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研究生:蔡麗凰
研究生(外文):Tsai Li-huang
論文名稱:圖畫呈現在不同文類對高中生英文聽力之影響
論文名稱(外文):The Effects of Pictures for Different Genres of Listening Materials on Senior High Students' Listening Comprehension
指導教授:楊玲珿
指導教授(外文):Yang Ling-zu
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立高雄師範大學
系所名稱:英語學系
學門:人文學門
學類:外國語文學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2002
畢業學年度:90
語文別:英文
論文頁數:123
中文關鍵詞:英文聽力英文聽力理解英語聽力教材英語聽前活動圖片視覺輔助工具故事文描述文
外文關鍵詞:listeninglistening comprehensionlistening materialspre-listening activitypicturevisual aidsnarrativedescriptive
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  • 被引用被引用:1
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論文摘要
本論文旨在研究以圖片做為聽前活動對高一學生英文聽力理解之效益。 同時亦探討此效益是否會因受試者本身聽力程度不同或因不同的聽力文類教材 (故事文及描述文) 而有所不同。 期能以此實驗之結果提供外語教學者在設計促進學生英聽能力教學活動時,另一個思考方向。
參加本實驗之受試者為來自嘉義高中四個班 (共165位) 高一的學生,其中各二班學生被隨機分派到實驗組及控制組。 各組受試者再依其九十年九月份四次大家說英語的聽力週考成績,分為高、中、低三組。所有受試者在第一週接受兩篇故事文體之聽力測驗,並在第二週完成兩篇描述文體之聽力測驗。 控制組進行方式是聽二次文章的內容﹔而實驗組在聽力測驗前先看與文章內容前半段有關的圖片,觀看圖片的時間則與控制組多聽一次內容的時間相同。 測驗的分數則以變異數分析及事後檢定加以分析及討論。本研究之主要發現如下:
(1) 就整體聽力測驗的表現而言,實驗組及控制組並無顯著差異。
(2) 聽力測驗前展示圖片,對不同的英聽文類(即故事文及描述文)有不同影響。實驗組在故事文的表現優於控制組,但在描述文之表現與控制組並無顯著差異。此外,在實驗組中,受試者在故事文的表現優於描述文類﹔而在控制組中,此兩種文類並無顯著差異。
(3) 在高、中、低三組的聽力表現方面,聽前看圖可輔助低成就學生的英聽理解力,並彌補其在英聽能力之不足。
(4) 在實驗組中,高、中、低各組學生在故事文的表現皆優於描述文﹔但在控制組中並無此現象。 此外,英聽能力較高的受試者,不管是在控制組及實驗組或者是故事文及描述文,其表現皆優於中、低程度的受試者。
最後,根據以上的發現,本研究呼籲:英聽教師在準備聽力教材時應考慮到學生對文本之熟悉度。若聽力教材為學生較不熟悉者,英聽教師應提供學生一些適當、有趣的聽前活動,如圖片、動畫之類﹔以提昇其聽力及信心。

ABSTRACT
This study aimed (a) to examine the effects of pictures serving as the pre-listening activity on Chinese senior high students’ listening comprehension; (b) to find out how different types of listening texts, narrative type or descriptive type, influenced the subjects’ listening comprehension with or without the treatment of pre-listening activities; and (c) to explore how pictures made the difference among students with different listening comprehension proficiencies.
The subjects of this study were 165 first-year students at Chia-yi Senior High School. They were randomly assigned to the control group (i.e. without-picture group) and the experimental group (i.e. with-picture group). Based on their scores of the four weekly listening quizzes in Let’s Talk in English in September 2001, the subjects in each group were further divided into three proficiency levels--high-proficiency, mid-proficiency, and low-proficiency. All the subjects took the listening comprehension test separately in two weeks, two narrative passages in the first week and two descriptive passages in the second week. The control group could listen to the text twice, which took about 3 minutes, while the experimental group was given the same length of time for listening to the text once and looking at the pictures concerning the content of the first half part of each passage before listening.
The major findings of the study were as follows. First, as to the whole listening comprehension test, there was no significant difference between the students who were allowed to look at pictures and those who were allowed to listen to the texts twice with no pictures. Second, in terms of students’ listening comprehension of different types of texts, visual aids used as a pre-listening activity did have different influences. The scores of the narrative texts were significantly higher than those of the descriptive texts after the subjects were provided with pictures before listening. On the other hand, there was no significant difference found between those two types of texts in the control group. Besides, the experimental group performed significantly better in the narrative texts, though not in the descriptive text, than the control group. Third, compared with the high- and mid-proficiency groups, the low-proficiency group benefited most from visual aids. Fourth, each of the three proficiencies (high, mid, and low) in the experimental group performed significantly better in the narrative passages than in the descriptive passages. However, as for each of the three proficiency levels in the control group, no significant differences were found between the narrative text and the descriptive text. Furthermore, high-proficiency students performed significantly better than the mid- and low- proficiency students both in the control group and in the experimental group, and both in the narrative passages and in the descriptive passages.

