跳到主要內容

臺灣博碩士論文加值系統

(34.204.172.188) 您好!臺灣時間:2023/09/27 16:26
字體大小: 字級放大   字級縮小   預設字形  
回查詢結果 :::

詳目顯示

我願授權國圖
: 
twitterline
研究生:欒文文
研究生(外文):Luan, Wen-Wen
論文名稱:有機污染物吸附脫附機制影響現地沖洗法效率之探討
論文名稱(外文):Evaluation of In-situ Flushing Efficiency Affected by Sorption/Desorption Mechanism of Organic Contaminants
指導教授:陳士賢陳士賢引用關係
指導教授(外文):Colin S. Chen
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立高雄師範大學
系所名稱:生物科學研究所
學門:生命科學學門
學類:生物學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2003
畢業學年度:90
語文別:中文
論文頁數:109
中文關鍵詞:吸附脫附現地沖洗
外文關鍵詞:sorptiondesorptionIn-situ Flushing
相關次數:
  • 被引用被引用:1
  • 點閱點閱:197
  • 評分評分:
  • 下載下載:0
  • 收藏至我的研究室書目清單書目收藏:2
在土壤及地下水系統中,污染物的行為與宿命深受到吸附脫附機制的影響,此機制也會干擾污染場址的復育成效,故深入瞭解此機制實有其必要性,本研究使用標準材質模擬土壤顆粒,目的在於減少真實土壤中的各種變因,以期能夠評估土壤有機碳含量對吸附脫附機制及現地沖洗法效率之影響。
本研究以標準材質silica gel及C-18為吸附劑分別模擬土壤顆粒及土壤有機物質,配製不同有機碳含量比例之標準吸附機,針對多環狀碳氫化合物,進行吸附脫附實驗,並佐以真實土壤數據加以驗證。第一階段進行批次實驗,分別使用以二氯甲烷稀釋100倍之柴油與naphthalene、acenaphthene及pyrene之水溶液,進行分佈實驗,推估固態物質對化合物的吸附量;第二階段實驗則將各吸附劑填入內徑0.46公分、長5公分之不銹鋼管柱,分別以去離子水、50%體積百分濃度之乙醇及4000 mg/L之Makon 10界面活性劑水溶液進行沖洗,收集流出液以探討其脫附現象對復育成果之影響。
實驗結果顯示批次實驗中以標準材質所得的方程式可用於推估不同有機碳含量下的化合物吸附量,但使用於真實土壤時會有高估的現象,原因為有機物質不同的成分對化合物有不同的吸附能力,故建議欲以有機碳含量推估吸附係數時,需考慮不同吸附劑成分的Koc值,個別乘上其所佔的比例後相加,方可得到較準確的吸附係數。管柱實驗以不同溶劑沖刷後進行比較,以去離子水進行沖洗之出流液中持續有PAHs,而以50%乙醇沖洗時,可在約5-10倍孔隙體積內移除大部分的化合物,Makon 10沖洗之出流液中PAHs之濃度則呈震盪無特定移除高峰,以沖洗前後固相連續萃取所得總量相減,則顯示50%乙醇沖洗效果較佳。
Mechanisms of sorption and desorption significantly influence the fate and transport of contaminants in the subsurface environment, in particular, for those hydrophobic organic compounds (HOCs) sorbed onto soil particles. The sorption/desorption phenomena of HOCs affect the efficiency of remediation in contaminated sites. The objective of this study is to evaluate the effect of soil organic carbon content onto sorption and desorption mechanisms of HOCs.
A series of experiments were designed in this study. The standard materials as sorbent were prepared by silica gel and C-18. The batch experiments were conducted by partitioning diesel fuel of single polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) compound (i.e., napthalene, acenaphthene, and pyrene) into sorbents to evaluate phase distribution of these sorbate onto various sorbents (varied ratio of silica gel and C-18). In column experiments, standard materials with various organic carbon contents were contaminated with PAHs and packed into columns. The column was flushed with water, ethanol, or surfactant (i.e., Makon 10) to evaluate the desorption of PAHs.
The sorption of PAHs onto sorbents is affected by the organic carbon content. The increase of sorption coefficient (Kp) is proportional to the increase of organic carbon content (foc). However, certain deviation was observed due to the low solubility of some PAHs used in this study. The desorption of PAHs by water, cosolvent, and surfactant flushing suggested that facilitated desorption of PAHs was observed while applying cosolvents and surfactants. More desorbed PAHs were observed in the experiment using standard materials due to the less degree of heterogeneity.
中文摘要
英文摘要
壹、前言
貳、原理與背景
一、污染物在環境中的宿命與傳輸
1、污染物的來源
2、污染物的宿命與行為
