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研究生:吳妍姿
研究生(外文):Yen-tzu Wu
論文名稱:單一故事中的集體歷史性:席爾柯小說<<儀式>>的神話閱讀
論文名稱(外文):A Collective History within a Single Story: A Mythological Reading of Leslie Marmon Silko's Ceremony
指導教授:黃心雅黃心雅引用關係
指導教授(外文):Hsin-ya Huang
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立高雄師範大學
系所名稱:英語學系
學門:人文學門
學類:外國語文學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2002
畢業學年度:90
語文別:英文
中文關鍵詞:席爾柯萊思麗儀式美國印地安文學康包爾的<<千面英雄 >>
外文關鍵詞:Leslie Marmon SilkoCeremonyNative American LiteratureJoseph Campbell's The Hero with a Thousand Faces
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摘要
席爾柯的小說《儀式》是一本以印地安傳統儀式為架構、以祖靈為基礎的當代小說。書中敘述美國一名混血的印地安退伍軍人泰囿(Tayo)的故事。席爾柯相信藉由依附他們生活及文化的神秘源頭及活出他們傳統儀式和部落生活的象徵意義,美國印地安人便可以找到新的自我認同,並且倖免於亡族滅種的危機。 因此,為了配合這本小說特有的印地安人信仰內容及儀式結構,本論文便以康包爾的《千面英雄》和艾倫的《神聖之環》為理論依據,對儀式做神話分析。藉著應用康包爾「英雄之旅」的觀念在泰囿的治療之旅上,以及他的「天地演化循環」觀念在美國印地安人的超自然力上,《儀式》顯現其價值超越了僅為泰囿的單一故事,而成為美國印地安人所應仿傚的英雄模式。經由重新體驗傳統儀式所能帶來的歸屬感與力量,美國原住民才得以在這不同以往單純自然的現代社會中存活下來。 而艾倫在《神聖之環》中有關美國印地安人的觀點則提供了修正及顛覆康包爾在《千面英雄》中所認定的普遍性神話觀的基礎。
本論文共分五章。第一章前言說明研究目的在為美國印地安人的歷史辯護並重做評估,並詳細介紹康包爾的《千面英雄》和艾倫《神聖之環》,以為本文的理論基礎。
第二章,美國印地安文化英雄的探索之旅,則依康包爾的「英雄之旅」中起程、啟蒙、及返回三階段討論泰囿的自我追尋。在本章,白話的泰囿治療之旅和詩體的傳統神話相互結合對照,給予泰囿的單一故事一個更高的、集體歷史性的形式。
第三章,《儀式》中的女性影響,則探討本書中女性的神秘力量和其功能,並對書中帶有神秘色彩的女性做角色分析。依據基於愛倫的理論所做的本文分析,本章嘗試對康包爾的「英雄之旅」及「天地演化循環」中的女性角色及其功能做修正。
第四章,紀錄「神聖歷史」:美國印地安神話在當代社會實用性,則從原住民超自然的觀點重寫美國印地安歷史。本章討論印地安人所謂的「神聖歷史」中的神秘力量和元素,以及他們在當代印地安人日常生活中的功能及影響。康包爾對神話在當代社會中的功用的看法和美國印地安神話的實用性恰巧相合,乃成為本章有力的理論依據。
第五章結論點出泰囿單一故事中的集體印地安歷史。《儀式》一書在美國印地安文學中佔有一個畫時代里程碑的地位。它超脫了之前因面對強勢的文化衝突而導致不可避免的悲劇收場的模式,昇華到和諧共存的境界及充滿希望且詳和的救贖。其情節的發展是積極、樂觀的:從恨到愛,戰爭到和平,病態到健康,騷動不安到和睦融洽。所關懷的內容從美國本土的性別偏見和種族歧視,到全球環保的關懷和一個和諧共存的世界觀。在一個美國印地安的單一故事中能夠觸及到全球關注的問題,席爾柯成功的創造出一本屬於克魯帕特(Krupat)所夢想的世界性文學的一本小說-《儀式》。
Abstract
Leslie Marmon Silko's myth fiction, Ceremony, a ceremonial-structured, spirit-based modern novel remythologizes the story of an ordinary protagonist, Tayo, a half-breed American Indian veteran of World War II. Silko believes that only by retrieving their ritual and tribal traditions can American Indians survive the crises of genocide and deicide. To interpret the American Indian religious content and ceremonial structure, this thesis proposes a mythological reading of Ceremony by synthesizing Joseph Campbell's and Paula Gunn Allen's mythological paradigms. Applying Campbell's conceptions of "the adventure of the hero" to Tayo's healing journey, this study argues for a representative Indian heroic model of survival in the modern world. Meanwhile, Allen's Native American perspectives suggested in her The Scared Hoop provides an ethnocriticism that can serve to revise Campbell's universal mythological paradigm.
There are five chapters in this thesis. Chapter One, "Introduction," explains the purpose of this study. Pivoting on collective history as represented in the single story of Tayo's healing journey, this thesis reevaluates American Indian history. The introductory chapter elaborates on mythological paradigm in Campbell's The Hero with a Thousands Faces and the Laguna perspective in Allen's The Sacred Hoop as the theoretical foundations of this thesis.
Chapter Two, "The Magic Quest of the American Indian Culture Hero," centers on Tayo's search for the self using Campbell's paradigm of "the adventure of the hero" as a critical basis. This chapter associates Tayo's healing journey/wisdom quest with Laguna myths of fertility and deliverance, thereby singling Tayo's individual story a higher form of communal significance.
Chapter Three, "The Female Influences in Ceremony," elaborates female mythic beings by discussing their powers and influences in the novel and the female characters who embody these female divine spirits as they protect and guide their people. Based on Allen's Laguna perspectives, this chapter revises Campbell's mythological paradigm by recalling feminine significance in the tribal culture.
Chapter Four, "Recording the "Sacred History": the Practicality of the American Indian Mythology in Modern Society," rewrites the American Indian history from the native spiritual viewpoint. It discusses the important essence of this "sacred history" as well as its influences and functions in the modern Native American's daily life. In this chapter, Campbell's concern for the functions of myths in modern society reflects concern with the practicality of American Indian mythology and thus becomes a firm theoretical foundation for this chapter.
Chapter Five, "Conclusion," pinpoints a "collective Indian history" within Tayo's "single story." Ceremony is a milestone in the history of American Indian literature because it converts cultural conflicts into a harmonious coexistence and a hopeful, peaceful salvation. Moving from hate to love, war to peace, sickness to health, and disturbance to harmony, Silko's story not merely resolves the problems of sexual prejudice and racial discrimination in America but provides a harmoniously coexistent world outlook. Achieving universality in an American Indian single story, Silko successfully creates a text that Krupat exalts as "cosmopolitan literature."
Chapter One
Introduction …………………………………………………………1
Chapter Two
The Magic Quest of the American Indian Culture Hero ……18
Chapter Three
The Female Influences in Ceremony ……………………………35
Chapter Four
Recording the "Sacred History": the Practicality of American Indian Mythology in Modern Society ………………………………………………69
Chapter Five
Conclusion ……………………………………………………………100
Works Cited …………………………………………………………104
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