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研究生:楊幸如
研究生(外文):Yang Hsin-ju
論文名稱:由社會語言學的角度來看語音的變化
論文名稱(外文):A Sociolinguistic Perspective of Phonological Variation
指導教授:鍾榮富鍾榮富引用關係
指導教授(外文):Chung Raung-fu
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立高雄師範大學
系所名稱:英語學系
學門:人文學門
學類:外國語文學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2002
畢業學年度:90
語文別:英文
論文頁數:139
中文關鍵詞:社會語言學
外文關鍵詞:Sociolinguistics
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台灣的海口音保留了相當完整的泉州腔,不過近年來由於受到語言接觸及社會結構改變的影響,海口音這種特殊腔調己漸漸被優勢音所取代。例如在清水這社區當中,說話者的口音不盡相同,有些人使用海口音,有些人使用優勢音,也有些人卻混合此二種口音。因此,本研究旨在從社會語言學觀點來探討語音改變的情形。
本研究共有六十位受試者,年齡層分佈在十八歲到七十一歲之間,兩份問卷分別為正常句子 (normal sentences) 及非正常句子 (anomalous sentences) 用以收集受試者的口音,五組海口音及優勢音之間的母音對當 (vowel correspondences) 分別置於句內,四項社會因素 (性別、年齡、社會階層及活動區域) 用來探討語言改變和社會因素之間的關連性。所有的訪談都以錄音方式加以記錄,描敘統計及推論統計用來分析所得語料,主要的發現如下:
一、語音擴散理論 (lexical diffusion) 比新語法理論 (neogrammarian hypothesis)
更能驗証語音改變的過程,然而就語音改變的動機而言,社會語言學家的觀點較能解釋語言改變的現象。
二、語音改變與字的使用頻率並無很大的相關性,句子的使用頻率則對於語音的改
有較大的相關性。
三、在此四項社會因素中,受試者的活動區域 (mobility) 對語音的改變具有較大的影響力,其它三項社會因素和語音的改變沒有顯著的關係。然而事後檢測顯示出在此三個年齡層中,僅有年輕族群及中年族群在口音的使用上無顯著差異。在三個社會階層中,僅有上階層及中階層人土在口音的使用上無顯著差異。此外,語音接觸的頻率較能解釋語音保留及語音改變的動機。
四、 大部份的受試者都有語音轉換 (codeswitching) 的現象,本研究觀察到三種語音轉換的形式。第一種為在正常句下使用優勢音,但在非正常句下卻使用海口音,此種情形意謂著說話者正處於語音改變的初期階段。 第二種為在正常句下使用海口音,但在非正常句下卻使用優勢音,此種情形意謂著說話者正處於語音改變的最後階段。第三種情形乃混合以上二種情形,意謂著說話者正處於語音改變的第二階段。
五、 語音轉換的現象可能由於受試者對於優勢音的能力不足所導致,受試者的優勢音能力和他們的社會背景有關,以受試者的性別而言,女性族群的優勢音能力比男性族群佳。以受試者的年齡而言,年輕族群的優勢音能力比中年族群及老年族群佳。以受試者的社會階層而言,上階層人士的優勢音能力比中階層人士及低階層人士佳。以受試者的活動區域而言,活動區域不限在海口地區的受試者其優勢音能力比活動區域侷限在海口地區的受試者佳。
In Taiwan, Haikou Pronunciation (HP) has been desIcribed as preserving more characteristics of the original Quanzhou accent. However, in recent years, due to the influence of linguistic contact and social change, the special pronunciation has been replaced by Dominant pronunciation (DP) gradually. For example, in Qingshui, speakers’ pronunciations are different from speaker to speaker. Some speak with HP, while others use DP. Yet, there are those who vacillate between the two pronunciations. Although some research has focused on the geographical variation of SM, research need to be done on the variation in a speech community form sociolinguistic aspect. This study, therefore, aims to explore the motivations of sound variation in Qingshui from sociolinguistic aspect.
This study recruited 60 subjects aged from 18 to 71. Two sentence lists, normal sentence (NS) and anomalous sentence (AS) lists, were employed for eliciting speakers’ pronunciation. Five pairs of vowel correspondences (VC) between HP and DP were embedded within the sentences. Four social factors, sex, age, social class, and mobility, were selected among those likely to be correlated with linguistic variables in Qingshui. All interviews were recorded for data analysis. For conducting the analysis, both descriptive statistics and inferential statistics were employed in this study. The major findings are summarized as follows:
1. Based on the data of this study, the view of lexical diffusion on the process of sound change is more tenable than that of the neogrammarian hypothesis. However, with respect to the motivation of sound change, the view of sociolinguists can better account for sound change in this study.
2. This study shows that the frequency of word usage does not have great effect on sound change. It is the frequency of sentence usage that plays an important role in sound change.
3. Among the social factors, it is speakers’ mobility that has the greatest influence on sound change. Sex, age, and social class show no significant influence on sound change. However, the post hoc test of age indicates that only the younger group and middle-aged group show no significant difference in their pronunciations. And the post hoc test of social class indicates that only the upper class and middle class show no significant difference in their pronunciations. As for the motivation of sound preservation and sound innovation, the factor of the frequency in language contact can offer better account in this study.
