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研究生:黃春喜
論文名稱:小說與事實:約翰‧史坦貝克的《憤怒的葡萄》與一九三0年代美國經濟蕭條時期社會的比較研究
論文名稱(外文):A Comparative Study of the Socioliterary Sketches in John Steinbeck's The Grapes of Wrath and the American Great Depression in the 1930s
指導教授:廖本瑞廖本瑞引用關係
指導教授(外文):Liao Pen-shui
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立高雄師範大學
系所名稱:英語學系
學門:人文學門
學類:外國語文學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2002
畢業學年度:90
語文別:中文
論文頁數:98
中文關鍵詞:約翰‧史坦貝克憤怒的葡萄經濟蕭條時期
外文關鍵詞:John SteinbeckThe Grapes of WrathGreat Depression
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論文提要:
一般認為文學反映現實。史坦貝克的《憤怒的葡萄》一書中所著重的也是對於現實的反映。文中所反映的現實就是美國散工(Okies) 在一九三零年代大規模遷徙到加州的社會現象,這樣的事件也是美國經濟蕭條時期許多令人沮喪的事件中的其中一項。既然這是一本反映社會現實的小說,讀者或許會有如此的疑問:這本小說中所描述的內容是否真正地符合當時的社會事實?因此,這本論文所著重的就是有關於美國散工在一九三零年代大規模遷徙至加州的小說與事實的對比研究。
首先要比較的是小說中所描述造成遷徙的原因與當時的社會事實所造成的遷徙的原因。在社會事實當中,三個造成遷徙的原因分別是:旱災、農業機械化、以及美國的一項新政:農業調整法案。經過探討後,我們發現史坦貝克並沒有提及農業調整法案。了解遷徙的原因之後,接下來我們要探討的是數以萬計的美國散工在加州所遇到的困難與折磨,包括:骯髒簡陋的居住環境、加州人對他們的憎惡、零時工作的缺乏及難找、以及要爭取合理對待所衍生的罷工。在社會事實中,有四項造成加州人對於那些美國散工的憎惡:工作競爭、納稅、失業津貼、以及傳染病的威脅。經過探討之後,我們發現小說並沒有提及美國散工對加州人所造成的工作競爭,以及加州人需要繳納更多的稅以應付蜂擁而至的美國散工。最後一項比較是有關於對於這本小說的正反兩面的評價。對於持肯定正面評價的人而言,這本小說的貢獻可以被視為是歷史以及社會紀錄的里程碑。對於持反面評價的人而言,他們認為這本小說宣傳共產主義,企圖造成有產階級及無產階級的仇視對立。第二項反對的原因是小說中含糊不清的結局。第三項反對的原因是文中所穿插描述當時歷史社會背景的章節,由於這些章節與小說中的故事沒有關聯,因此有些讀者會認為這是二本不同的小說,同時也會分散讀者對於故事的注意力。第四項反對的原因是小說內容與事實不符合。第五項反對的原因是小說中對於加州農場主人偏激的描述。最後一項反對的原因是文中粗鄙的語言以及在性方面的渲染。
本論文共分五章。第一章是導言。第二章是現實與小說中遷徙原因的比較。第三章是現實與小說中美國散工在加州所遭遇的困境的比較。第四章是對於此本小說的正反兩面的評價。最後一章是結論。

Abstract
Literature is said to be a reflection of reality. Such a reflection is Steinbeck’s major concern in The Grapes of Wrath. The reflection in this novel is the Okies’ mass migration to California during the 1930s, which is one of the disheartening events of the Great Depression. Since this is a novel reflecting the social event of the Okies’ migration, the readers may wonder whether or not Steinbeck’s narration corresponds to reality. Therefore, the main argument in this thesis is the comparative study of the fictional narration and the historical event based on the Okies’ migration.
We will discuss the comparison between factual and fictional socioliterary sketches in various causes of migration. The three major causes of the migration are drought, mechanization, and Agricultural Adjustment Act. After the discussion, we find that the AAA policy is not mentioned by Steinbeck. The second major argument lies on the comparison between factual and fictional plight in California. There are four kinds of plight confronted by the migrants: housing, Californians’ hatred towards the migrants, the hardship of finding odd jobs, and strikes. There are four factors of Californians’ hatred towards the migrants: job competition, taxes, relief and threat of epidemics. Apparently, Steinbeck does not mention the factors of job competition and taxes in his fictional narration. The final concern in this thesis is the reception of Steinbeck’s socioliterary sketches of the
Okies'migration. The reasons of acceptance lies in its contribution as a historical milestone as well as a social document. The various oppositions are the proletarian propaganda, ambiguous ending, intercalary chapters, distortion of facts, biased narration of California farmers or land owners, its obscenity in vulgar language and casual sexual indulgence.
This thesis consists of five chapters. Chapter One is introduction. Chapter Two focuses on the comparison between the factual and fictional causes of Okies’ migration. Chapter Three explores the comparison between factual and fictional plight in California. Chapter Four examines pros and cons of this novel. Chapter Five is conclusion.

Table of Contents
Chapter One
Introduction……………………………………………………………1
Chapter Two
Causes of Migration: Comparison between Factual and Fictional Socioliterary Sketches………………………………………………….12
Chapter Three
Plight in California: Comparison between Factual and Fictional Socioliterary Sketches………………………………………………….38
Chapter Four
Pros and Cons of Steinbeck’s Socioliterary Sketches……………….63
Chapter Five
Conclusion……………………………………………………………...86
Works Cited………………………………………………………………….91

Works Cited
I. Primary Source:
Steinbeck, John. The Grapes of Wrath. New York: Penguin, 1992.
II. Secondary Sources:
Ameringer, Oscar. “Poverty Amid Plenty.” The Great Depression. Ed. David A. Shannon. New Jersey: Prentice-Hall, Inc, 1960.
26-28.
Benson, Jackson J. “The Background to the Composition of The Grapes of Wrath.” Critical Essays on Steinbeck’s The Grapes of Wrath. Ed. John Ditsky. Boston: G. K. Hall & Co, 1989. 51-74.
---. “To Tom, Who Lived It’: John Steinbeck and the Man from
Weedpatch.” Journal of Modern Literature 5 (1976): 151-94.
Birney, Earle. “A Must Book.” John Steinbeck: Contemporary Reviews. Eds. Joseph R. Mcelrath, Jr and Jesse S. Crisler. Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 1977. 168-70.
Bowron, Bernard. “The Grapes of Wrath: A “Wagons West” Romance”. A Companion to The Grapes of Wrath. Ed. Warren French. New York: Viking Press, 1964. 208-16.
Cameron, Tom. “The Grapes of Wrath Author Guards Self from Threats at Moody Gulch.” Conversations with John Steinbeck. Ed. Thomas Fensch. Mississippi: Mississippi UP, 1988. 18-20.
Chametzky, Jules. “The Ambivalent Endings of The Grapes of Wrath.” A Casebook on The Grapes of Wrath. Ed. Agnes McNeill Donohue. New York: Thomas Crowell Company, 1968. 232-44.
Conder, John J. “Steinbeck and Nature’s Self: The Grapes of Wrath.” Modern Critical Views: John Steinbeck. Ed. Harold Bloom. New York: Chelsea House Publishers, 1987. 125-40.
