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研究生:林春如
研究生(外文):Lin Chun-ju
論文名稱:學業成績的社會比較與自我比較之效應研究
論文名稱(外文):Social and Temporal Comparison Effects on Elementary School Students'' Grade Expectancy, Performance, Self-esteem, and Well-being
指導教授:莊耀嘉莊耀嘉引用關係
指導教授(外文):Chuang Yao-Chia
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立屏東師範學院
系所名稱:教育心理與輔導研究所
學門:教育學門
學類:綜合教育學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2002
畢業學年度:90
語文別:中文
論文頁數:125
中文關鍵詞:社會比較自我比較自尊自我效能情緒經驗
外文關鍵詞:social comparisontemporal comparisonacademic performanceself-esteemself-efficacywell-being
相關次數:
  • 被引用被引用:38
  • 點閱點閱:1969
  • 評分評分:
  • 下載下載:372
  • 收藏至我的研究室書目清單書目收藏:13
本研究採取貫時性設計,探討國小學童學業成績之社會比較及自我比較對其學業效能期望、學業表現、自尊心及情緒經驗的效應。樣本為高屏地區6所國小716名五年級學童。於第二次段考後,受試者回答社會比較對象選擇、自我比較頻度、對下次段考預期之成績、自尊心、情緒感受等測量,在期末考之後其對學業整體效能感、自尊心、情緒感受等。社會比較方向採自陳法及列舉比較對象兩種方法測量,而兩者所得結果具聚合效度。自述主動向上社會比較頻度較高者,其選擇做為比較對象的成績也越高。研究發現,學童在學業方面傾向於向上社會比較,會選擇成績較自己好一些或成績與自己相當的人進行比較。此外,進行自我比較的傾向也很高,而學童都期望自己下次月考成績較上次更佳。迴歸分析顯示,考量了前次月考成績之後,學童選擇做為比較對象的月考成績越好,以及自我比較的頻度越高的人,對自己下次月考總分或是各科的期望分數,都有提昇效應。貫時性分析發現,控制了學童當次月考成績之後,對下次月考期望成績越好的人,無論是哪個考試科目,都可以直接提昇學童下次的考試成績。在考量了學童當次月考成績及下次期望的成績之後,比較對象成績較高者,在國語與社會科目方面,甚至還對下次該科成績有直接提升效應,惟對數學、自然及月考總成績方面並未顯現直接效應;而自我比較頻度之效應則對數學、自然及月考總成績方面顯現直接提升效應,但對國語及社會兩科目的成績沒有直接提升效應。惟除了直接效應外,向上社會比較與自我比較亦可透過提升自己對下次考試的期望,而間接提升學業成績。貫時性分析發現,唯有主動向上社會比較可增強學業整體自我效能感,此支持主動向上社會比較可能透過提升期望而對學業表現產生正面效果的論點。同時性資料顯示,主動向上、平行社會比較、及自我比較與個體的自尊心、情緒幸福感均有正向關聯,惟貫時性分析則發現,控制了前測得分後,任何比較對後測的自尊心與情緒經驗皆未有顯著的提升效應。
The main purpose of this study was to explore the effects of social comparison and temporal comparison of academic performance on primary school students’ grade expectancy and performance. 716 students enrolled in the fifth or sixth grade of three schools were sampled from two major cities of southern Taiwan. They were administered a questionnaire that assessed background data, importance attributed to grade, social comparison targets and preferences, self-esteem, self-efficacy of grade improvement, grades of the four major courses in the previous test, grade expectancy for each of the 4 courses for the next test, and well-being. Longitudinal regression analyses were conducted to investigate the effects of social comparison directions and temporal comparison on students'' grade expectancy, performance on the next test, self-esteem, self-efficacy, and well-being. The following major findings were obtained: (1)Students tended to choose upward or similar comparison. Downward comparison was the least preferred. (2)The higher the grade of social comparison target, the higher the grade expectancy for the next test. Upward comparison was found to raise the grades of some subjects on the next test even after the grade of previous test and grade expectancy were controlled for. (3) Temporal comparison tended to have positive effects of grade expectancy and performance. (4)Longitudinal analysis showed that upward comparison and temporal comparison did not have effects on students’ self-esteem and well being.
