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研究生:陳美蘭
研究生(外文):Chen Mei-lan
論文名稱:聽兩次及圖片呈現之時對臺灣高中生聽力之影響
論文名稱(外文):The Effects of Repetition and Pictures at Different Time Periods on the Listening Comprehension of Senior High Students in Taiwan
指導教授:楊玲珿
指導教授(外文):Yang Ling-zu
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立高雄師範大學
系所名稱:英語學系
學門:人文學門
學類:外國語文學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2002
畢業學年度:90
語文別:英文
論文頁數:118
中文關鍵詞:聽力理解與上下文相關的視覺提示圖片呈現之時
外文關鍵詞:Listening comprehensionContextual visual cuesPictures at different time periods
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論文內容摘要:
本研究旨在探討聽兩次及圖片呈現之時對不同英文程度高中生英語聽力之影響,其研究重心是比較不同程度學生聽兩次或聽前、聽時、或聽後給圖片對他們英語聽力理解的效益。此外,亦藉由兩份問卷,探討學生的英語學習背景、英語聽力問題及對整個實驗處理的觀感。
本研究對象是三班高雄市立新莊高級中學的學生。經過英語聽力能力測驗後,這些學生被分成高、中、低三組。在分組後,這些學生必須接受四次英語聽力測驗,依序是:沒有圖片輔助但聽兩次,及分別在聽前、聽時、或聽後有圖片輔助。在四次聽力測驗完後,這些學生再接受問卷調查,以了解他們對本實驗的看法。
本研究結果摘要如下:
1. 雖然許多學生已有一些正確的聽力策略概念,但他們仍對自己的聽力沒信心。因此,他們希望英聽老師能在聽力測驗給予引導。
2. 聽力的程度愈高,學生就愈不會遭遇聽力困難,尤其在教材及聽者自身因素方面,此現象更為明顯。
3. 聽兩次對中、高分組學生助益較大,而聽前或聽後有圖片輔助,讓三組學生之間的成績差異仍維持顯著程度,但聽時有圖片輔助也對高分組學生助益較大。
4. 在四次聽力測驗中,不管對那種程度的學生,都以聽兩次成績最好,其次是聽前給圖片,再其次是聽後給圖片,最後才是聽時給圖片。
5. 雖然在問卷中,多數學生贊同聽兩次或聽前給圖片對他們聽力理解有所助益,但最有效的方法,他們卻覺得難以決定。
總之,本研究顯示:對不同程度的學生,聽兩次及聽前給圖片對他們的聽力理解都是有所助益的。因此,本研究建議教師們可運用聽兩次及聽前給圖片的方式於英語聽力教學中,相信對學生應該是會有正面效果的。

This study aimed to find out the effects of repetition and pictures given at different time periods on the listening comprehension of senior high students with different proficiency levels. The investigation was focused on the comparisons of the effects of repetition, a picture before listening, a picture while listening, and a picture after listening, on different proficiency groups. In addition, by means of questionnaires, the subjects’ English learning background, listening comprehension problems, and the attitudes toward the overall experiment were surveyed.
Three classes of second-year senior high school students in Hsin-chuang Senior High School in Kaohsiung took part in this study. Based on their scores of the listening proficiency test in this study, the subjects were further classified into three groups─the high proficiency group (HPG), the middle proficiency group (MPG), and the low proficiency group (LPG). After being grouped, they were required to take four listening comprehension tests: one repetition listening comprehension test without a picture (RLT), and three listening comprehension tests with a picture given before listening (BLT), while listening (WLT), and after listening (ALT). When the tests were finished, the subjects’ opinions about the whole experiment were surveyed.
The main findings of this study are as follows:
1. Even though many subjects had developed some correct listening strategies, they still lacked confidence in their listening proficiency. Therefore, they wanted their teachers to offer help in the listening assessments.
2. With the increase of language proficiency, the subjects would encounter fewer listening difficulties, especially in the listening material and listener aspects.
3. Listening to the listening passages twice was especially good for the higher proficiency students. As for providing a picture cue before and after listening, the differences between every two groups were significant, and as for providing a picture cue while listening, the HPG benefited more greatly from this treatment than the other two groups.
4. Comparing the effects of RLT, BLT, WLT, and ALT on different proficiency groups, RLT ranked the best, BLT the second, ALT the third, and WLT the worst.