4. Most speakers show codeswitching (CS) in their pronunciation. Three patterns of CS are observed in this study: (1) DP in NS, and HP in AS, (2) HP in NS, and DP in AS, (3) combination of (1) and (2). The first pattern of CS denotes that speakers are at the initial stage of sound change. The second pattern of CS denotes that speakers are at the second stage of sound change. The third pattern of CS denotes that speakers are at the final stage of sound change.
5. The use of CS is likely to be the result of speakers’ incomplete proficiency in DP. Speakers’ proficiency in DP, however, is concerned with their social backgrounds. In terms of speakers’ sex, female speakers are more proficient in DP than male speakers. Regarding speakers’ age, younger speakers are more proficient in DP than middle-aged and older speakers. With respect to speakers’ social class, the proficiency of higher social class speakers is higher than that of middle class and lower class speakers. As for speakers’ mobility, moving speakers are much more proficient in DP than their stable counterparts.
Acknowledgments………………... I
Chinese Abstract……………….. II
Abstract………………………… ..IV
List of Tables………………….. XI
List of Figures…………… …..XIII
List of Abbreviations……… .XIV
Chapter One Introduction
1.1 Introduction…………………… ..1
1.2 Background……………………… ..3
1.2.1 Motivation………………………..3
1.2.2 SM in Taiwan…………………… ..4
1.2.3 Approaches to the Study of Language.. 6
1.3 Research Questions…………9
1.4 Significance of the Study…………10
1.5 The Organization of This Thesis………11
Chapter Two Literature Review
2.1 Introduction…………13
2.2 Exposition of Phonological System of SM..13
2.2.1 Syllable Structure of SM…13
2.2.2 Consonant System of SM……14
2.2.3 Vowel Systems of SM………15
2.2.3.1 Vowel System of Dominant SM…15
2.2.3.2 Vowel System of Haikou Southern Min.16
2.2.4 Vowel Correspondences Between Haikou Variants and Dominant Variants ………17
2.3 Three Points of View on Sound Change…18
2.3.1 Lexical Diffusinist’ Point on Sound Change.18
2.3.1.1 Evidence for Lexical Diffusion From
English........19
2.3.1.2 Evidence for Lexical Diffusion From
Atayalic Dialects…20
2.3.1 Neogrammarians’ Point on Sound Change…22
2.3.2.1 Evidence for Neogrammarian Theory: Reexamination of the Atayalic Data……24
2.3.3 Sociolinguists’ Point on Sound Change…25
2.3.4 Comparisons Among the Three Views.29
2.4 Causes of Language Change…30
2.5 Consequences of Languages and Dialects in Contact32
2.5.1 Borrowing…33
2.5.1.1 Lexical Borrowing…33
2.5.1.2 Structural Borrowing…35
2.5.2 Codeswitching……36
2.5.3 Language Convergence……38
Chapter Three Methodology
3.1 Introduction……40
3.2 The Selection of Subjects…40
3.3 Instruments……41
3.3.1 Selection of Linguistic Variables…41
3.3.2 The Construction of Sentence Lists…42
3.3.3 The Purpose of Constructing Anomalous Sentence
List…43
3.3.4 The Purpose of Using Chinese Characters.45
3.4 Selection of Sociolinguistic Variables.47
3.4.1 The Sex Variable………47
3.4.2 The Age Variable....47
3.4.3 The Social Class Variable……….48
3.4.4 The Mobility Variable…….50
3.5 Procedures of Data Collection…….50
3.5.1 The Way to Obtain Representative Data….51
3.5.2 The Code Chosen to Interview with…….51
3.5.3 Tape-Recording…….52
3.5.4 Transcription……………..52
3.5.5 Biographical Information..53
3.6 Data Analysis…………….53
Chapter Four Results and Discussion
4.1 Introduction………………. 55
4.2 Theories of Sound Change……………. 55
4.3 Relationship Between Word Frequency and Sound Change ..64
4.3.1 Summary...75
4.4 Relationship Between Four Types of SM and Speakers from Different Social Backgrounds………….75
4.4.1 Four Types of SM and Speakers’ Sex……….76
4.4.2 Four Types of SM and Speakers’ Age……….81
4.4.3 Four Types of SM and Speakers’ Social Classes ..85
4.4.4 Four Types of SM and Speakers’ Mobility………...89
4.4.5 Summary....92
4.5 Codeswitcing and Proficiency……………….94
4.5.1 CS in This Study……………….94
4.5.2 Linguistic Significance of NS and AS…….96
4.5.3 Patterns of CS.97
4.5.4 Three Proposed Stages of Sound Change…….98
4.5.5 Speakers’ Proficiency in Dominant Pronunciation.99
4.5.6.1 CS and Speakers’ Sex………… 102
4.5.6.2 CS and Speakers’ Age………… 105
4.5.6.3 CS and Speakers’ Social Classes…… 110
4.5.6.4 CS and Speakers’ Mobility………… 114
4.5.6.5 Summary………… 116
Chapter Five Conclusion
5.1 Summary of the Results……… 118
5.2 Pedagogical Implications………… 120
5.3 Suggestions for Further Studies……… 121
References 123
Appendix 1 ..134
Appendix 2…………… 135
Appendix 3…………… 136
Appendix 4…………… 137
Appendix 5…………… 138
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