Cowley, Malcolm. “American Tragedy.” Critical Essays on Steinbeck’s The Grapes of Wrath. Ed. John Ditsky. Boston: G. K. Hall & Co, 1989. 27-29.
Cuddon, J. A. Dictionary of Literary Terms and Literary Theory. New York: Penguin Books, 1977.
DeMott, Robert. Ed. John Steinbeck Working Days: The Journals of The Grapes of Wrath 1938-1941. New York: Viking Press, 1989.
Dircks, Phyllis T. “Steinbeck’s Statement on the Inner Chapters of The Grapes of Wrath.” Steinbeck Quarterly 24 (1991): 86-95.
Eenderson, Caroline A. “Letters from the Dust Bowl.” A Companion to The Grapes of Wrath. Ed. Warren French. New York: Viking Press, 1964. 5-27.
French, Warren. John Steinbeck. New Haven: Twayne Publishers,
1961.
---. ---. “How Was The Grapes of Wrath Received at Home?” A Companion to The Grapes of Wrath. Ed. Warren French. New York: Viking Press, 1964. 105-11.
Gannett, Lewis. “John Steinbeck : Novelist at Work.” Conversations with John Steinbeck. Ed. Thomas Fensch. Mississippi: Mississippi UP, 1988. 28-42.
Glassman, Bruce. The Crash of ’29 and The New Deal. Morristown: Silver Burdett Company, 1986.
Gregory, James N. American Exodus: The Dust Bowl Migration and Okie Culture in California. Oxford: Oxford UP, 1989.
Hall, John. The Sociology of Literature. London: Longman, 1979.
Hinshaw, David. Herbert Hoover: American Quaker. New York: Farrar, Straus and Company, 1950.
Howarth, William. “The Mother of Literature: Journalism and The Grapes of Wrath.” New Essays on The Grapes of Wrath. Ed. David Wyatt. Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 1990. 71-100.
Jackson, Joseph Henry. “The Finest Book John Steinbeck Has Written.” A Companion to The Grapes of Wrath. Ed. Warren French. New York: Viking Press, 1964. 111-17.
Kronenberger, Louis. “Hungry Caravan.” Critical Essays on Steinbeck’s The Grapes of Wrath. Ed. Ditsky John. Boston: G. K. Hall& Co, 1989. 23-25.
Kunitz, Stanley. “Wine Out of These Grapes.” Critical Essays on Steinbeck’s The Grapes of Wrath. Ed. Ditsky John. Boston: G. K. Hall & Co, 1989. 35-36.
Lange, Dorothea and Paul Schuster Taylor. An American Exodus: A Record of Human Erosion. New York: Arno Press, 1975.
Leighton, M. M. “Geology of Soil Drifting on the Great Plains.” A Companion to The Grapes of Wrath. Ed. Warren French. New York: Viking Press, 1964. 8-14.
Levant, Howard. The Novels of John Steinbeck: A Critical Study. Columbia: Missouri UP, 1975.
Link, Arthur S. American Epoch: A History of the United States since the 1890’s. Toronto: Random House, 1963.
McCarthy, Paul. John Steinbeck. New York: Frederick Ungar Publishing Co., Inc, 1980.
McElderry, B.R. “The Grapes of Wrath: In the Light of Modern Critical Theory.” A Companion to The Grapes of Wrath. Ed. Warren French. New York: Viking Press, 1964. 199-208.
McWilliams, Carey. Factories in the Field. Boston: Little, Brown and Company, 1939.
---. “The End of a Cycle.” A Companion to The Grapes of Wrath. Ed. Warren French. New York: Viking Press, 1964. 42-50.
Miron, George Thomas. The Truth about John Steinbeck and the Migrants. Los Angeles: Haynes Corporation, 1939.
Monro, Peter Jack. “John Steinbeck’s New Novel Brims with Anger and Pity.” John Steinbeck: The Contemporary Reviews. Eds. Joseph R. McElrath, Jr And Jesses S. Crisler. Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 1996. 159-61.
Neufeldt, Victoria and David B. Guralnik, eds. Webster’s New World Dictionary of American English. New York: Prentice Hall, 1994.
Nevins, Allan and Henry Steele Commager. A Pocket History of the United States. New York: Washington Square Press, 1986.
Orlova, R. “Money against Humanity: Notes on the Work of John Steinbeck.” A Companion to The Grapes of Wrath. Ed. Warren French. New York: Viking Press, 1964. 152-59.
Ostrolenk, Bernhard. “The Farmer’s Plight: A Far-Reaching Crisis.”
The Great Depression. Ed. David A. Shannon. New Jersey: Prentice-Hall, Inc, 1960. 17-18.
Owens, Louis. “The Culpable Joads: Desentimentalizing The Grapes of Wrath.” Critical Essays on Steinbeck’s The Grapes of Wrath. Ed. John Ditsky. Boston: G. K. Hall & Co, 1989. 108-15.
Pizer, Donald. “The Enduring Power of the Joads.” Modern Critical Interpretations: John Steinbeck’s The Grapes of Wrath. Ed. Harold Bloom. New York: Chelsea House Publishers, 1988. 83-98.
Pollock, Theodore. “On the Ending of The Grapes of Wrath.” A Casebook on The Grapes of Wrath. Ed. Agnes McNeill Donohue. New York: Thomas Y. Crowell Company, 1968. 182-84.
Pressman, Richard S. “Them’s Horses─We’re Men”: Social Tendency and Counter-Tendency in The Grapes of Wrath.” Steinbeck Quarterly 21 (1986): 71-80.
Rideout, Walter B. The Radical Novel in The United States 1900-1954: Some Interrelations of Literature and Society. London: Oxford UP, 1956.
Rockwell, John. Fact in Fiction: The Use of Literature in the Systematic Study of Society. London: Routeledge & Kegan Paul, 1974.
Rogers, Mary F. Novels, Novelists, and Readers: Toward a Phenomenological Sociology of Literature. New York: New York UP, 1991.
Rollins, Jr. and Alfred B, eds. Depression, Recovery, and War 1929-1945. St. Louis: McGraw-Hill, Inc, 1966.
Schlesinger, Jr. Arthur M. The Coming of the New Deal. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company, 1958.
Shillinglaw, Susan. “California Answers The Grapes of Wrath. “ John Steinbeck: The Years of Greatness, 1936-1939. Ed. Tetsumaro Hayashi. Tuscaloosa: Alabama UP, 1993. 145-64.
Shockley, Martin Staples. “The Reception of The Grapes of
Wrath in Oklahoma.” A Companion to The Grapes of Wrath. Ed. Warren French. New York: Viking Press, 1964. 117-31.
Sillen, Samuel. “Censoring The Grapes of Wrath.” A Casebook on The Grapes of Wrath. Ed. Agnes McNeill Donohue. New York: Thomas Y. Crowell Company, 1968. 3-7.
Stein, Walter J. California and the Dust Bowl Migration. Westport: Greenwood Press, 1974.
Steinbeck, Elaine and Robert Wallsten, eds. Steinbeck: A Life in Letters. New York: Viking Press, 1975.