TABLE OF CONTENTS
Page
Abstract………………….…………………………………………… i
Table of Contents…………………………………………………. iii
List of Tables……………………………………………………… vi
List of Figure……………………………………………………… vii
CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION…………………..………………. 1
Background and Motivation……………………………. 1
Statement of the Problem…………………………….. 7
Purposes of the Study…………………………………… 8
Research Questions…………………………………… 8
Significance of the Study……………………………… 9
Limitations of the Study……………………………… 10
Definition of Terms……………………………………. 10
CHAPTER TWO LITERATURE REVIEW ………………………… 13
Definition of Listening…………………………………………. 13
The Process of Listening Comprehension…………… 15
Listening in Second Language Acquisition………… 19
Perspectives of Schema Theory on Comprehension… 21
Definition of Schema………………………………… 21
Formal Schema and Content Schema………………… 23
Research on Schema Theory in Reading Comprehension… 25
The Role of Schema Theory in Listening comprehension…………………………………………………………26
Research on Schema Theory in L1 Listening Comprehension…………………………………………………28
Research on Schema Theory in L2 Listening Comprehension………………………………………………30
Visual Aids in Language Comprehension…………………………32
The Advantages of Visual Aids…………………………32
Beneficial Effects of Visual Cues on L1 Listening Comprehension…………………………………………………34
Beneficial Effects of Visual Cues on L2 Listening Comprehension…………………………………………………36
Restricted Effects of Visuals on Listening Comprehension……40
The Reasons for Diverged Opinions of the Effects of Visual Aids……………………………………………………42
The Effects of Teaching Material Types on Listening Performance…………………………………………………44
CHAPTER THREE METHOD AND PROCEDURE……………… 47
The Pilot Study…………………………………………………47
Subjects………………………………………………………48
Instruments………………………………………………… 50
Four Weekly Listening Comprehension Quizzes of Let’s Talk in English……………………………………………50
The Listening Texts and the Listening Comprehension Questions……………………………………51
Pictures…………………………………………………………54
Procedure…………………………………………………………54
Data Analysis……………….……………………………………60
CHAPTER FOUR RESULTS AND DISCUSSION………………61
The Effects of the Pictures on Listening Comprehension Performance………………………………………………………61
The Effects of Text Types on Listening Comprehension…………64
The Effects of Pictures on the Listening Comprehension Of Different Proficiency Subjects………………………………69
The Performance of Different Proficiency Levels in the Different Listening Material Styles of the Listening Comprehension……73
CHAPTER FIVE CONCLUSIONS…………………………………81
Summary of the Findings……………………………81
Suggestions for Future Research…………………82
Pedagogical Implications…………………………84
REFERENCES………………………………………………………... 87
Appendix A: The Listening Texts for the First Week: Two Narrative Passages…………………………………... 105
Appendix B: The Listening Texts for the Second Week: Two Descriptive Passages………………………………… 106
Appendix C: The Chinese Directions of the Listening Comprehension Test (for the control group)... 107
Appendix D: The Chinese Directions of the Listening Comprehension Test (for the experimental group)…108
Appendix E: Questions on the Listening ComprehensionTest for Four Passages………………………………. 109
Appendix F: The Options of Questions on the ListeningComprehension Test……………………………111
Appendix G: The Pictures of Four Listening Comprehension Passages…115
Appendix H: Answer Sheet for Listening Comprehension Test.123

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1. 鄧慧君 (Teng, H. C.). (1998a). 〈文類及題型英語聽力測驗之影響〉。《英語教學》,23期,頁5-18。
2. 葉潔宇 (Ye, J. Y.). (2000). 〈英語聽力教學〉。《英語教學》,25期,頁90-98。
3. 鄧慧君 (Teng, H. C.). (1998b). 〈聽前活動對英語聽力理解之成效探究〉 。 《教育研究資訊》 ,6卷2期,頁133-141。
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12. 蔡嘉裕,「從大陸分稅制論其中央與地方的財政關係與問題」,中國大陸研究(台北),第41卷第11期(1998年11月),頁25∼43。
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