3、污染物的傳輸
二、土壤之組成
三、污染物之吸持機制
四、吸附理論簡介
1、平衡吸附反應
2、非平衡性吸附反應
五、吸附動力學模式
1、One-box model
2、Two-box model
3、Diffusion model
六、污染場址復育技術介紹
1、土壤蒸汽萃取法
2、化學萃取/土壤沖洗法
3、固化/穩定化法
4、熱處理法
5、阻絕技術
6、生物處理技術
七、共同溶劑簡介
八、界面活性劑簡介
參、材料與方法
一、選定目標污染物
1、多環狀碳氫化合物
2、配置目標污染物標準液
二、吸附劑來源及處理
1、標準材質
2、真實土壤
三、氣相層析儀
四、實驗流程
1、吸附劑PAHs含量之測定
2、柴油中PAHs化合物含量之測定
3、單一及混合PAHs水溶液
4、批次實驗
5、管柱實驗
肆、結果與討論
一、吸附劑之PAHs含量
二、柴油中PAHs化合物含量之測定
三、單一及混合PAHs水溶液
四、批次實驗
1、稀釋100倍之柴油
2、Naphthalene水溶液
3、Acenaphthene水溶液
4、Pyrene水溶液
5、三種PAHs混合水溶液
6、討論
五、管柱實驗
1、填充有機碳含量2.93%之標準材質
2、填充有機碳含量2.93%之真實土壤
3、填充有機碳含量4.85%之標準材質
4、填充有機碳含量4.85%之真實土壤
伍、總結
陸、參考文獻
附錄一、批次實驗結果詳表
附錄二、十六種PAHs檢量線
附錄三、層析圖譜 (chromatogram)
田恆,2001年,界面活性劑沖洗法對土壤有機污染物移除效率之評估,國立高雄師範大學生物科學研究所,69頁。
黃翠瑩,2001年,共同溶劑沖洗法對土壤有機污染物宜除效率之研究,國立高雄師範大學生物科學研究所,107頁。
中國石油公司網頁,http://www.cpc.com.tw/products/prod_fuel.htm。2002年。
Ball, W.P., and Roberts, P.V. 1991. Long-term Sorption of Halogenated Organic Compounds by Aquifer Material. II. Intra-particle Diffusion. Environmental Science & Technology, 25(7), 1237-1248.
Banerjee, S. 1984. Solubility of Organic Mixtures in Water. Environmental Science & Technology, 18(8), 587-591.
Brady, N.C. and Weil, R.R. 1996. The Nature and Properties of Soils., Prentice Hall, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ, p.101-108, 346-384.
Brown, T.L., LeMay, H.E., and Bursten, B.E. 1994. Chemistry., Prentice Hall Inc., Englewood Cliffs, NJ, p.373-381.
Brusseau, M.L., Jessup, R.E., and Rao, P.S.C. 1991a. Nonequilibrium Sorption of Organic Chemicals: Elucidation of Rate-limiting Process. Environmental Science & Technology, 25(1), 134-142.
Brusseau, M.L., Larsen, T., and Christensen, T.H. 1991b. Rate-Limited Sorption and Nonequilibrium Transport of Organic Chemicals in Low Organic Carbon Aquifer Materials. Water Resources research,27(6), 1137-1145.
Chen, C.S., Rao, P.S.C., and Lee, L.S. 1996. Evaluation of Extraction and Detection Methods of Determining Polynuclear Aromatic Hydrocarbons from Coal Tar Contaminated Soils, Chemosphere, 22, 1123-1132.
Chiou, C.T., Porter P.E., and Schmeddlng, D.W. 1983. Partition Equilibria of Nonionic Organic Compounds between Soil Organic Matter and Water. Environmental Science & Technology, 17(4), 227-231.
Chiou, C.T., McGroddy S.E., and Kile, D.E. 1998. Partition Characteristics of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons on Soils and Sediments. Environmental Science & Technology, 32(2), 264-269.
Cline, P.V., Delfino, J.J., and Rao, P.S.C. 1991. Partition of Aromatic Constituents into Water from Gasoline and Other Complex Solvent Mixtures. Environmental Science & Technology, 25(5), 914-920.
Cohen, Y. 1986. Organic Pollutant Transport. Environmental Science & Technology, 20(6), 538-544.
Garbarini, D.R., and Lion, L.W. 1986. Influence of the Nature of Soil Organics on the Sorption of Toluene and Trichloroethylene. Environmental Science & Technology, 20(12), 1263-1269.
Goltz, M.N., and Roberts, P.V. 1987. Using the Method of Moments to Analyze Three-dimensional Diffusion Limited Solute Transport from Temporal and Spatial Perspectives, Water resources Research, 23(8), 1575-1585.