Steinbeck, John. “Their Blood Is Strong.” A Companion to The Grapes of Wrath. Ed. Warren French. New York: The Viking Press, 1963. 53-92.
Tannehill, Ivan Ray. “Dusters and Black Blizzards.” A Companion to The Grapes of Wrath. Ed. Warren French. New York: Viking Press, 1964. 5-8.
Taylor, Frank J. “California’s Grapes of Wrath.” A Casebook on The Grapes of Wrath. Ed. Agnes McNeill Donohue. New York: Thomas Y. Crowell Company, 1968. 8-19.
Taylor, Paul and Dorothea Lange. An American Exodus: A Record of Human Erosion. New York: Reynal & Hitchcock, 1999.
Taylor, Walter Fuller. “The Grapes of Wrath Reconsidered.” A Casebook on The Grapes of Wrath. Ed. Agnes McNeill Donohue. New York: Thomas Y. Crowell Company, 1968. 185-94.
Valenti, Peter. “Steinbeck’s Ecological Polemic: Human Sympathy and Visual Documentary in the Intercalary Chapters of The Grapes of Wrath.” Steinbeck and the Environment: Interdisciplinary Approaches. Eds. Susan F. Beegel and Susan Shillinglaw. Tuscaloosa: Alabama UP, 1997. 92-112.
Watkins, Floyd C. “Flat Wine From The Grapes of Wrath.” Modern Critical Interpretations: John Steinbeck’s The Grapes of Wrath.
Ed. Harold Bloom. New York: Chelsea House Publishers, 1988. 57-66.
Works Cited
I. Primary Source:
Steinbeck, John. The Grapes of Wrath. New York: Penguin, 1992.
II. Secondary Sources:
Ameringer, Oscar. “Poverty Amid Plenty.” The Great Depression.
Ed. David A. Shannon. New Jersey: Prentice-Hall, Inc, 1960.
26-28.
Benson, Jackson J. “The Background to the Composition of The Grapes of Wrath.” Critical Essays on Steinbeck’s The Grapes of Wrath. Ed. John Ditsky. Boston: G. K. Hall & Co, 1989. 51-74.
---. “To Tom, Who Lived It’: John Steinbeck and the Man from
Weedpatch.” Journal of Modern Literature 5 (1976): 151-94.
Birney, Earle. “A Must Book.” John Steinbeck: Contemporary Reviews. Eds. Joseph R. Mcelrath, Jr and Jesse S. Crisler. Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 1977. 168-70.
Bowron, Bernard. “The Grapes of Wrath: A “Wagons West” Romance”. A Companion to The Grapes of Wrath. Ed. Warren French. New York: Viking Press, 1964. 208-16.
Cameron, Tom. “The Grapes of Wrath Author Guards Self from Threats at Moody Gulch.” Conversations with John Steinbeck. Ed. Thomas Fensch. Mississippi: Mississippi UP, 1988. 18-20.
Chametzky, Jules. “The Ambivalent Endings of The Grapes of Wrath.” A Casebook on The Grapes of Wrath. Ed. Agnes McNeill Donohue. New York: Thomas Crowell Company, 1968. 232-44.
Conder, John J. “Steinbeck and Nature’s Self: The Grapes of Wrath.” Modern Critical Views: John Steinbeck. Ed. Harold Bloom. New York: Chelsea House Publishers, 1987. 125-40.
Cowley, Malcolm. “American Tragedy.” Critical Essays on Steinbeck’s The Grapes of Wrath. Ed. John Ditsky. Boston: G. K. Hall & Co, 1989. 27-29.
Cuddon, J. A. Dictionary of Literary Terms and Literary Theory. New York: Penguin Books, 1977.
DeMott, Robert. Ed. John Steinbeck Working Days: The Journals of The Grapes of Wrath 1938-1941. New York: Viking Press, 1989.
Dircks, Phyllis T. “Steinbeck’s Statement on the Inner Chapters of The Grapes of Wrath.” Steinbeck Quarterly 24 (1991): 86-95.
Eenderson, Caroline A. “Letters from the Dust Bowl.” A Companion to The Grapes of Wrath. Ed. Warren French. New York: Viking Press, 1964. 5-27.
French, Warren. John Steinbeck. New Haven: Twayne Publishers,
1961.
---. ---. “How Was The Grapes of Wrath Received at Home?” A Companion to The Grapes of Wrath. Ed. Warren French. New York: Viking Press, 1964. 105-11.
Gannett, Lewis. “John Steinbeck : Novelist at Work.” Conversations with John Steinbeck. Ed. Thomas Fensch. Mississippi: Mississippi UP, 1988. 28-42.
Glassman, Bruce. The Crash of ’29 and The New Deal. Morristown: Silver Burdett Company, 1986.
Gregory, James N. American Exodus: The Dust Bowl Migration and Okie Culture in California. Oxford: Oxford UP, 1989.
Hall, John. The Sociology of Literature. London: Longman, 1979.
Hinshaw, David. Herbert Hoover: American Quaker. New York: Farrar, Straus and Company, 1950.
Howarth, William. “The Mother of Literature: Journalism and The Grapes of Wrath.” New Essays on The Grapes of Wrath. Ed. David Wyatt. Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 1990. 71-100.
Jackson, Joseph Henry. “The Finest Book John Steinbeck Has Written.” A Companion to The Grapes of Wrath. Ed. Warren French. New York: Viking Press, 1964. 111-17.
Kronenberger, Louis. “Hungry Caravan.” Critical Essays on Steinbeck’s The Grapes of Wrath. Ed. Ditsky John. Boston: G. K. Hall& Co, 1989. 23-25.
Kunitz, Stanley. “Wine Out of These Grapes.” Critical Essays on Steinbeck’s The Grapes of Wrath. Ed. Ditsky John. Boston: G. K. Hall & Co, 1989. 35-36.
Lange, Dorothea and Paul Schuster Taylor. An American Exodus: A Record of Human Erosion. New York: Arno Press, 1975.
Leighton, M. M. “Geology of Soil Drifting on the Great Plains.” A Companion to The Grapes of Wrath. Ed. Warren French. New York: Viking Press, 1964. 8-14.
Levant, Howard. The Novels of John Steinbeck: A Critical Study. Columbia: Missouri UP, 1975.
Link, Arthur S. American Epoch: A History of the United States since the 1890’s. Toronto: Random House, 1963.
McCarthy, Paul. John Steinbeck. New York: Frederick Ungar Publishing Co., Inc, 1980.
McElderry, B.R. “The Grapes of Wrath: In the Light of Modern Critical Theory.” A Companion to The Grapes of Wrath. Ed. Warren French. New York: Viking Press, 1964. 199-208.
McWilliams, Carey. Factories in the Field. Boston: Little, Brown and Company, 1939.
---. “The End of a Cycle.” A Companion to The Grapes of Wrath. Ed. Warren French. New York: Viking Press, 1964. 42-50.
Miron, George Thomas. The Truth about John Steinbeck and the Migrants. Los Angeles: Haynes Corporation, 1939.
Monro, Peter Jack. “John Steinbeck’s New Novel Brims with Anger and Pity.” John Steinbeck: The Contemporary Reviews. Eds. Joseph R. McElrath, Jr And Jesses S. Crisler. Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 1996. 159-61.
