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研究生:林淑薇
研究生(外文):Shu-wei Lin
論文名稱:國中學前英語學習對國中學生英語成績及英語聽說讀寫能力之影響
論文名稱(外文):THE EFFECTS OF PRE-JUNIOR HIGH SCHOOL ENGLISH LEARNING ON JUNIOR HIGH STUDENTS’ ENGLISH ACHIEVEMENT AND FOUR LANGUAGE SKILLS
指導教授:楊玲珿
指導教授(外文):Ling-zu Yang
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立高雄師範大學
系所名稱:英語學系
學門:人文學門
學類:外國語文學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2002
畢業學年度:90
語文別:英文
論文頁數:103
中文關鍵詞:學習年限英語學習成就四種語言能力第二語言習得
外文關鍵詞:The number of years of learningEnglish learning achievementFour language skillsSecond language acquisition
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本論文旨在研究國一學生國中學前英語學習,對其英語成績及英語聽說讀寫能力上所造成之差異,藉以了解提早學習英語之學習效果,並探討早期學習過程中之教學狀況及學生本身的學習特點和態度與英語聽說讀寫能力之相關性,以便作為九年一貫課程實施後,英語教學之參考。
參加本研究之受試者為101位台中縣立沙鹿國中的國一學生。受試者依其是否在國中學前學習英語分為有學習經驗與無學習經驗兩組,有學習經驗者再依其學習年限分為長期、中期、短期三組。英語成績採用國一下學期三次段考成績,聽說讀寫能力測驗及問卷內容為研究者自編。
英語成績及四種語言能力的測驗分數以變異數分析加以討論,問卷內容則以變異數分析及T考驗加以討論。本研究主要發現如下:
(1)國中學前英語學習對英語成績的表現呈顯著差異。而且提早學習的時間愈長,國一英語成績愈好。
(2)學習年限對聽說讀寫能力的表現呈顯著的差異,學習年限為長期者其四種語言能力表現最好。除了閱讀能力之外,無學習經驗者表現最差。
(3)教學內容對四種語言能力有顯著差異者為會話、閱讀、文法和發音。教學活動中對四種語言能力表現有顯著差異者為遊戲及講解。
(4)受試者學習英語的動機表示自己想學習英語的比由學校安排者,在四種語言能力表現上有顯著差異。而受試者較喜歡的學習活動中對四種語言能力表現有顯著差異者為聽錄音帶、口語練習、朗讀、閱讀、文法練習及寫作。此外,父母受高等教育的受試者在四種語言能力表現上呈顯著差異。
最後,本研究建議教師應對學生已具備的基本語言能力有所熟悉,提供學生更多英語語料輸入,使教室的學習環境更類似於自然習得的情境,以提昇學生四種語言能力之發展。學生本身則應每天規則地至少花一小時研讀英語,並且積極主動的投入英語學習活動。
The focuses of this study are on four main aspects. The first aspect is to find out whether pre-junior high school English learning experience affects students’ English achievement. The second aspect concerns to what extent the length of pre-junior high school English learning varies the students’ performances of four language skills. The third and the fourth aspects pertain to the influences of the factors of the process of input and the learners’ characteristics on students’ four language skills. It is anticipated that the outcome can be served as reference for junior high school English teachers to prepare their instruction effectively, especially after English has become a required subject in the elementary school.
The subjects of this study were 101 first-grade students in Sha Lu Junior High School. They were classified into two groups, experienced group and non-experienced group. The subjects in experienced group were further divided into three subgroups─long-term, mid-term, and short-term experienced groups. The subjects’ grades obtained from three monthly English achievement tests were utilized to serve as their English achievement. In addition, tests of four language skills were written by the researcher and served as the test items. A questionnaire was also designed to understand the process of pre-junior high school English language input and the characteristics of the subjects. The collected data on the three monthly English tests and the tests of four language skills were analyzed by ANOVA and the Scheffe’s post-hoc test; besides, the subjects’ responses in the questionnaire were analyzed by t-test, ANOVA, and the Scheffe’s post-hoc test. The findings of this study are as follows.
(1)Pre-junior high school English learning experience showed significant effects on the subjects’ English achievement, and the longer the learning time before junior high school, the better the English achievement in the beginning stage in junior high.
