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研究生:鄭惠今
研究生(外文):Huei-chin Cheng
論文名稱:台灣中學生英語語調之聲學特質
論文名稱(外文):ACOUSTIC PROPERTIES OF TAIWANESE HIGH SCHOOL STUDENTS' ENGLISH INTONATION
指導教授:鍾榮富鍾榮富引用關係
指導教授(外文):Raung-fu Chung
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立高雄師範大學
系所名稱:英語學系
學門:人文學門
學類:外國語文學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2002
畢業學年度:90
語文別:英文
論文頁數:132
中文關鍵詞:聲學語音學聲學特質語調音調輪廓重音波動重音調節型音節調節型
外文關鍵詞:ACOUSTIC PHONETICSACOUSTIC PROPERTIESINTONATIONPITCH CONTOURSTRESSFLUCTUATIONSTRESS-TIMEDSYLLABLE-TIMED
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本論文旨在利用聲學語音學 (acoustic phonetics) 之研究方法來探討台灣中學生在不同之英語語調中所表現之聲學特質(acoustic properties),以期能對未來英語語調教學提供具體建議和參考。
參加本實驗的受試者為二十位高雄市鼓山中學的學生,其中包含十位國三生及十位高三生。所有的受試者都讀一篇含蓋各種語調之英文稿子,而研究者使用PCquire軟體將之錄音並與四位以美式英語為母語之外籍人士作語調比較及聲學特質之分析。
研究結果顯示,台灣中學生對於特殊語法結構之語調表現出較高之錯誤率,而在最常使用的Wh問句Yes-no及問句中,也表現出與外籍人士不同之聲學特質。此外,外籍人士之音調(pitch)明顯比台灣中學生高,而且呈現較明顯之音調輪廓(pitch contour)之波動 (fluctuation)。
而在重音(stress)方面,研究者將受試學生分為重音調節型 (stress-timed)與音節調節型(syllable-timed),並將其語調分別與外籍人士作比較。 結果顯示重音調節型的學生所呈現之音調輪廓波動較音節調節型學生明顯,且其使用重音情形較符合外籍人士之用法。

Abstract
This thesis aims to take advantage of acoustic phonetics to evaluate Taiwanese high school students’ performances in English intonation and describe other acoustic properties in pitch and stress. We collect twenty subjects’ performances in different intonation patterns and compare them with native speakers’. The results show that students show high error rates in sentences with special syntactic structures, like series intonation and closed-choice alternative questions. As for the most commonly used yes-no question and Wh-question, over half of the students can correctly use the two intonation patterns. But it is also surprising to find that senior high school students do not perform better than junior high school students in yes-no questions although they have at least learned English for three more years.
We also try to find out some acoustic properties shown in pitch. As a result, we find that female speakers have a higher pitch than male speakers and they show more fluctuations, too. Comparing native speakers and Taiwanese speakers, we find that native speakers have a higher pitch than Taiwanese speakers and native speakers also show larger-scale pitch contour variation than Taiwanese students. Besides, Taiwanese students show some acoustic properties that are different from native speakers. In yes-no question, the native speakers raise their pitch in the very beginning and lower down in the following syllable. The situation in Wh-question is totally different. In Wh-question, the native speakers use low pitch in the interrogative word, and then raise their pitch in the next syllable, which is auxiliary verb. Taiwanese students’ performances are just opposite to those of native speakers. They raise their pitch in the beginning and lower their pitch in the auxiliary verb.
Moreover, we compare the use of stress between students who are classified as using syllable-timed and stress-timed intonation. The results show that students using syllable-timed intonation have fewer fluctuations and often misplace high pitch in unstressed syllables. Besides, they are prone to use incorrect intonation. In contrast, students with stress-timed intonation show similar fluctuations as native speakers, and their manipulations of stress are like those of native speakers, too.
In the past, the studies of intonation have focused on the description of intonation patterns and calculation of intonation error rate. When judging the accuracy of intonation, most people only pay attention to the patterns, either rising or falling. With this experimental study of acoustic phonetics, we hope to present some acoustic properties in intonation to help EFL students to learn speak English in a more exquisite way and improve their speaking competence to a higher level. We also hope these findings in intonation can provide EFL teachers clearer ideas to help their students improve their speaking.