Neufeldt, Victoria and David B. Guralnik, eds. Webster’s New World Dictionary of American English. New York: Prentice Hall, 1994.
Nevins, Allan and Henry Steele Commager. A Pocket History of the United States. New York: Washington Square Press, 1986.
Orlova, R. “Money against Humanity: Notes on the Work of John Steinbeck.” A Companion to The Grapes of Wrath. Ed. Warren French. New York: Viking Press, 1964. 152-59.
Ostrolenk, Bernhard. “The Farmer’s Plight: A Far-Reaching Crisis.”
The Great Depression. Ed. David A. Shannon. New Jersey: Prentice-Hall, Inc, 1960. 17-18.
Owens, Louis. “The Culpable Joads: Desentimentalizing The Grapes of Wrath.” Critical Essays on Steinbeck’s The Grapes of Wrath. Ed. John Ditsky. Boston: G. K. Hall & Co, 1989. 108-15.
Pizer, Donald. “The Enduring Power of the Joads.” Modern Critical Interpretations: John Steinbeck’s The Grapes of Wrath. Ed. Harold Bloom. New York: Chelsea House Publishers, 1988. 83-98.
Pollock, Theodore. “On the Ending of The Grapes of Wrath.” A Casebook on The Grapes of Wrath. Ed. Agnes McNeill Donohue. New York: Thomas Y. Crowell Company, 1968. 182-84.
Pressman, Richard S. “Them’s Horses─We’re Men”: Social Tendency and Counter-Tendency in The Grapes of Wrath.” Steinbeck Quarterly 21 (1986): 71-80.
Rideout, Walter B. The Radical Novel in The United States 1900-1954: Some Interrelations of Literature and Society. London: Oxford UP, 1956.
Rockwell, John. Fact in Fiction: The Use of Literature in the Systematic Study of Society. London: Routeledge & Kegan Paul, 1974.
Rogers, Mary F. Novels, Novelists, and Readers: Toward a Phenomenological Sociology of Literature. New York: New York UP, 1991.
Rollins, Jr. and Alfred B, eds. Depression, Recovery, and War 1929-1945. St. Louis: McGraw-Hill, Inc, 1966.
Schlesinger, Jr. Arthur M. The Coming of the New Deal. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company, 1958.
Shillinglaw, Susan. “California Answers The Grapes of Wrath. “ John Steinbeck: The Years of Greatness, 1936-1939. Ed. Tetsumaro Hayashi. Tuscaloosa: Alabama UP, 1993. 145-64.
Shockley, Martin Staples. “The Reception of The Grapes of
Wrath in Oklahoma.” A Companion to The Grapes of Wrath. Ed. Warren French. New York: Viking Press, 1964. 117-31.
Sillen, Samuel. “Censoring The Grapes of Wrath.” A Casebook on The Grapes of Wrath. Ed. Agnes McNeill Donohue. New York: Thomas Y. Crowell Company, 1968. 3-7.
Stein, Walter J. California and the Dust Bowl Migration. Westport: Greenwood Press, 1974.
Steinbeck, Elaine and Robert Wallsten, eds. Steinbeck: A Life in Letters. New York: Viking Press, 1975.
Steinbeck, John. “Their Blood Is Strong.” A Companion to The Grapes of Wrath. Ed. Warren French. New York: The Viking Press, 1963. 53-92.
Tannehill, Ivan Ray. “Dusters and Black Blizzards.” A Companion to The Grapes of Wrath. Ed. Warren French. New York: Viking Press, 1964. 5-8.
Taylor, Frank J. “California’s Grapes of Wrath.” A Casebook on The Grapes of Wrath. Ed. Agnes McNeill Donohue. New York: Thomas Y. Crowell Company, 1968. 8-19.
Taylor, Paul and Dorothea Lange. An American Exodus: A Record of Human Erosion. New York: Reynal & Hitchcock, 1999.
Taylor, Walter Fuller. “The Grapes of Wrath Reconsidered.” A Casebook on The Grapes of Wrath. Ed. Agnes McNeill Donohue. New York: Thomas Y. Crowell Company, 1968. 185-94.
Valenti, Peter. “Steinbeck’s Ecological Polemic: Human Sympathy and Visual Documentary in the Intercalary Chapters of The Grapes of Wrath.” Steinbeck and the Environment: Interdisciplinary Approaches. Eds. Susan F. Beegel and Susan Shillinglaw. Tuscaloosa: Alabama UP, 1997. 92-112.
Watkins, Floyd C. “Flat Wine From The Grapes of Wrath.” Modern Critical Interpretations: John Steinbeck’s The Grapes of Wrath.
Ed. Harold Bloom. New York: Chelsea House Publishers, 1988. 57-66.
Works Cited
I. Primary Source:
Steinbeck, John. The Grapes of Wrath. New York: Penguin, 1992.
II. Secondary Sources:
Ameringer, Oscar. “Poverty Amid Plenty.” The Great Depression.
Ed. David A. Shannon. New Jersey: Prentice-Hall, Inc, 1960.
26-28.
Benson, Jackson J. “The Background to the Composition of The Grapes of Wrath.” Critical Essays on Steinbeck’s The Grapes of Wrath. Ed. John Ditsky. Boston: G. K. Hall & Co, 1989. 51-74.
---. “To Tom, Who Lived It’: John Steinbeck and the Man from
Weedpatch.” Journal of Modern Literature 5 (1976): 151-94.
Birney, Earle. “A Must Book.” John Steinbeck: Contemporary Reviews. Eds. Joseph R. Mcelrath, Jr and Jesse S. Crisler. Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 1977. 168-70.
Bowron, Bernard. “The Grapes of Wrath: A “Wagons West” Romance”. A Companion to The Grapes of Wrath. Ed. Warren French. New York: Viking Press, 1964. 208-16.
Cameron, Tom. “The Grapes of Wrath Author Guards Self from Threats at Moody Gulch.” Conversations with John Steinbeck. Ed. Thomas Fensch. Mississippi: Mississippi UP, 1988. 18-20.
Chametzky, Jules. “The Ambivalent Endings of The Grapes of Wrath.” A Casebook on The Grapes of Wrath. Ed. Agnes McNeill Donohue. New York: Thomas Crowell Company, 1968. 232-44.
Conder, John J. “Steinbeck and Nature’s Self: The Grapes of Wrath.” Modern Critical Views: John Steinbeck. Ed. Harold Bloom. New York: Chelsea House Publishers, 1987. 125-40.
Cowley, Malcolm. “American Tragedy.” Critical Essays on Steinbeck’s The Grapes of Wrath. Ed. John Ditsky. Boston: G. K. Hall & Co, 1989. 27-29.
Cuddon, J. A. Dictionary of Literary Terms and Literary Theory. New York: Penguin Books, 1977.
DeMott, Robert. Ed. John Steinbeck Working Days: The Journals of The Grapes of Wrath 1938-1941. New York: Viking Press, 1989.
Dircks, Phyllis T. “Steinbeck’s Statement on the Inner Chapters of The Grapes of Wrath.” Steinbeck Quarterly 24 (1991): 86-95.