(2)Number of years of learning showed significant effects on the subjects’ four language skills. Subjects of long-term-experienced performed best in four language tests. Except for reading test, subjects of non-experienced group performed significant worst.
(3)With respect to the process of input, some teaching contents, such as conversation, reading, grammar, and pronunciation had significant effects on four language skills. Besides, some teaching activities, such as games and lectures had significant effects on their four language skills.
(4)Students’ intrinsic motivation in early English learning played a crucial role. Students who were self-driven in learning English performed better than those who were driven by the school in four language tests. The preferred English learning activities which were particularly important on their four language skills were audiotapes, oral practice, read aloud, reading, grammar, and writing. Moreover, subjects who came from families with high-educated parents performed significantly better in four language tests.
Finally, it is suggested that teachers should be aware of their students’ competence of four language skills, provide students with more English input, and supply instruction to make the classroom resemble more closely a natural acquisition setting. On the other hand, learners are encouraged to regularly spend at least one hour studying English; besides, they are advised to keep an active attitude toward English learning and involve actively themselves in the English classes.
1.INTRODUCTION ……………………………………………..………1
Motivation and Background…………………………………………….1
Problems of the Study ………………………………………………….3
Purposes of the Study …………………………………………………..4
Research Hypotheses of the Study ………………………………………5
Significance of the Study ……………………………………………….6
Definition of Terms …………………………………………………….6
Limitations of the Study ………………………………………………..8
2.LITERATURE REVIEW ……………………………………………..9
Biological Explanations …………………………………………………9
Lateralization of Language Function ………………………………..10
The Critical Period Hypothesis ………………………………………11
The Sensitive Period Hypothesis …………………………………….13
Age Differences in the Acquisition of Language Skills ……………..13
Cognitive Explanations ………………………………………………...16
Affective Explanations …………………………………………………18
The Effects of Bilingualism ……………………………………………21
Motivation and Language Learning ……………………………………24
The Process of Input …………………………………………………26
The Effect of Instruction ……………………………………………….28
The Environmental Factors …………………………………………….29
3.METHOD AND PROCEDURE ………………………………………30
Subjects ………………………………………………………………...30
Instruments ……………………………………………………………..31
Questionnaire ………………………………………………………...31
Three Monthly English Achievement Tests ………………………..31
Listening Comprehension Test ………………………………………32
Reading Comprehension Test ………………………………………..33
Writing Test ………………………………………………………….33
Speaking Test ………………………………………………………..34
Procedures ……………………………………………………………...34
Data Analysis …………………………………………………………..36
4.RESULTS AND DISCUSSION ……………………………………....39
Effects of Pre-junior High School English Learning On English Achievement ……………………………………………………….…..39
Effects of Number of Years of Learning On Four Language Skills ...…41
Effects of Process of Input on Four Language Skills…………………..44
Effects of Teaching Contents on Four Language Skills ……………..44
Effects of Teaching Activities on Four Language Skills ………...….46
Effects of English Teachers’ Nationality on Four Language Skills …48
Effects of the Kind of Language Used on Four Language Skills …...50
Effects of Learners’ Characteristics on Four Language Skills …….…..53
Correlation Between Parents’ Educational Background and Four Language Skills ……………………………………………………...60
Correlation Between Length of Early English Learning and Interest ….64
5.CONCLUSIONS …………………………………………………….....66
Conclusions ……………………………………………………………66
Pedagogical Implications …………………………………………….67
Suggestions for Future Research …………………………………….68
REFERENCES ……………………………………………………………..71
Appendix A : Questionnaire ………………………………………………..81
Appendix B : Test Sheet for Three Monthly English Exams ………………83
Appendix C : Listening Comprehension Test ………………………………86
Appendix D : Reading Comprehension Test ……………………………….90
Appendix E : Writing Test ………………………………………………….92
Appendix F : Speaking Test ………………………………………………...94
Appendix G : Data Sheet for Listening Comprehension Test ………..…….96
Appendix H : Data Sheet for Speaking Test ………………………….…….98
Appendix I : Data Sheet for Reading Comprehension Test ……………….100
Appendix J : Data Sheet for Writing Test……………...………………. …102
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