5. Though most of the subjects favored listening to the listening passages twice or having a visual cue before listening, the most helpful treatment was not conclusive from the students’ responses.
To sum up, the results of this study demonstrated that both repetition and a visual cue before listening benefited most of the subjects in all three proficiency groups. As a result, it is suggested that playing the listening passages twice or giving the students a visual cue before listening are two helpful techniques that teachers may utilize to improve the students’ listening comprehension in language class.
Acknowledgements ………………………………………………………... i
Chinese Abstract …………………………………………………………… ii
English Abstract …………………………………………………………… iii
Table of Contents …………………………………………………………... v
List of Tables ………………………………………………………………. viii
List of Figure …………………………………………………………….… ix
CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION………………………….……….. 1
Background and Motivation………………………………..……………. 1
Problem of the Study…………………………………………………….. 4
Purpose of the Study……………………………………………….…….. 5
Research Questions………………………………………………………. 6
Significance of the Study………………………………………………… 6
Definition of the Terms…………………………………………….…….. 7
Limitations of the Study………………………………………………….. 8
CHAPTER TWO LITERATURE REVIEW………………………….. 11
The Importance of Listening in Language Learning…………………….. 11
Models of Listening Comprehension…………………………………….. 14
Prior Knowledge in Listening Comprehension………………………….. 19
The Difficulties in Listening Comprehension…………………………….20
Factors Affecting Listening Comprehension…………………….21
Speaker Factors…………………………………………………22
Listener Factors……………………………………………….…23
Medium Factors………………………………………………… 23
Environmental Factors……………………………………………… 23
Factors Causing L2 Learners’ Difficulties in Listening……………….. 24
Listening Assessments…………………………………………………… 26
Repeated Listening…………………………………………………….. 27
Visual Cues in Listening Comprehension ……………...……………... 29
CHAPTER THREE METHOD AND PROCEDURE………………... 35
Subjects…………………………………………………………………... 35
Instruments……………………………………………………………….. 36
English Listening Proficiency Test…………………………………….. 36
Questionnaires…………………………………………………………. 36
Listening Comprehension Tests…………………………………….….. 37
Listening Texts………………………………………………………. 38
Contextual Pictures…………………………………………….……. 39
Listening Questions………………………………………………….. 40
The Pilot Study…………………………………………………………... 41
Procedure………………………………………………………………… 41
Data Analysis………………………………………………………….…. 43
CHAPTER FOUR RESULTS AND DISCUSSION..…………………. 45
Subjects’ Background Information of English Learning………………… 45
Subjects’ Language Competence in the Four Language Skills………... 45
Subjects’ Listening Time………………………………………………. 47
Subjects’ Listening Strategies………………………………………….. 48
Subjects’ Opinions of the English Listening Course……………….….. 51
Main Listening Comprehension Problems of Different Proficiency Groups …………………………………………………………………… 53
Listening Comprehension Problems in the Listening Material Aspect... 53
Listening Comprehension Problems in the Listener Aspect…………… 58
Listening Comprehension Problems in External Aspects……………... 61
Effects of Repetition or Pictures at Different Time Periods on the Subjects with Different Proficiency Levels……………………………… 64
Comparisons of the Effects of Four Treatments on the Subjects with Different Proficiency Groups…………………………………………….. 68
Subjects’ Attitudes Toward the Overall Experiment………………….….. 71
Subjects’ Responses to the Four Listening Texts……………………… 72
Subjects’ Responses to Repetition………………………………….….. 74
Subjects’ Responses to the Visual Cues…………………………….…. 75
Subjects’ Responses to the Visual Cues at Different Time Periods……. 78
Subjects’ Responses to Comparing the Effects of Repetition and the Visual Cues at Different Time Periods………………………………… 79
CHAPTER FIVE CONCLUSIONS……………………………………. 81
Conclusions………………………………………………………………. 81
Suggestions for Further Research………………………………………... 83
Pedagogical Implications………………………………………………… 85
REFERENCES……………………………………………………………. 89
APPENDIXES ……………………………………………………………. 100
Appendix A Listening Proficiency Tests ………………………………. 100
Appendix B Questionnaire One ……………………………………….. 104
Appendix C Questionnaire Two ……………………………………….. 106
Appendix D Listening Comprehension Tests …………………………. 108

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