Eenderson, Caroline A. “Letters from the Dust Bowl.” A Companion to The Grapes of Wrath. Ed. Warren French. New York: Viking Press, 1964. 5-27.
French, Warren. John Steinbeck. New Haven: Twayne Publishers,
1961.
---. ---. “How Was The Grapes of Wrath Received at Home?” A Companion to The Grapes of Wrath. Ed. Warren French. New York: Viking Press, 1964. 105-11.
Gannett, Lewis. “John Steinbeck : Novelist at Work.” Conversations with John Steinbeck. Ed. Thomas Fensch. Mississippi: Mississippi UP, 1988. 28-42.
Glassman, Bruce. The Crash of ’29 and The New Deal. Morristown: Silver Burdett Company, 1986.
Gregory, James N. American Exodus: The Dust Bowl Migration and Okie Culture in California. Oxford: Oxford UP, 1989.
Hall, John. The Sociology of Literature. London: Longman, 1979.
Hinshaw, David. Herbert Hoover: American Quaker. New York: Farrar, Straus and Company, 1950.
Howarth, William. “The Mother of Literature: Journalism and The Grapes of Wrath.” New Essays on The Grapes of Wrath. Ed. David Wyatt. Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 1990. 71-100.
Jackson, Joseph Henry. “The Finest Book John Steinbeck Has Written.” A Companion to The Grapes of Wrath. Ed. Warren French. New York: Viking Press, 1964. 111-17.
Kronenberger, Louis. “Hungry Caravan.” Critical Essays on Steinbeck’s The Grapes of Wrath. Ed. Ditsky John. Boston: G. K. Hall& Co, 1989. 23-25.
Kunitz, Stanley. “Wine Out of These Grapes.” Critical Essays on Steinbeck’s The Grapes of Wrath. Ed. Ditsky John. Boston: G. K. Hall & Co, 1989. 35-36.
Lange, Dorothea and Paul Schuster Taylor. An American Exodus: A Record of Human Erosion. New York: Arno Press, 1975.
Leighton, M. M. “Geology of Soil Drifting on the Great Plains.” A Companion to The Grapes of Wrath. Ed. Warren French. New York: Viking Press, 1964. 8-14.
Levant, Howard. The Novels of John Steinbeck: A Critical Study. Columbia: Missouri UP, 1975.
Link, Arthur S. American Epoch: A History of the United States since the 1890’s. Toronto: Random House, 1963.
McCarthy, Paul. John Steinbeck. New York: Frederick Ungar Publishing Co., Inc, 1980.
McElderry, B.R. “The Grapes of Wrath: In the Light of Modern Critical Theory.” A Companion to The Grapes of Wrath. Ed. Warren French. New York: Viking Press, 1964. 199-208.
McWilliams, Carey. Factories in the Field. Boston: Little, Brown and Company, 1939.
---. “The End of a Cycle.” A Companion to The Grapes of Wrath. Ed. Warren French. New York: Viking Press, 1964. 42-50.
Miron, George Thomas. The Truth about John Steinbeck and the Migrants. Los Angeles: Haynes Corporation, 1939.
Monro, Peter Jack. “John Steinbeck’s New Novel Brims with Anger and Pity.” John Steinbeck: The Contemporary Reviews. Eds. Joseph R. McElrath, Jr And Jesses S. Crisler. Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 1996. 159-61.
Neufeldt, Victoria and David B. Guralnik, eds. Webster’s New World Dictionary of American English. New York: Prentice Hall, 1994.
Nevins, Allan and Henry Steele Commager. A Pocket History of the United States. New York: Washington Square Press, 1986.
Orlova, R. “Money against Humanity: Notes on the Work of John Steinbeck.” A Companion to The Grapes of Wrath. Ed. Warren French. New York: Viking Press, 1964. 152-59.
Ostrolenk, Bernhard. “The Farmer’s Plight: A Far-Reaching Crisis.”
The Great Depression. Ed. David A. Shannon. New Jersey: Prentice-Hall, Inc, 1960. 17-18.
Owens, Louis. “The Culpable Joads: Desentimentalizing The Grapes of Wrath.” Critical Essays on Steinbeck’s The Grapes of Wrath. Ed. John Ditsky. Boston: G. K. Hall & Co, 1989. 108-15.
Pizer, Donald. “The Enduring Power of the Joads.” Modern Critical Interpretations: John Steinbeck’s The Grapes of Wrath. Ed. Harold Bloom. New York: Chelsea House Publishers, 1988. 83-98.
Pollock, Theodore. “On the Ending of The Grapes of Wrath.” A Casebook on The Grapes of Wrath. Ed. Agnes McNeill Donohue. New York: Thomas Y. Crowell Company, 1968. 182-84.
Pressman, Richard S. “Them’s Horses─We’re Men”: Social Tendency and Counter-Tendency in The Grapes of Wrath.” Steinbeck Quarterly 21 (1986): 71-80.
Rideout, Walter B. The Radical Novel in The United States 1900-1954: Some Interrelations of Literature and Society. London: Oxford UP, 1956.
Rockwell, John. Fact in Fiction: The Use of Literature in the Systematic Study of Society. London: Routeledge & Kegan Paul, 1974.
Rogers, Mary F. Novels, Novelists, and Readers: Toward a Phenomenological Sociology of Literature. New York: New York UP, 1991.
Rollins, Jr. and Alfred B, eds. Depression, Recovery, and War 1929-1945. St. Louis: McGraw-Hill, Inc, 1966.
Schlesinger, Jr. Arthur M. The Coming of the New Deal. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company, 1958.
Shillinglaw, Susan. “California Answers The Grapes of Wrath. “ John Steinbeck: The Years of Greatness, 1936-1939. Ed. Tetsumaro Hayashi. Tuscaloosa: Alabama UP, 1993. 145-64.
Shockley, Martin Staples. “The Reception of The Grapes of
Wrath in Oklahoma.” A Companion to The Grapes of Wrath. Ed. Warren French. New York: Viking Press, 1964. 117-31.
Sillen, Samuel. “Censoring The Grapes of Wrath.” A Casebook on The Grapes of Wrath. Ed. Agnes McNeill Donohue. New York: Thomas Y. Crowell Company, 1968. 3-7.
Stein, Walter J. California and the Dust Bowl Migration. Westport: Greenwood Press, 1974.
Steinbeck, Elaine and Robert Wallsten, eds. Steinbeck: A Life in Letters. New York: Viking Press, 1975.
Steinbeck, John. “Their Blood Is Strong.” A Companion to The Grapes of Wrath. Ed. Warren French. New York: The Viking Press, 1963. 53-92.
Tannehill, Ivan Ray. “Dusters and Black Blizzards.” A Companion to The Grapes of Wrath. Ed. Warren French. New York: Viking Press, 1964. 5-8.
Taylor, Frank J. “California’s Grapes of Wrath.” A Casebook on The Grapes of Wrath. Ed. Agnes McNeill Donohue. New York: Thomas Y. Crowell Company, 1968. 8-19.
Taylor, Paul and Dorothea Lange. An American Exodus: A Record of Human Erosion. New York: Reynal & Hitchcock, 1999.
