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研究生:周彩雲
研究生(外文):Chou Tsai-Yun
論文名稱:優選理論對閩南語鼻音之分析
論文名稱(外文):An Optimality-Theoretic Analysis on Southern Min Nasality
指導教授:鍾榮富鍾榮富引用關係
指導教授(外文):Raung-fu Chung
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立高雄師範大學
系所名稱:英語學系
學門:人文學門
學類:外國語文學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2002
畢業學年度:90
語文別:英文
論文頁數:81
中文關鍵詞:優選理論閩南語鼻音強制限制規則分析
外文關鍵詞:Optimality TheorySouthern Min nasalityconstraintsrule-based analysis
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論文提要:
本文主要從優選理論的分析架構來探討閩南語鼻音的種種現象。研究顯示,閩南語鼻音主要有四個特徵:(1)閩南語鼻音的擴散可以是雙向的。(2)閩南語鼻音的擴散方向分別呈現出不同的特質在開音節及閉音節。雖然鼻音向左擴散是一個必要條件在開音節 (e.g. /bw)a)13/→ /mw)a))13/ ‘eel’),然而鼻音向左擴散卻是絕對禁止的情形在閉音節 (e.g. /in33/ ‘she/he’ but * / i)n33/)。(3)鼻子音前的母音是無法鼻化成為鼻母音的。(4)元音後的喉音及滑音所表現出來的特徵與其他閩南語子音不同。元音後的喉音及滑音必須與節前子音行成鼻音的和諧,然而其餘的子音卻不能與節前子音行成鼻音的和諧。
根據這四個閩南語的特徵,接著本文便從三個主要方向來研究閩南語的鼻音現象,包括一般分佈的例子,音節的縮減,及具音節核的鼻子音。而這三方面的分析結果顯示,優選理論的分析方式是一個值得關切的方向。
這篇論文採用了七個強制限制(constraint)來解釋閩南語鼻音的情形,他們分別為:IDENT-IO, CODA PRIORITY, NOGAP, NOSEQUENCE, NOTCOOCCURRING, DOMAIN COND, 和 EXTEND 的強制限制(constraint)。同時這些強制限制的等級為:IDENT-IO » CODA PRIORITY, NOSEQUENCE, NOGAP » NOTCOOCCURRING, DOMAIN COND » EXTEND。
本文證明了由優選理論的角度來分析閩南語鼻音的現象是一個優於傳統規則分析的好方法。用優選理論來分析閩南語鼻音確實簡化了閩南語鼻音現象的複雜性,並且提供了閩南語鼻音一套一致而且有系統的分析機制。
ABSTRACT
This thesis examines the nature of Southern Min nasality within the framework of Optimality Theory (Prince and Smolensky 1993, McCarthy and Prince 1993). Southern Min nasality is explored to exhibit four characteristics. (a) Nasal spreading could be bi-directional. (b) Nasal-spreading directions between open syllables and closed syllables conflict with each other in certain conditions. While leftward nasal spreading is obligatory in open syllables (e.g. /bw)a)13 → mw)a))13/ ‘eel’), leftward nasal spreading is prohibited in closed syllables (e.g. /in33/ ‘she/he’ but * / i)n33/). (c) The vowel that precedes a nasal coda is never nasalized. (d) Both post-vocalic glottal stops and glides behave differently from other codas: while the coda and onset disagree in nasality, a post-nucleus glide or glottal stop must agree with the onset in nasality. In this thesis, we focus on the discussion of three sources: distributional cases, syllable contractions, and syllabic nasals.
In this thesis, seven constraints are adopted: IDENT-IO, CODA PRIORITY, NOSEQUENCE, NOGAP, NOTCOOCCURRING, DOMAIN COND, and EXTEND constraints. The IDENT-IO constraint demands the correspondences between the input and output forms, in particular nasality in this OT mechanism. The CODA PRIORITY constraint claims that if there is a [nasal] feature within a morpheme, it must be associated to the coda position first. The NOSEQUENCE constraint disposes of the ungrammatical syllable structure, */v)N/. The NOGAP constraint allows no gapped representations in Southern Min, in which the nasal harmony is interrupted by any element. The NOTCOOCCURRING constraint prohibits the [nasal] feature from combining with any voiceless segment. The DOMAIN COND constraint defines that the range of nasal domain cannot exceed two syllables within a phonological word. The EXTEND constraint states a [nasal] feature must associate to all available positions within a phonological word.
The ranking of Southern Min nasality is as follows: IDENT-IO » CODA PRIORITY, NOSEQUENCE, NOGAP » NOTCOOCCURRING, DOMAIN COND » EXTEND. The examination approves that an OT analysis better captures the intriguing nasal phenomena in Southern Min than the traditional rule-based analyses. The constraint-based analysis makes it possible to grant Southern Min nasality a consistent and systematic way to portray its nasal diversity without any ad hoc stipulations or repairing strategies
TABLE OF CONTENTS
TABLE OF CONTENTS
CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION 1
1.0 Introduction 1
1.1 Backgrounds of Southern Min nasality 2
1.2 The notion of constraints 6
1.3 Overview of the thesis 8
CHAPTER 2 LITERATURE REVIEW 10
2.0 Introduction 10
2.1 Literature review on Southern Min nasality 10
2.1.1 Lin’s proposal 11
2.1.2 Wang’s proposal 17
2.1.3 Chung’s proposal 20
2.2 Literature Review on Optimality Theory 26
2.2.1 Introduction to Optimality Theory 26
2.2.2 Huang’s proposal2.2.3 Ang’s proposal 2832
2.3 Summary 47
CHAPTER 3 AN OPTIMALITY THEORY ANALYSIS 49
3.0 Introduction 49
3.1 An Optimality Theory analysis 50
3.2 Summary 75
CHAPTER 4 CONCLUSION 77
SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY 80
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