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研究生:柯菁青
研究生(外文):Ko Ching-ching
論文名稱:幼稚園初學英語學童聽講能力發展之研究
論文名稱(外文):The Development of English Listening Comprehension and Oral Production of Beginners in Kindergarten
指導教授:楊玲珿
指導教授(外文):Yang Ling-zu
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立高雄師範大學
系所名稱:英語學系
學門:人文學門
學類:外國語文學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2002
畢業學年度:90
語文別:英文
論文頁數:124
中文關鍵詞:幼稚園初學英語者聽講能力性別因素發音特徵
外文關鍵詞:kindergartenbeginnerslistening comprehensionoral productiongender factorpronunciation characteristics
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本研究旨在探討男女學童在聽力理解和口語表達能力上有無顯著差異,並一起探討學童的聽力理解是否比口語表達能力更好。此外,本研究亦探討各種可能影響學童的聽力理解和口語表達能力的因素,並舉證學童的口語表達所展現的特徵。
本研究以七位來自高雄縣創意幼稚園初學英語的學童(四位男生、三位女生)為研究對象。這些學童皆在同一班,年紀相當(約3、4歲)。在研究之前先晤談學童的英語老師,之後,每個月觀察課室兩次並作成紀錄。然後每教完一個段落之後對學童實施聽力理解和口語表達測驗,並紀錄測驗過程發生的點滴。最後,將學童的聽力理解和口語表達結果進行分析比較,並將結果收錄在每位學童的檔案裡。
本研究的結果摘要如下:
1.性別因素並沒有顯著影響初學英語學童的聽力理解和口語表達能力。
2.初學英語學童的聽力理解比口語表達能力顯著性更好。
3.無論在學校或在家,皆有多種不同的因素導致學童們有不同的聽力理解和口語表達能力,因此很難將學童們不同的聽力理解和口語表達能力歸因於單一因素。
4.從學童的英語發音錯誤中發現一些特徵,顯示學童的口語能力發展遵循一定規則在發展。
The primary goal of this study aimed to examine whether there was any significant difference between male and female children in either listening comprehension or oral production. Whether the children’s scores in listening comprehension were better than those in oral production was investigated. In addition, the possible factors affecting the development of listening comprehension and oral production was discussed. The particular pronunciation and phrase characteristics in the beginning stage were pinpointed and explained as well.
Seven children, four boys and three girls, from Creation Kindergarten in Luchu, Kaohsiung County, participated in this study. They, about the same age of four, were all beginners in learning English in the same class. The researcher interviewed their English teacher, Melody, before the observation of the classroom and observed the classroom twice a month and kept fieldnotes. Then, the researcher assessed the children’s listening comprehension and verbal production and kept journals. Last, she graded each child’s listening comprehension and verbal comprehension and recorded the results of the assessment in each portfolio. The main findings of this study were summarized as follows:
1. The gender factor did not affect these children’ English acquisition of listening comprehension and oral production in a decisive way.
2. The children performed better in listening comprehension than in oral production.
3. Various factors at school and at home might contribute to different performances to some extent so that it is not appropriate to attribute children’s different performances to a single factor.
4. The children exhibited some characteristics and regularities when they mispronounces some words or sentences.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION 1
Background and Motivation 1
Statement of the Problem 5
Research Questions 6
Purposes of the Study 7
Significance of the Study 7
Limitations of the Study 8
Definition of the Terms 9
CHAPTER TWO REVIEW OF LITERATURE 10
Children’s First Language Acquisition 10
Second Language Acquisition 13
Listening Comprehension 16
Oral Production 21
Pronunciation Development 28
Lexical Development 32
Learning the Meanings of Words 36
Error Analysis 38
Relationship Between Comprehension and Production 41
The Role of Genders in Different Tasks 44
CHAPTER THREE METHOD AND PROCEDURE 47
Subjects 47
Instruments 49
Procedures 51
Data Analysis 53
CHAPTER FOUR RESULTS AND DISCUSSTION 55
Differences Between Genders in Listening Comprehension 55
Differences Between Genders in Oral Production 58
Differences Between the Development of Listening Comprehension and Oral Production 60
The Factors Affecting the Development of Listening Comprehension and Oral Production 66
Personality Factor 67
Cognitive Factor 68
Instructional Factor 69
Specific Pronunciation and Phrase Characteristics in Oral Production 72
Pronunciation 72
Substitution 72
Epenthesis 74
Deletion 76
The Use of Sentences 77
CHAPTER FIVE CONCLUSIONS, IMPLICATIONS, AND SUGGESTIONS 81
Conclusions 81
Pedagogical Implications 83
Suggestions for Further Research 85
REFERENCES 87
APPENDIXES 99
Appendix A 99
Appendix B 101
Appendix C 117
Appendix D 124
LIST OF TABLES
Table Page
1. The t-test Results on Listening Comprehension Between Male and Female Subjects 56
2. The t-test Results on Oral Production Between Male and Female Subjects 59
3. The Scores Between Listening Comprehension and Oral Production 62
4. The Scores of the Songs Between Listening Comprehension and Oral Production 63
5. The Ranking of Listening Comprehension and Oral Production 66
LIST OF FIGURE
Figure Page
1. The Procedure of conducting this study 53
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