Taylor, Walter Fuller. “The Grapes of Wrath Reconsidered.” A Casebook on The Grapes of Wrath. Ed. Agnes McNeill Donohue. New York: Thomas Y. Crowell Company, 1968. 185-94.
Valenti, Peter. “Steinbeck’s Ecological Polemic: Human Sympathy and Visual Documentary in the Intercalary Chapters of The Grapes of Wrath.” Steinbeck and the Environment: Interdisciplinary Approaches. Eds. Susan F. Beegel and Susan Shillinglaw. Tuscaloosa: Alabama UP, 1997. 92-112.
Watkins, Floyd C. “Flat Wine From The Grapes of Wrath.” Modern Critical Interpretations: John Steinbeck’s The Grapes of Wrath.
Ed. Harold Bloom. New York: Chelsea House Publishers, 1988. 57-66.
Works Cited
I. Primary Source:
Steinbeck, John. The Grapes of Wrath. New York: Penguin, 1992.
II. Secondary Sources:
Ameringer, Oscar. “Poverty Amid Plenty.” The Great Depression.
Ed. David A. Shannon. New Jersey: Prentice-Hall, Inc, 1960.
26-28.
Benson, Jackson J. “The Background to the Composition of The Grapes of Wrath.” Critical Essays on Steinbeck’s The Grapes of Wrath. Ed. John Ditsky. Boston: G. K. Hall & Co, 1989. 51-74.
---. “To Tom, Who Lived It’: John Steinbeck and the Man from
Weedpatch.” Journal of Modern Literature 5 (1976): 151-94.
Birney, Earle. “A Must Book.” John Steinbeck: Contemporary Reviews. Eds. Joseph R. Mcelrath, Jr and Jesse S. Crisler. Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 1977. 168-70.
Bowron, Bernard. “The Grapes of Wrath: A “Wagons West” Romance”. A Companion to The Grapes of Wrath. Ed. Warren French. New York: Viking Press, 1964. 208-16.
Cameron, Tom. “The Grapes of Wrath Author Guards Self from Threats at Moody Gulch.” Conversations with John Steinbeck. Ed. Thomas Fensch. Mississippi: Mississippi UP, 1988. 18-20.
Chametzky, Jules. “The Ambivalent Endings of The Grapes of Wrath.” A Casebook on The Grapes of Wrath. Ed. Agnes McNeill Donohue. New York: Thomas Crowell Company, 1968. 232-44.
Conder, John J. “Steinbeck and Nature’s Self: The Grapes of Wrath.” Modern Critical Views: John Steinbeck. Ed. Harold Bloom. New York: Chelsea House Publishers, 1987. 125-40.
Cowley, Malcolm. “American Tragedy.” Critical Essays on Steinbeck’s The Grapes of Wrath. Ed. John Ditsky. Boston: G. K. Hall & Co, 1989. 27-29.
Cuddon, J. A. Dictionary of Literary Terms and Literary Theory. New York: Penguin Books, 1977.
DeMott, Robert. Ed. John Steinbeck Working Days: The Journals of The Grapes of Wrath 1938-1941. New York: Viking Press, 1989.
Dircks, Phyllis T. “Steinbeck’s Statement on the Inner Chapters of The Grapes of Wrath.” Steinbeck Quarterly 24 (1991): 86-95.
Eenderson, Caroline A. “Letters from the Dust Bowl.” A Companion to The Grapes of Wrath. Ed. Warren French. New York: Viking Press, 1964. 5-27.
French, Warren. John Steinbeck. New Haven: Twayne Publishers,
1961.
---. ---. “How Was The Grapes of Wrath Received at Home?” A Companion to The Grapes of Wrath. Ed. Warren French. New York: Viking Press, 1964. 105-11.
Gannett, Lewis. “John Steinbeck : Novelist at Work.” Conversations with John Steinbeck. Ed. Thomas Fensch. Mississippi: Mississippi UP, 1988. 28-42.
Glassman, Bruce. The Crash of ’29 and The New Deal. Morristown: Silver Burdett Company, 1986.
Gregory, James N. American Exodus: The Dust Bowl Migration and Okie Culture in California. Oxford: Oxford UP, 1989.
Hall, John. The Sociology of Literature. London: Longman, 1979.
Hinshaw, David. Herbert Hoover: American Quaker. New York: Farrar, Straus and Company, 1950.
Howarth, William. “The Mother of Literature: Journalism and The Grapes of Wrath.” New Essays on The Grapes of Wrath. Ed. David Wyatt. Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 1990. 71-100.
Jackson, Joseph Henry. “The Finest Book John Steinbeck Has Written.” A Companion to The Grapes of Wrath. Ed. Warren French. New York: Viking Press, 1964. 111-17.
Kronenberger, Louis. “Hungry Caravan.” Critical Essays on Steinbeck’s The Grapes of Wrath. Ed. Ditsky John. Boston: G. K. Hall& Co, 1989. 23-25.
Kunitz, Stanley. “Wine Out of These Grapes.” Critical Essays on Steinbeck’s The Grapes of Wrath. Ed. Ditsky John. Boston: G. K. Hall & Co, 1989. 35-36.
Lange, Dorothea and Paul Schuster Taylor. An American Exodus: A Record of Human Erosion. New York: Arno Press, 1975.
Leighton, M. M. “Geology of Soil Drifting on the Great Plains.” A Companion to The Grapes of Wrath. Ed. Warren French. New York: Viking Press, 1964. 8-14.
Levant, Howard. The Novels of John Steinbeck: A Critical Study. Columbia: Missouri UP, 1975.
Link, Arthur S. American Epoch: A History of the United States since the 1890’s. Toronto: Random House, 1963.
McCarthy, Paul. John Steinbeck. New York: Frederick Ungar Publishing Co., Inc, 1980.
McElderry, B.R. “The Grapes of Wrath: In the Light of Modern Critical Theory.” A Companion to The Grapes of Wrath. Ed. Warren French. New York: Viking Press, 1964. 199-208.
McWilliams, Carey. Factories in the Field. Boston: Little, Brown and Company, 1939.
---. “The End of a Cycle.” A Companion to The Grapes of Wrath. Ed. Warren French. New York: Viking Press, 1964. 42-50.
Miron, George Thomas. The Truth about John Steinbeck and the Migrants. Los Angeles: Haynes Corporation, 1939.
Monro, Peter Jack. “John Steinbeck’s New Novel Brims with Anger and Pity.” John Steinbeck: The Contemporary Reviews. Eds. Joseph R. McElrath, Jr And Jesses S. Crisler. Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 1996. 159-61.
Neufeldt, Victoria and David B. Guralnik, eds. Webster’s New World Dictionary of American English. New York: Prentice Hall, 1994.
Nevins, Allan and Henry Steele Commager. A Pocket History of the United States. New York: Washington Square Press, 1986.
Orlova, R. “Money against Humanity: Notes on the Work of John Steinbeck.” A Companion to The Grapes of Wrath. Ed. Warren French. New York: Viking Press, 1964. 152-59.
Ostrolenk, Bernhard. “The Farmer’s Plight: A Far-Reaching Crisis.”
The Great Depression. Ed. David A. Shannon. New Jersey: Prentice-Hall, Inc, 1960. 17-18.