目 次
中文摘要……………………………………………………..……I
英文摘要………………………………………………………….II
目 次……………………………………………………………III
表 次…………………………………………………………….V
圖 次…………………………………………………………...VII
第一章 緒論
第一節 研究動機與目的……………………………………… 1
第二節 研究假設與理論背景………………………………… 6
第三節 名詞釋義………………………………………………14
第四節 研究特點………………………………………………16
第二章 文獻探討
第一節 社會比較理論之探討…………………………………18
第二節 自我比較理論之探討…………………………………24
第三節 學業自我效能理論與相關研究………………………27
第四節 自尊理論與相關研究…………………………………34
第五節 正向情緒經驗理論與相關研究………………………41
第三章 研究方法
第一節 研究方法………………………………………………50
第二節 研究對象………………………………………………51
第三節 研究工具………………………………………………54
第四節 實施程序………………………………………………61
第五節 資料處理………………………………………………64
第四章 研究結果
第一節 比較歷程之現況分析…………………………………65
第二節 學業成就之迴歸分析…………………………………73
第三節 比較歷程與學業自我效能之關係……………………88
第四節 比較歷程與自尊之關係………………………………91
第五節 比較歷程與正向情緒經驗之關係……………………94
第五章 結論與建議
第一節 主要研究發現……………….…………….…………97
第二節 討論……………………………………………………99
第三節 建議…………………………………………….……104
第六章 參考文獻
第一節 中文部分……………………………………….……106
第二節 英文部分……………………………………….……111
附錄一 訪談問卷大綱……………………………………………118
附錄二 國小學生生活狀況調查表……………………….…….119
附錄三 同意書……………………………………………………125
一、中文部分
丁振博(民90)。國二學生之社會比較類型及其與理化實驗自我效能之相關研究。國立台灣師範大學科學教育研究所碩士論文。
王妙雯(民90)。開放教育與內在學習動機、創造力、及自尊之相關研究。屏東師院教育心理與輔導研究所碩士論文。
王美玲(民82)。自我之運作與回饋型態對自我評量、歸因及社會比較的影響。國立政治大學心理研究所碩士論文。
王淑俐(民84)。青少年情緒的問題研究與對策。台北:合記書局。
王慧婕(民89)。國中學生數學自我效能、目標導向及課室環境知覺與學業尋助之相關研究。國立彰化師範大學輔導與諮商學系碩士論文。
李雪禎(民85)。青少年的情緒經驗與父母教養方式之分析研究。國立高雄師範大學輔導研究所碩士論文。
李淑娥譯(民87)。面對自己。台北:心理出版社。
李曉蓉(民86)。青少年身體意象與自尊、沮喪相關之研究。國立高雄師範大學教育學系碩士論文。
何長珠(民85)。諮商歷程中之改變與認知─情緒之關係。諮商輔導文粹,1,高雄師大輔導研究所。
吳典容(民82)。國中學生社會比較歷程有關變相研究。師大公訓教育研究所碩士論文。
吳淑敏(民89)。大專學生自尊、情緒智慧及成功期望之關係研究。教育研究,8,161-176。
吳怡欣(民88)。青少年自我尊重模式之驗證。國立台灣師範大學教育與心理輔導研究所碩士論文。
吳怡欣、張景媛(民89)。青少年與重要他人的情感關係和其自尊之相關研究暨訪談內容分析。教育心理學報,32,1,15-40頁。
林以正(民88)。華人的社會比較:比較什麼?與誰比較?為何比較?。本土心理學,11,93-125。
林翠湄譯、蘇建文校閱(民84)。社會與人格發展。台北:心理出版社。
周珍珍(民90)。犯罪青少年自尊、困擾問題及其因應行為之研究。國立高雄師範大學輔導研究所碩士論文。
徐大偉(民81)。理情團體諮商對國小情緒困擾兒童理性思考、情緒反映、生活適應之效果研究。高雄師大教育研究所碩士論文。
