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研究生:熊文龍
研究生(外文):Wen-long Hsiung
論文名稱:國中生在聽力理解上之困難分析
論文名稱(外文):An Analysis on Listening Comprehension Difficulties in Junior High School Students
指導教授:石素錦石素錦引用關係
指導教授(外文):Su-chin Shih
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立高雄師範大學
系所名稱:英語學系
學門:人文學門
學類:外國語文學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2002
畢業學年度:90
語文別:英文
論文頁數:117
中文關鍵詞:布魯姆聽力理解困難聽力測驗聽力認知目標
外文關鍵詞:Bloomlistening comprehension difficultieslistening comprehension testlisteningcognitive objectives
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論文提要內容:
本研究的主要目的在調查國中生聽力理解上之困難分析;為達到此研究目的,研究者設計了40題聽力測驗,來評量學生在布魯姆(Bloom)的六大認知層面上所可能遭遇的困難。連同學生回答問卷所得到的資料,來研究探尋問題如下:
(1) 可能影響聽力理解表現的因子;
(2) 六大認知目標在聽力測驗上的影響;
(3) 六大認知目標在高、低成就組別上的差異;
(4) 六大教育認知目標與整體聽力測驗表現的相關性。
其研究的主要發現如下:
(1) 較好的聽力表現與四大特質相關,其分別為受試者學習英文超過五年,受試者在測驗時不感覺到緊張或缺乏自信,受試者擁有較佳的記憶能力與支持日後高中聯考加考聽力測驗的理念。
(2) 第五大題屬高層次認知目標題組-整合(synthesis)與評量(evaluation);受試者如答對題數愈多,實為累積習得愈多之高認知目標。換言之,受試者在第五大題答對題數愈多,其整體聽力測驗表現愈佳。
(3) 高成就受試者在高層次題型上之聽力理解表現較低成就受試者為佳。故題型如屬不同認知層次,其要求受試者之認知理解能力亦不盡相同;換言之,受試者所遭遇之聽力理解困難,也會因此而不同。
(4) 整體聽力測驗表現與各大題間之答題表現相關連;換言之,如受試者在其中某一大題表現佳,那麼其在其它大題上及整體表現上,均會表現較佳。

The purpose of the present study is to investigate students' listening comprehension difficulties. To achieve this goal, a listening comprehension test was arranged into 40 questions and designed to measure Bloom’s six levels of cognitive processing. Together with students’ responses to the questionnaire, the study probed:
(1)the significant factors, as determined by the questionnaire, that affect the listening comprehension performance;
(2)the effect of the six levels of cognitive processing on the listening comprehension test;
(3)the effect of six levels of cognitive objectives on different levels of language proficiency students; and
(4)the correlation between the six educational objectives and the performance on the listening comprehension test.
The major findings of the present study are summarized as follows:
(1)Better listening comprehension test (LCT) performance is closely connected with four characteristics. They are that the subjects have studied English for over five years, they do not feel so nervous or so much lack of confidence on the test; they have a good memory, and they support the idea of incorporating the LCT into the future high school entrance exam.
(2)Correct responses on Section Five in fact showed accumulative attainment of educational objectives. Subjects with more items answered correctly on Section Five will demonstrate better LCT performance.
(3)Difference in proficiency was a factor that significantly affected the top level of cognitive processing. High proficiency level (HPL) subjects performed better than their low proficiency level (LPL) counterparts on Section Five, which measured the higher order of cognitive processing. In other words, different cognitive domains pose different levels of difficulties to subjects, so they require different competence in order to achieve educational goals.
(4)The correlations among the LCT performance and the performance on the five sections showed that they were statistically significant. That means, if one does well on one section, s/he will do well on the others, and will do well in one’s LCT performance.

I.Introduction……………………………………………………………… 1
1.1 Background and Motivation ……………………………….. 1
1.2 Introduction to the Problem …………………………….. 4
1.3 Statement of the Problem ………………………………………… 7
1.4 Purposes of the Study ……………………………………………… 9
1.5 Research Hypotheses …………………………………… 10
1.6 Significance of the Study ………………………….. 11
1.7 Definition of Terms ……………………………………. 13
1.8 Limitation of the Study ……………………………... 14
II. Literature Review …………………………… 16
2.1 Nature of Listening ………………………………….. 16
2.2 Models of Listening Processes ……………………. 20
2.2.1 Bottom-up Processing …………………………… 22
2.2.2 Top-down Processing ………………………………. 24
2.2.3 Parallel Processing ………………………………. 26
2.3 Cognitive Processes ………………………………….. 28
2.3.1 Human as Information-Processor…………………. 28
2.3.2 Sensory Memory ………………………………………. 30
2.3.3 Short-term Memory …………………………………. 31
2.3.4 Long-term Memory …………………………………… 33
2.4 Factors Influencing Listening Comprehension…… 37
2.4.1 Text Factors ………………………………………… 37
2.4.2 Speaker Factors ……………………………………… 40
2.4.3 Listener Factors……………………………………… 41
2.4.3.1 Language Proficiency Level ………… 41
2.4.3.2 Memory as Hindrance…………………… 42
2.4.3.3 Attention and Affect ………………. 43
2.4.3.4 Age ………………………………………. 44
2.3.3.5 Background Knowledge …………….…. 45
2.4.4 Task Characteristics …………………… 46
2.4.5 Milieu Factors (Physical Setting)………….. 48
III.Methodology………………………………………………… 51
3.1 Research Design ………………………………………. 51
3.2 Subjects ………………………………………………… 52
3.3 Instruments …………………………………………….. 53
3.3.1 Listening Comprehension Test ……………………. 53
3.3.1.1 Test Materials ………………………… 54
3.3.1.2 Scheme of the Listening Comprehension Test. 54
3.3.2 Questionnaire ……………………………………….. 57
3.4 Pilot Study ……………………………………………. 58
3.5 Procedures …………………………………………….. 59
3.6 Data Analyses …………………………………………. 63
3.6.1 Coding Categories (Bloom's Six Taxonomies and Examples)……63
3.6.2 Statistical Treatments of the Collected Data 67
IV. Results and Discussion…………………………… 69
4.1 Students' Responses to the Questionnaire and their Significance for the Performance on the Listening Comprehension Test……………... 69
4.2 The Effects of Cognitive Processing on the Listening Comprehension Test Performance…………………………… 75
4.3 The Relationship between Proficiency Differences and Performance on the Listening Comprehension Test ……. 81
4.4 The Correlation between Educational Objectives and Performance on the Listening Comprehension Test…….. 83
V. Conclusions……………………………..……. 86
5.1 Summary of Research Hypotheses and Findings …. 86
5.2 Pedagogical Implications…………………………... 88
5.3 Recommendations for Future Research ……………. 90
References …………………………92
Appendix A Listening Comprehension Test -- Student's Testbook………99
Appendix B Listening Comprehension Test -- Full Transcripts…………106
Appendix C Questionnaire… 115

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