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研究生(外文):Lee Chia-fen
論文名稱(外文):A Quest for Chinese American Identity: Creating the Location of Culture in Maxine Hong Kingston''s The Woman Warrior, China Men and Tripmaster Monkey.
指導教授(外文):Huang Hsin-ya
外文關鍵詞:cultural identityChinese American literaturestereotypeThird Spacecultural hybridity
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自1960年代後期,種族及文化議題成為華美作家主要關注的焦點。湯亭亭(Maxine Hong Kingston)的三部作品,《女戰士》、《金山勇士》及《猴行者》反映出華裔美國人身處於東西文化交會下所遭受的困境。雖然如此,書中主角仍然企圖努力在這種雙重文化背景下,找到自己在美國社會中的定位。本篇論文主要應用巴巴(Homi K. Bhabha)的論述,來探討湯亭亭三部作品中華裔美國人的自我主體性的建構。巴巴指出,在後現代的文化議題中,祖先及家鄉不再決定個人的文化認同。相反的,他主張認同是一種不同文化整編及演繹的結果。在湯亭亭的作品中我們發現,湯氏在自己父母與先祖的故事找出一股凝聚華美人的力量。透過了解父母過去在美國的奮鬥,讓年輕一代的華裔美國人,能夠克服雙重文化的背景下帶來的困境,創造新的自我與文化認同,並肯定華美人的美國文化屬性。
本論文共分五章。第一章說明整個論文的理論架構。採用巴巴的理論,主張在後現代社會中創造出兩個文化間的 「中介性位置找到身份認同,打破白人對文化的單一獨斷想法。第二章說明在湯亭亭的《女戰士》中華裔子女如何從母親的故事中傳承華美文化。第三章探討在《金山勇士》,父系祖先對華美文化認同的影響。第四章闡述在《猴形者:他的偽書》中,惠特曼‧阿辛結合中國民間傳奇故事與六十年代美國嬉皮文化來批判白人對華裔美國人的刻板印象及創造華裔美國人在美國社會中文化認同。第五章歸結全文,並再度肯定湯亭亭於創造華裔美國人文化認同的貢獻。
Maxine Hong Kingston’s three volumes, The Woman Warrior, China Men and Tripmaster Monkey, disclose the struggle of Chinese Americans and their inner conflict when they confront a Chinese and American binary culture. Kingston believes that by retelling Father and Mother’s stories, Chinese Americans build their new cultural identity. This thesis consists of five chapters. Chapter One discusses Homi K. Bhabha''s assertions in Location of Culture as a theoretical framework for a cultural analysis of Kingston’s works. According to Bhabha, by articulating differences in the “Third Space” or the cultural “in-between,” the colonized Other produces its identity. This assertion can be applied to the readings of Kingston’s three volumes as, in her works, she strives to identify the differences in her cultural “in-between” and disclose a “Third Space” between her Americanness and Chinese-ness. Chapter Two explores how the narrator-protagonist translates Mother’s stories into her own in order to identify Chinese American “feminine differences” in The Woman Warrior. Chapter Three centers on the daughter’s writing a history which allows her Father to recover Chinese American “masculine differences” in China Men. The book argues for Chinese American rightful place in America, despite the fact that they are perpetually labeled as "foreigners."  Moreover, Chapter Four deals with Tripmaster Monkey, in which Chinese Americans make a new community and collective identity in American society after re-telling their parents’ histories. Chapter Five recapitulates the main ideas of this thesis and affirms Kingston''s achievement in claiming America and reconstructing Chinese American cultural identity.
Chapter Two
The Woman Warrior: Translating Mother’s Story to
Refine Chinese American Culture...............................16
Chapter Three
China Men: Talking Father’s Story to Recover
Chinese American Identity.....................................36
Chapter Four
Tripmaster Monkey: His Fake Book
Talking American Sons’ Story to Create Their Own Culture.....59
Chapter Five Conclusion.......................................83
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