徐富珍、陳皎眉(民86)。她們覺得不公平嗎?--女性工作者社會比較歷程之探討。教育與心理研究,20,355-398。
徐富珍(87)。社會比較的效果:對個人情感、認知、及行為之影響研究。國立政治大學心理學系博士論文。
徐春蓉(民90)。國小學童的自尊、內外控、父母管教方式與害些關係之研究。國立屏東師範學院教育心理與輔導研究所碩士論文。
徐新逸、黃麗鈴(民88)。高中生學業成就自我效能與學業成就表現之探討:影響自我效能因素與成就表現相關研究。教育與心理研究,88,22,267-294。
翁淑媛(民74)。青少年自尊以及相關變項的研究。教育心理與研究,8,79-114。
翁嘉英(民86)。失能慢性病患之自我評價歷程與自尊感對其初期因應策略的影響。台大心理學研究所博士論文。
孫志麟(民80)。國民小學教師自我效能及其相關因素之研究。國立政治大學教育研究所碩士論文。
孫志麟(民80)。自我效能的基本概念及其在教育上的應用。教育研究雙月刊,80,22,47-54。
莊耀嘉(民69)。國中生的人格特質學業成就歸因及其學業行為。台大心理學研究所碩士論文。
莊耀嘉、王重鳴合譯(民90)。社會心理學。台北:桂冠圖書公司。
張春興(民78)。張氏心理學辭典。台北:東華書局。
張春興(民80)。現代心理學。台北:東華書局。
張春興(民84)。教育心理學。台北:東華書局。
張玉玲(民89)。尋找挑戰難題、打死不退的學生:國中學生解釋風格、自尊、學業失敗忍受力與挑戰學業難題行為之研究。國立彰化師範大學輔導與諮商學系碩士論文。
張滿玲(民89)。女性對公平性的知覺與行為反應──內團體基礎與社會比較層次的影響。國立政治大學心理學系博士論文。
張琇珺(民89)。國小學童之學業成績社會比較與自尊、自我效能及幸福感之相關研究。國立屏東師範學院教育心理與輔導研究所碩士論文。
張景媛(民86)。國中生之正負向情緒與其後設認知、學習動機關係之研究。教育心理學報,29,51-67。
陳麗如(民87)。生活目標與心理健康關係之研究。國立屏東師範學院國民教育研究所碩士論文。
陳騏龍(民90)。國小學童情緒智力之相關研究。國立屏東師範學院教育心理與輔導研究所碩士論文。
陳玉玲(民84)。目標設定、目標投入與自我效能對國小學生數學作業表現的影響。國立高學師範大學教育學系碩士論文。
曹中瑋(民83)。大專學生社會比較嫉妒心理之質性分析。臺北師院學報,7,75-114。
曹中瑋(民85)。大專學生嫉妒心理之分析。本土心理學研究,5,72-112。
黃德祥(民81)。國中班級社會比較之研究。彰師大輔導學報,15,17-41。
黃德祥(民83)。社會比較歷程在諮商輔導上的應用。輔導季刊,30,28-34。
黃郁文(民83)。自我效能概念及其與學業成就表現之關係。諮商與輔導,106,39-41。
楊小惠(民90)。台北地區高中職學生社會比較及其相關因素之研究。國立政治大學教育學系碩士論文。
楊文金(民85)。比較、社會比較、與科學學習的動機。科學教育月刊,195,2-14。
楊宜音等譯(民86)。性格與社會心理評量總覽。台北:遠流。
廖鳳池(民79)。認知治療理論與實施。台北:天馬出版社。
蔡文玲(民82)。認知型態、自我效能、個人動機與創造性之關係研究。私立輔仁大學應用心理研究所碩士論文。
蔡芬芳(民86)。自尊對自利歸因的影相響:自我概念內容與結構的交互作用。國立台灣大學心理研究所碩士論文。
蔡青青、劉雪娥(民85)。自尊的概念。護理雜誌,43,1,90-94。
劉 方(民89)。高中生負向情緒經驗之分析研究。國立屏東師範學院教育心理與輔導研究所碩士論文。
劉樹斐(民89)。自尊的多面向對大學生憂鬱與攻擊行為的影響。國立政治大學心理學系碩士論文。
謝明芳(民90)。國小學童學校生活情緒經驗及其知覺教師權力類型關係之研究。國立中山大學教育研究所碩士論文。
鍾永吉(民86)。國小單親兒童的認知信念與情緒經驗之研究。國立高雄師範大學輔導研究所碩士論文。
蘇建文(民70)。兒童及青少年焦慮情緒之發展及其相關因素之研究。教育心理學報,13,85-94。
蘇建文(民76)。兒童及青少年情緒穩定性發展之研究。家政教育,8,4,1-8。
二、英文部份
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