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研究生:趙薇媗
研究生(外文):Chao Wei-shuan
論文名稱:容格「自我」理論呈現在赫塞《流浪者之歌》中之詮釋
論文名稱(外文):JUNGIAN THEORIES OF THE SELF AS EXEMPLIFIED BY HESSE'S SIDDHARTHA
指導教授:廖本瑞廖本瑞引用關係
指導教授(外文):Liao Pen-shui
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立高雄師範大學
系所名稱:英語學系
學門:人文學門
學類:外國語文學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2002
畢業學年度:90
語文別:英文
論文頁數:99
中文關鍵詞:容格心理學流浪者之歌赫曼赫塞
外文關鍵詞:Jungian PsychologySiddharthaHermann Hesse
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本篇論文撰寫的主旨乃在突顯赫曼.赫塞 (Hermann Hesse)《流浪者之歌》(Siddhartha) 文本中主角釋達坦 (Siddhartha) 在心理上與生理上的成長。藉由容格的理論,人們能夠對自身的心理狀態作深入的剖析。而人們對自身的了解越深,就越不受國家與宗教意識形態的束縛,從而達成世界和平的目的。
首章以容格論述為起點,強調現代人了解自己心理狀態的重要性。歷史上的紛爭,起因於人們受國家或宗教所控制,淪為獨裁者達成野心的工具。容格提出一個能平息紛爭的方法,即「個別化過程」。
第二章深入探討何謂個別化過程。從一步一步的過程中,逐漸了解到自己平時所戴的面具、自己心理的陰暗面,尤能尋找失去的另一半自己,最後臻至一個心理與外在世界的平衡。從主角釋達坦的一生我們可以很清楚的得到證明,而釋達坦也是一個個別化過程成功的例子。
第三章則把重點從心理成長移至生理的成長。容格認為想要達成和諧狀態,就一定要生理的成長跟心理相呼應。他將人生分為四個時期,而這四個時期的發展目標也是在於達成身體上的平衡。換言之,只有生理與心理互相配合,才能達到一種天人合一的境地。
第四章著重於利比多(libido)在人的心理上所代表的意義。在文本中所提及的河可以視為利比多;河對釋達坦而言,正如利比多對人在情緒上或生理上的影響。結論則述及容格理論對赫塞個人及小說的幫助,並再確定人們自我了解的重要性。

Abstract
This thesis attempts to bring forth the relationship between Jungian theory of the self and an actual psychological as well as physical growth of a person as evidenced by Hesse’s Siddhartha. Throughout the study, I treat this novel as Hesse’s effort to impart to modern people a way to gain a better understanding of themselves, which allows people to be free from the control of the dictatorial State or of a religion. Therefore, the tension between ego and the self, the confrontation between persona, shadow and anima and the function of libido serve as focal points in this study.
In the first chapter, I intend to argue that to oppose the influences of the collectivity, an individual should possess his or her own thinking and not to be afraid of being alienated from the crowd. Historically, many states, religions and oligarchs have tried their utmost to control the individuals to achieve their audacious ambitions either to launch wars or to conquer the world. Once the collectivity stays under the control of States, the individual therefore loses his or her meaning of existence and is prohibited from expressing his or her opinions. The only way to stand against these authorities and to end world conflicts is to dig into his or her own psyche and to have a clear understanding of his or her self. Jung, thus, declares that the process of individuation is the best method to rescue our souls.
In Chapter Two, I offer the reasons why many critics regard Siddhartha as a Bildungsroman. Also, I will expound my view that, in fact, it is not so much a Bildungsroman as a work of psychological development. Moreover, in this chapter, I give a detailed delineation of the process of individuation. Only by going through one’s persona, shadow, anima and the development of the self can a man or an woman cast off all the fake identities of his or her self, and thus attain a harmonies state of both in inner and outer worlds.
In Chapter Three, my focus shifts from psychological development to physical development. Jung has indicated that individuation needs physical manifestation. Thus, mutual cooperation is needed, mentally as well as physically, to achieve wholeness. Besides, four eras constitute Jung’s sketch of human life cycle, including childhood, young adulthood, middle adulthood and old age. Since the four eras are separated on the ground of the changing ego, in this chapter, I approve of the four stages of life cycle in terms of the inflated ego, the alienated ego and the encounter with the self.
In Chapter Four, I compare the river in the book to Jungian libido. The river in Siddhartha is by all means the most important element, and Siddhartha’s three encounters with the river bring about tremendous changes in his attitude toward life as well as toward people. Furthermore, I attempt to trace back to our inner world and analyze the power that moves all the psychic activities. It is the psychic energy, also termed as libido, which flows up and down to create all sorts of human emotions, moods and characteristics. Thus, I explore the impact that libido may have on a person’s life.
In the last chapter, I offer a brief reassessment of the influences that Jungian psychology has on Hesse’s writing of Siddhartha.

Table of Contents
Chapter One
Introduction………………………………………………………1
Chapter Two
From Maturity to Individuation:
Siddhartha’s Psychological Growth ...…………………...….….17
Chapter Three
From Maturity to Individuation:
Siddhartha’s Physical Growth .………………….……………...50
Chapter Four
The Function of Libido in Siddhartha………………………….73
Chapter Five
Conclusion………………………………………………………93
Works Cited……………………………………………………………..97

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