方式………………………………………59
表3-9:先前研究對外向性特質的衡量方式…………………………………………60
表3-10:本研究對外向性人格特質的衡量方式…………………………………….. 60
表3-11:先前研究對自我監控人格特質的衡量方式………………………………...60
表3-12:本研究對自我監控人格特質的衡量方式…………………………………. .60
表3-13:先前研究對內外控人格特質的衡量方式…………………………………...61
表3-14:本研究對內外控人格特質的衡量方式…………………………………….. 61
表3-15:先前研究對自尊人格特質的衡量方式……………………………………. .61
表3-16:本研究對自尊人格特質的衡量方式………………………………………. .61
表3-17:先前研究對自我效能人格特質的衡量方式………………………………...62
表3-18:本研究對自我效能人格特質的衡量方式………………………………….. 62
表3-19:先前研究對個人/群體主義人格特質的衡量方式…………………………. 62
表3-20:本研究對個人/群體主義人格特質的衡量方式……………………………. 62
表3-21:先前研究對長期導向的衡量方式…………………………………………...63
表3-22:先前研究對顧客導向的衡量方式………………………………………….. 63
表3-23:本研究對長期顧客關係導向的衡量方式………………………………….. 63
表3-24:先前研究對營業績效的衡量方式…………………………………………...64
表3-25:本研究對營業績效的衡量方式…………………………………………….. 64
表3-26:第一次前測信度分析彙總表………………………………………………...69
表3-27:第二次前測信度分析彙總表………………………………………………...72
表3-28:問卷發放與回收表…………………………………………………………...75
表4-1:受訪者之性別分布表………………………………………………………….76
表4-2:受訪者之年齡分布表………………………………………………………….77
表4-3:受訪者之婚姻狀況分布表…………………………………………………….78
表4-4:受訪者之教育程度分布表…………………………………………………….78
表4-5:受訪者之產業別分布表……………………………………………………….79
表4-6:受訪者之階級分布表………………………………………………………….79
表4-7:受訪者之每月薪資所得分布表……………………………………………….80
表4-8:銷售人員認知顧客建立長期關係之原因表………………………………….81
表4-9:銷售人員認知顧客中止關係之原因表……………………………………….81
表4-10:實測的信度彙總表…………………………………………………………...82
表4-11:人格特質變數之描述性分析與銷售人員類型比較表………………………84
表4-12:不同銷售人員類型之長期顧客關係導向與營業績效的描述性分析及差異
比較…………………………...……………………………………………..85
表4-13:人格特質變數與長期顧客關係導向之相關係數表……………………….87
表4-14:長期顧客關係導向與營業績效之相關係數表……………………………...91
表4-15:複迴歸分析之變異數分析摘要表………………………………………..….93
表4-16:人格特質對長期顧客關係導向之複迴歸分析摘要表……………………...94
表4-17:人格特質、營業績效與長期顧客關係導向間比較關係之X2表……………96
表4-18:性別與職級在各變數得分之差異比較……………………………………...98
表4-19:不同年齡層在各變數的多變量變異數分析之顯著性檢定………………...99
表4-20:不同年齡層在各變數之單因子變異數分析…………...…………………..100
表4-21:不同年齡層在各變數之Scheffe與Tukey 事後多重比較結果…………..100
表4-22:不同婚姻狀況在各變數的多變量變異數分析之顯著性檢定…………….101
表4-23:不同婚姻狀況在各變數之單因子變異數分析…………….………………101
表4-24:不同婚姻狀況在各變數之Scheffe與Tukey 事後多重比較結果……….102
表4-25:不同教育程度在各變數的多變量變異數分析之顯著性檢定…………….103
表4-26:不同教育程度在各變數之單因子變異數分析…………………………….103
表4-27:不同教育程度在各變數之Scheffe與Tukey事後多重比較結果………….104
表4-28:不同所得水準在各變數的多變量變異數分析之顯著性檢定…………….104
表4-29:不同所得水準在各變數之單因子變異數分析…………………………….105
表4-30:不同所得水準在各變數之Scheffe與Tukey事後多重比較結果………….105
表4-31:不同產業別在各變數的多變量變異數分析之顯著性檢定……………….107
表4-32:不同產業別在各變數之單因子變異數分析…………………….…………107
表4-33:不同產業別在各變數之Scheffe與Tukey事後多重比較結果…………….108
表4-34:假設一至假設十一之驗證結果彙總表……………………………………110




圖 目 錄

圖一:本研究之研究架構………………………………………………………….…50
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