Owens, Louis. “The Culpable Joads: Desentimentalizing The Grapes of Wrath.” Critical Essays on Steinbeck’s The Grapes of Wrath. Ed. John Ditsky. Boston: G. K. Hall & Co, 1989. 108-15.
Pizer, Donald. “The Enduring Power of the Joads.” Modern Critical Interpretations: John Steinbeck’s The Grapes of Wrath. Ed. Harold Bloom. New York: Chelsea House Publishers, 1988. 83-98.
Pollock, Theodore. “On the Ending of The Grapes of Wrath.” A Casebook on The Grapes of Wrath. Ed. Agnes McNeill Donohue. New York: Thomas Y. Crowell Company, 1968. 182-84.
Pressman, Richard S. “Them’s Horses─We’re Men”: Social Tendency and Counter-Tendency in The Grapes of Wrath.” Steinbeck Quarterly 21 (1986): 71-80.
Rideout, Walter B. The Radical Novel in The United States 1900-1954: Some Interrelations of Literature and Society. London: Oxford UP, 1956.
Rockwell, John. Fact in Fiction: The Use of Literature in the Systematic Study of Society. London: Routeledge & Kegan Paul, 1974.
Rogers, Mary F. Novels, Novelists, and Readers: Toward a Phenomenological Sociology of Literature. New York: New York UP, 1991.
Rollins, Jr. and Alfred B, eds. Depression, Recovery, and War 1929-1945. St. Louis: McGraw-Hill, Inc, 1966.
Schlesinger, Jr. Arthur M. The Coming of the New Deal. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company, 1958.
Shillinglaw, Susan. “California Answers The Grapes of Wrath. “ John Steinbeck: The Years of Greatness, 1936-1939. Ed. Tetsumaro Hayashi. Tuscaloosa: Alabama UP, 1993. 145-64.
Shockley, Martin Staples. “The Reception of The Grapes of
Wrath in Oklahoma.” A Companion to The Grapes of Wrath. Ed. Warren French. New York: Viking Press, 1964. 117-31.
Sillen, Samuel. “Censoring The Grapes of Wrath.” A Casebook on The Grapes of Wrath. Ed. Agnes McNeill Donohue. New York: Thomas Y. Crowell Company, 1968. 3-7.
Stein, Walter J. California and the Dust Bowl Migration. Westport: Greenwood Press, 1974.
Steinbeck, Elaine and Robert Wallsten, eds. Steinbeck: A Life in Letters. New York: Viking Press, 1975.
Steinbeck, John. “Their Blood Is Strong.” A Companion to The Grapes of Wrath. Ed. Warren French. New York: The Viking Press, 1963. 53-92.
Tannehill, Ivan Ray. “Dusters and Black Blizzards.” A Companion to The Grapes of Wrath. Ed. Warren French. New York: Viking Press, 1964. 5-8.
Taylor, Frank J. “California’s Grapes of Wrath.” A Casebook on The Grapes of Wrath. Ed. Agnes McNeill Donohue. New York: Thomas Y. Crowell Company, 1968. 8-19.
Taylor, Paul and Dorothea Lange. An American Exodus: A Record of Human Erosion. New York: Reynal & Hitchcock, 1999.
Taylor, Walter Fuller. “The Grapes of Wrath Reconsidered.” A Casebook on The Grapes of Wrath. Ed. Agnes McNeill Donohue. New York: Thomas Y. Crowell Company, 1968. 185-94.
Valenti, Peter. “Steinbeck’s Ecological Polemic: Human Sympathy and Visual Documentary in the Intercalary Chapters of The Grapes of Wrath.” Steinbeck and the Environment: Interdisciplinary Approaches. Eds. Susan F. Beegel and Susan Shillinglaw. Tuscaloosa: Alabama UP, 1997. 92-112.
Watkins, Floyd C. “Flat Wine From The Grapes of Wrath.” Modern Critical Interpretations: John Steinbeck’s The Grapes of Wrath.
Ed. Harold Bloom. New York: Chelsea House Publishers, 1988. 57-66.
Works Cited
I. Primary Source:
Steinbeck, John. The Grapes of Wrath. New York: Penguin, 1992.
II. Secondary Sources:
Ameringer, Oscar. “Poverty Amid Plenty.” The Great Depression.
Ed. David A. Shannon. New Jersey: Prentice-Hall, Inc, 1960.
26-28.
Benson, Jackson J. “The Background to the Composition of The Grapes of Wrath.” Critical Essays on Steinbeck’s The Grapes of Wrath. Ed. John Ditsky. Boston: G. K. Hall & Co, 1989. 51-74.
---. “To Tom, Who Lived It’: John Steinbeck and the Man from
Weedpatch.” Journal of Modern Literature 5 (1976): 151-94.
Birney, Earle. “A Must Book.” John Steinbeck: Contemporary Reviews. Eds. Joseph R. Mcelrath, Jr and Jesse S. Crisler. Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 1977. 168-70.
Bowron, Bernard. “The Grapes of Wrath: A “Wagons West” Romance”. A Companion to The Grapes of Wrath. Ed. Warren French. New York: Viking Press, 1964. 208-16.
Cameron, Tom. “The Grapes of Wrath Author Guards Self from Threats at Moody Gulch.” Conversations with John Steinbeck. Ed. Thomas Fensch. Mississippi: Mississippi UP, 1988. 18-20.
Chametzky, Jules. “The Ambivalent Endings of The Grapes of Wrath.” A Casebook on The Grapes of Wrath. Ed. Agnes McNeill Donohue. New York: Thomas Crowell Company, 1968. 232-44.
Conder, John J. “Steinbeck and Nature’s Self: The Grapes of Wrath.” Modern Critical Views: John Steinbeck. Ed. Harold Bloom. New York: Chelsea House Publishers, 1987. 125-40.
Cowley, Malcolm. “American Tragedy.” Critical Essays on Steinbeck’s The Grapes of Wrath. Ed. John Ditsky. Boston: G. K. Hall & Co, 1989. 27-29.
Cuddon, J. A. Dictionary of Literary Terms and Literary Theory. New York: Penguin Books, 1977.
DeMott, Robert. Ed. John Steinbeck Working Days: The Journals of The Grapes of Wrath 1938-1941. New York: Viking Press, 1989.
Dircks, Phyllis T. “Steinbeck’s Statement on the Inner Chapters of The Grapes of Wrath.” Steinbeck Quarterly 24 (1991): 86-95.
Eenderson, Caroline A. “Letters from the Dust Bowl.” A Companion to The Grapes of Wrath. Ed. Warren French. New York: Viking Press, 1964. 5-27.
French, Warren. John Steinbeck. New Haven: Twayne Publishers,
1961.
---. ---. “How Was The Grapes of Wrath Received at Home?” A Companion to The Grapes of Wrath. Ed. Warren French. New York: Viking Press, 1964. 105-11.
Gannett, Lewis. “John Steinbeck : Novelist at Work.” Conversations with John Steinbeck. Ed. Thomas Fensch. Mississippi: Mississippi UP, 1988. 28-42.
Glassman, Bruce. The Crash of ’29 and The New Deal. Morristown: Silver Burdett Company, 1986.