Table of Contents
Table of Contents……………………………………………………………………... i
List of Tables…………………………………………………………………………. vi
List of Figures………………………………………………………………………… vii
CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION
1.1 Background and Motivation………………………………………………... 1
1.2 Statement of the Problem…………………………………………………... 4
1.3 Research Questions………………………………………………………… 4
1.4 Purpose of the Study……………………………………………………….. 5
1.5 Significance of the Study…………………………………………………... 5
1.6 Literature Review………………………………………………………….. 5
1.6.1 Definition of Intonation, Pitch and Stress…………………………… 6
1.6.2 The Role of Intonation in Language Learning………………………. 8
1.6.3 The Interpretations of Native Speakers……………………………… 10
CHAPTER TWO METHODOLOGY
2.1 Introduction………………………………………………………………. 12
2.2 Subjects…………………………………………………………………... 12
2.3 Instruments……………………………………………………………….. 13
2.3.1 Recording Instruments……………………………………………... 13
2.3.2 The Reading Passage………………………………………………. 14
2.4 Procedures………………………………………………………………… 14
2.4.1 Recording Process…………………………………………………. 14
2.4.2 The Analyzing Process……………………………………………. 15
2.5 Data Analysis…………………………………………………………….. 15
CHAPTER THREE RESULTS AND DISCUSSION ON INTONATION PATTERNS
3.0 Introduction……………………………………………………………….. 17
3.1 Intonation Patterns………………………………………………………… 17
3.2 Rising Intonation………………………………………………………….. 18
3.2.1 Acoustic Evidence from the Native Speakers in Yes-no Question…………………………………………………………… 20
3.2.2 The Criterion for Rising Intonation…………………………………. 24
3.2.3 Taiwanese Students’ Performance…………………………………… 25
3.2.3.1 The Male Students Who Failed to Use the Correct Intonation…………………………………………………… 26
3.2.3.2 The Male Students Who Correctly Used the Intonation…… 31
3.2.3.3 The Female Students Who Failed to Use the Correct Intonation…………………………………………………… 35
3.2.3.4 The Female Students Who Correctly Used the Intonation…. 39
3.3 Rising-falling Intonation………………………………………………... 42
3.3.1 The Acoustic Evidence from the Native Speakers……………….. 43
3.3.2 The Criterion for Rising-falling Intonation………………………. 48
3.3.3 Taiwanese Students’ Performance in Wh-question………………. 49
3.3.3.1 The Male Students Who Failed to Use the Intonation…… 50
3.3.3.2 The Male Students Who Correctly Used the Intonation… 51
3.3.3.3 The Female Speakers Who Failed to Use the Correct Intonation………………………………………………… 54
3.3.3.4 The Female Students Who Correctly Used the Intonation…. 58
3.4 Other Patterns……………………………………………………………. 62
3.4.1 Series Intonation………………………………………………….. 65
3.4.1.1 The Acoustic Evidence of Native Speakers……………… 65
3.4.1.2 The Criterion for Series Intonation……………………… 66
3.4.1.3 The Students’ Performance in this Pattern………………. 67
3.4.2 Closed-choice Alternative Questions…………………………….. 71
3.4.2.1 The Acoustic Evidence of Native Speakers……………… 71
3.4.2.2 The Criterion for Closed-choice Alternative Sentence….. 73
3.4.2.3 The Students’ Performance in Closed-choice Alternative Questions………………………………………………… 73
3.4.2.3.1 Students Who Failed to Use the Correct Intonation…………………………………… 76
3.4.2.3.2 Students Who Correctly Used the Intonation Pattern……………………………………… 77
3.4.3 Tag Question…. ………………………………………………… 79
3.4.3.1 Acoustic Evidence from the Native Speaker…………… 79
3.4.3.2 The Criterion for Tag Question…………………………. 80
3.4.3.3 Students’ Performance in this Pattern………………….. 81
3.4.3.3.1 Students Who Failed to Use the Correct Intonation……………………………………… 82
3.4.3.3.2 The Student Who Correctly Used the Intonation……………………………………… 83
3.5 Summary……………………………………………………………… 85
CHAPTER FOUR ACOUSTIC PROPERTIES REFLECTED IN PITCH
4.0 Introduction………………………………………………………… 89
4.1 The Different Acoustic Properties Between Male and Female Speakers…………………………………………………………….. 89
4.1.1 Rising Intonation……………………………………………... 89
4.1.2 Rising-falling Intonation……………………………………… 91
4.1.3 Other Patterns………………………………………………… 92
4.1.3.1 Tag Question………………………………………… 92
4.1.3.2 A Series Intonation…………………………………... 93
4.1.3.3 Closed-choice Alternative Questions………………… 94
4.1.4 Summary……………………………………………………. 96
4.2 The Different Acoustic Properties Between Taiwanese Speakers and Native Speakers ……………………………………………………. 96
4.2.1 Rising Intonation……………………………………………. 97
4.2.2 Rising-falling Intonation……………………………………. 99
4.2.3 Other Patterns……………………………………………… 102
4.2.3.1 Series intonation……………………………………. 102
4.2.3.2 Closed-choice Alternative Question………………… 104
4.2.3.3 Tag Question………………………………………… 105
4.2.4 Summary…………………………………………………….. 107
CHAPTER FIVE RESULTS AND DISCUSSION ON STRESS
5.0 Introduction…………………………………………………………. 108
5.1 The Classification of Taiwanese Students………………………….. 108
5.2 The Comparison of Native Speakers and Taiwanese Students Using Stress-timed Intonation and Syllable-timed intonation……………... 109
5.2.1 Rising Intonation……………………………………………… 109
5.2.2 Rising-falling intonation……………………………………… 113
5.2.3 Other Patterns…………………………………………………. 115
5.2.3.1 Series intonation……………………………………… 115
5.2.3.2 Closed-choice Alternative Questions………………… 118
5.2.3.3 Tag questions………………………………………… 121
5.3 Summary…………………………………………………………….. 123
CHAPTER SIX CONCLUSION
6.1 The Main Findings…………………………………………………… 125
6.2 Pedagogical Implications…………………………………………….. 126
6.3 Limitations and Suggestion for Further Study……………………….. 127
APPENDIX A………………………………………………………………………... 128
APPENDIX B………………………………………………………………………… 129
REFERENCES………………………………………………………………………. 132

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