Hong, H., Wang, L., Han, S., Zhang, Z., and Zou, G. 1997. Prediction of Soil Adsorption Coefficient Koc for Phenylthio, Phenylsulfinyl, and Phenylsulfonyl acetates. Chemosphere, 34, 827-834.
Karickhoff, S.W., Brown, D.S., and Scott, T.A. 1979. Sorption of Hydrophobic Pollutants on Nature Sediments. Water research. 13, 241-348.
Karickhoff, S.W. 1981. Semi-empirical Estimation of Sorption of Hydrophobic Pollutants on Natural Sediments and Soils. Chemosphere. 10, 833-846.
Krauss, M., and Wilcke, W. 2001. Predicting Soil – Water Partition of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons and Polychlorinated Biphenyls by Desorption With Methanol- Water Mixtures at Different Temperatures. Environmental Science & Technology, 35(11), 2319-2325.
Mackay, D.M., Roberts, P.V., and Cherry, J.A. 1985. Transport of Organic Contaminants in Groundwater. Environmental Science & Technology, 19(5), 384-392.
Means, J.C., Wood, S.G., Hassett, J.J., and Banwart, W.L. 1980. Sorption of Polynuclear Aromatic Hydrocarbons by Sediments and Soils. Environmental Science & Technology, 14, 1524-1528.
Montgomery, J.H., and Welkom, L.M. 1991. Groundwater Chemicals Desk Reference, Lewis Publishers Inc., Chelsea, Michigan.
Rao, P.S.C., Lee, L.S., and Pinal, R. 1990. Cosolvency and Sorption of Hydrophobic Organic Chemicals. Environmental Science&Technology, 24, 647-654.
Rao, P.S.C., and Hornsby, A.G. 1991. Behavior of Pesticides in Soils and Water. Soil Science Fact Sheet, SL-40, Institute of Food and Agricultural Science, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL.
Rao, P.S.C., Bellin, C.A., and Lee, L.S. 1995. In Huang, P.M. Eds., Environmental Impact of Soil Component Interactions, Lewis Publishers, Boca Raton, FL, p.263-274.
Rutherford, D.W., Chiou, C.T., and Klle, D.E. 1992 Influence of Soil Organic Matter Composition on the Partition of Organic Compounds. Environmental Science&Technology, 26, 336-340.
Schwarzenbach, R.P. and Westall, J. 1981. Transport of Nonpolar Organic Compounds from Surface Water to Groundwater. Environmental Science & Technology, 15, 1360-1367.
Schwarzenbach, R.P., Gschwend, P.M., and Imboden, D.M. 1993. Environmental Organic Chemistry. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York, NY, p.255-341.
U.S. EPA, 1996. Soil Screening Guidance: Teachnical Background Document. EPA 540/R-95/128, U. S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC.
U.S. EPA, 1999. Fundamentals of Soil Science as Applicable to Management of Hazardous Wastes. EPA 540/S-98/500, U. S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC.
Watts, R.J. 1998. Hazardous Wastes : Sources, Pathways, Receptors. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York, NY, p.254-281.
Worral, F., Parker, A., Rau, J.E., and Johnson, A. 1997. A Study of the Adsorption Kinetics of Isoproturon on Soil and Subsoil. Chemosphere, 34, 71-86.
Wu, S.C., and Gschwend, P.M. 1986. Sorption Kinetics of Hydrophobic Organic Compounds to Natural Sediments and Soils. Environmental Science & Technology, 20(7), 717-725.
QRCODE
 
 
 
 
 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               
第一頁 上一頁 下一頁 最後一頁 top