Gregory, James N. American Exodus: The Dust Bowl Migration and Okie Culture in California. Oxford: Oxford UP, 1989.
Hall, John. The Sociology of Literature. London: Longman, 1979.
Hinshaw, David. Herbert Hoover: American Quaker. New York: Farrar, Straus and Company, 1950.
Howarth, William. “The Mother of Literature: Journalism and The Grapes of Wrath.” New Essays on The Grapes of Wrath. Ed. David Wyatt. Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 1990. 71-100.
Jackson, Joseph Henry. “The Finest Book John Steinbeck Has Written.” A Companion to The Grapes of Wrath. Ed. Warren French. New York: Viking Press, 1964. 111-17.
Kronenberger, Louis. “Hungry Caravan.” Critical Essays on Steinbeck’s The Grapes of Wrath. Ed. Ditsky John. Boston: G. K. Hall& Co, 1989. 23-25.
Kunitz, Stanley. “Wine Out of These Grapes.” Critical Essays on Steinbeck’s The Grapes of Wrath. Ed. Ditsky John. Boston: G. K. Hall & Co, 1989. 35-36.
Lange, Dorothea and Paul Schuster Taylor. An American Exodus: A Record of Human Erosion. New York: Arno Press, 1975.
Leighton, M. M. “Geology of Soil Drifting on the Great Plains.” A Companion to The Grapes of Wrath. Ed. Warren French. New York: Viking Press, 1964. 8-14.
Levant, Howard. The Novels of John Steinbeck: A Critical Study. Columbia: Missouri UP, 1975.
Link, Arthur S. American Epoch: A History of the United States since the 1890’s. Toronto: Random House, 1963.
McCarthy, Paul. John Steinbeck. New York: Frederick Ungar Publishing Co., Inc, 1980.
McElderry, B.R. “The Grapes of Wrath: In the Light of Modern Critical Theory.” A Companion to The Grapes of Wrath. Ed. Warren French. New York: Viking Press, 1964. 199-208.
McWilliams, Carey. Factories in the Field. Boston: Little, Brown and Company, 1939.
---. “The End of a Cycle.” A Companion to The Grapes of Wrath. Ed. Warren French. New York: Viking Press, 1964. 42-50.
Miron, George Thomas. The Truth about John Steinbeck and the Migrants. Los Angeles: Haynes Corporation, 1939.
Monro, Peter Jack. “John Steinbeck’s New Novel Brims with Anger and Pity.” John Steinbeck: The Contemporary Reviews. Eds. Joseph R. McElrath, Jr And Jesses S. Crisler. Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 1996. 159-61.
Neufeldt, Victoria and David B. Guralnik, eds. Webster’s New World Dictionary of American English. New York: Prentice Hall, 1994.
Nevins, Allan and Henry Steele Commager. A Pocket History of the United States. New York: Washington Square Press, 1986.
Orlova, R. “Money against Humanity: Notes on the Work of John Steinbeck.” A Companion to The Grapes of Wrath. Ed. Warren French. New York: Viking Press, 1964. 152-59.
Ostrolenk, Bernhard. “The Farmer’s Plight: A Far-Reaching Crisis.”
The Great Depression. Ed. David A. Shannon. New Jersey: Prentice-Hall, Inc, 1960. 17-18.
Owens, Louis. “The Culpable Joads: Desentimentalizing The Grapes of Wrath.” Critical Essays on Steinbeck’s The Grapes of Wrath. Ed. John Ditsky. Boston: G. K. Hall & Co, 1989. 108-15.
Pizer, Donald. “The Enduring Power of the Joads.” Modern Critical Interpretations: John Steinbeck’s The Grapes of Wrath. Ed. Harold Bloom. New York: Chelsea House Publishers, 1988. 83-98.
Pollock, Theodore. “On the Ending of The Grapes of Wrath.” A Casebook on The Grapes of Wrath. Ed. Agnes McNeill Donohue. New York: Thomas Y. Crowell Company, 1968. 182-84.
Pressman, Richard S. “Them’s Horses─We’re Men”: Social Tendency and Counter-Tendency in The Grapes of Wrath.” Steinbeck Quarterly 21 (1986): 71-80.
Rideout, Walter B. The Radical Novel in The United States 1900-1954: Some Interrelations of Literature and Society. London: Oxford UP, 1956.
Rockwell, John. Fact in Fiction: The Use of Literature in the Systematic Study of Society. London: Routeledge & Kegan Paul, 1974.
Rogers, Mary F. Novels, Novelists, and Readers: Toward a Phenomenological Sociology of Literature. New York: New York UP, 1991.
Rollins, Jr. and Alfred B, eds. Depression, Recovery, and War 1929-1945. St. Louis: McGraw-Hill, Inc, 1966.
Schlesinger, Jr. Arthur M. The Coming of the New Deal. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company, 1958.
Shillinglaw, Susan. “California Answers The Grapes of Wrath. “ John Steinbeck: The Years of Greatness, 1936-1939. Ed. Tetsumaro Hayashi. Tuscaloosa: Alabama UP, 1993. 145-64.
Shockley, Martin Staples. “The Reception of The Grapes of
Wrath in Oklahoma.” A Companion to The Grapes of Wrath. Ed. Warren French. New York: Viking Press, 1964. 117-31.
Sillen, Samuel. “Censoring The Grapes of Wrath.” A Casebook on The Grapes of Wrath. Ed. Agnes McNeill Donohue. New York: Thomas Y. Crowell Company, 1968. 3-7.
Stein, Walter J. California and the Dust Bowl Migration. Westport: Greenwood Press, 1974.
Steinbeck, Elaine and Robert Wallsten, eds. Steinbeck: A Life in Letters. New York: Viking Press, 1975.
Steinbeck, John. “Their Blood Is Strong.” A Companion to The Grapes of Wrath. Ed. Warren French. New York: The Viking Press, 1963. 53-92.
Tannehill, Ivan Ray. “Dusters and Black Blizzards.” A Companion to The Grapes of Wrath. Ed. Warren French. New York: Viking Press, 1964. 5-8.
Taylor, Frank J. “California’s Grapes of Wrath.” A Casebook on The Grapes of Wrath. Ed. Agnes McNeill Donohue. New York: Thomas Y. Crowell Company, 1968. 8-19.
Taylor, Paul and Dorothea Lange. An American Exodus: A Record of Human Erosion. New York: Reynal & Hitchcock, 1999.
Taylor, Walter Fuller. “The Grapes of Wrath Reconsidered.” A Casebook on The Grapes of Wrath. Ed. Agnes McNeill Donohue. New York: Thomas Y. Crowell Company, 1968. 185-94.
Valenti, Peter. “Steinbeck’s Ecological Polemic: Human Sympathy and Visual Documentary in the Intercalary Chapters of The Grapes of Wrath.” Steinbeck and the Environment: Interdisciplinary Approaches. Eds. Susan F. Beegel and Susan Shillinglaw. Tuscaloosa: Alabama UP, 1997. 92-112.
Watkins, Floyd C. “Flat Wine From The Grapes of Wrath.” Modern Critical Interpretations: John Steinbeck’s The Grapes of Wrath.
Ed. Harold Bloom. New York: Chelsea House Publishers, 1988. 57-66.
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