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研究生:陳麗娟
論文名稱:社會適應欠佳兒童在阿德勒諮商團體中改變歷程之研究
指導教授:楊淑蘭楊淑蘭引用關係
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立屏東師範學院
系所名稱:教育心理與輔導研究所
學門:教育學門
學類:綜合教育學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2002
畢業學年度:90
語文別:中文
中文關鍵詞:社會適應欠佳兒童阿德勒學派諮商團體社會興趣口語互動社會適應行為錯誤行為目標
外文關鍵詞:socially maladjusted childrenThe Adlerian approach counseling groupsocial interestverbal interactionsocial maladjustmentmisbehaviors goals
相關次數:
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  • 收藏至我的研究室書目清單書目收藏:13
本研究主要目的在了解社會適應欠佳兒童在阿德勒取向的團體諮商過程中對成員的社會興趣、社會適應不佳行為、錯誤行為目標與口語互動的改變歷程。本研究採質化分析法(qualitative method),以高雄市某國小三位(A、B、C)社會適應不佳的兒童為研究對象,團體中並加入三位(D、E、F)社會適應良好的兒童,以避免標籤作用。團體每週進行兩次,每次50分鐘,共16次,所有過程加以錄影與錄音,再謄寫成逐字稿,並將過程分為團體前期(第1-4次)、團體中前期(第5-8次)、團體中後期(第9-12次)與團體後期(第13-16次),探討成員在團體前後的社會興趣、團體四階段的社會適應不佳行為、錯誤行為目標與成員口語互動改變的情形,並在團體結束後第一週與第八週與成員、成員家長和導師進行訪談,以了解阿德勒取向團體諮商對成員的輔導效果。另因成員E在團體進行中出現相當高次數的負面口語,亦將E的資料加以分析。研究結果如下:
一、 社會興趣量表上的發現
四位成員在社會興趣量表前、後測的得分並沒有明顯的差異,但成員B與C在選項上改變者超過總題目數的三分之一;而A與E只有一題改變選項,兩人在團體前的得分都很高,但A的選項與導師對他的行為描述有很大的差異,E的選項與她在團體中的行為表現也有很大的差異,所以過去量化研究使用的社會興趣量表可能無法測得成員真實的社會興趣與接受團體諮商的改變情形。
二、成員口語互動改變上的發現
四位成員與其他成員在團體中口語互動的負向口語到團體後期都明顯減少,正向口語逐漸增加。
三、社會適應行為改變上的發現
三位目標成員在團體前家長與導師多次提到的主要適應不佳行為,A是「對班級沒有團體歸屬感」與「做事不盡心盡力」,B是「對家庭沒有歸屬感」與「有不被社會接受的行為目的」,C是「對班級沒有團體歸屬感」與「做事不盡心盡力」是「對班級沒有團體歸屬感」與「不關心團體利益」。成員A、B、C的社會適應不佳行為在團體中後期出現最高,A是「不能容忍他人的行為」、「不會鼓勵人」與「有不被社會接受的行為目的」,B為「有不被社會接受的行為目的」,C主要是「有負向的自我概念」,到團體後期這些行為都減少了;反之,社會適應良好行為,如:「願意與人分享」、「能與人合作」,則隨著團體的進行逐漸增加。另外,成員E在團體前期的社會適應不佳行為主要是「不能容忍別人行為」,隨著團體的進行逐漸減少,但社會適應良好行為,如「能與人合作」、「願意與人分享」,在整個團體過程都維持在高的水準。
四、錯誤行為目標改變的發現
關於錯誤行為目標,A與C是「尋求注意」,B是「尋求權力」與「尋求報復」,在團體中後期最明顯,團體後期則呈現減少的現象,成員E的錯誤行為目標「尋求注意」與「尋求權力」在團體前期與中前期最明顯,隨著團體的進行逐漸減少。
五、導師與家長訪談的發現
成員A和B的導師與家長在團體後及追蹤訪談均表示兩人有正向的改變;成員C的導師與家長在團體後的訪談均表示C進步許多,但追蹤訪談時導師表示C又回到未接受團體諮商前的行為表現,因C的家長無法配合,故未做追蹤訪談;成員E的導師在團體結束後與追蹤時表示E愛批評的口語行為並沒有改變,但正向的行為表現也沒有消失。能持續正向改變的成員A與B,其導師與家長在研究過程中均十分配合填寫諮詢回饋單及與研究者進行諮詢,由此推測導師與家長的注意與關心是支持孩子持續改變的重要因素之一。
以上結果可能與成員彼此的熟悉度增加、團體提供安全的環境,故成員的負向行為在中後期達到高峰,之後團體發展順利進入工作期,因此阿德勒團體諮商對社會適應欠佳兒童有良好的短期效果,而從家長與老師的訪談中可以知道阿德勒取向的團體諮商對成員A與B具長期的輔導效果。
最後研究者對應用西方理論於台灣兒童的適用性加以討論分析,並對未來研究及輔導實務提出若干建議。
關鍵字:社會適應欠佳兒童、阿德勒學派諮商團體、社會興趣、口語互動、社會適
應不佳行為、錯誤行為目標
A STUDY ON THE CHANGING PROCESS OF THE SOCIALLY MALADJUSTED CHILDREN IN THE ADLERIAN COUNSELING GROUP
LI-CHUAN CHEN
ABSTRACT
This study is to investigate the changes of the social adjustments, of the misbehavior goals, of the verbal interactions, and of the social interests of the socially maladjusted children in the Adlerian counseling group. The researcher constructed an Adlerian counseling group of six members. Three of them (A, B and C) are socially maladjusted in school and the others (D, E, and F) are not. Only the data of the former three was analyzed by qualitative method. An observer made a record while the group was processing. In a total, there were 16 sessions, which were 50 minutes per section and twice a week. All the group sessions were audio and videotaped. The 16 sessions were divided into four periods : the beginning (the 1st-4th sessions) period, the second (the 5th-8th sessions) period, the third (the 9th-12th sessions) period, and the final (the 13th —16th sessions) period. The data included the verbatim of 16 group counseling sessions, the records of the researcher and the observer, the verbatim of the interviews of the parents and teachers of the socially maladjusted children, the scores of the social interest inventory, and the written feedbacks from the target members. In addition, because the member E misbehaved unexpectedly, her data was also analyzed.
The major findings of the study are as follows:
1. The changes in terms of social interest : There were no differences between the scores of the Social-Interest Inventory for the four members before and after the group. Member B and C did select over one third of the different answers of the items. Member A and E, however, both chose only one different answer of the items from the originals. The viewpoint regarding A’s behaviors from A''s teacher was so different from A’s performance on the inventory. E''s high sores in social interest did not fit to her negative social behaviors appeared in the group. Therefore, the Social-Interest Inventory used by many previous researchers is not appropriate for measuring the subtle changes of the social interests of the members after group counseling.
2. The changes in terms of verbal interaction: While the group was processing, the negative verbal interactions between the target four members and the others reduced distinctly, and the positive verbal interactions between them increased slowly.
3. The changes in terms of social maladjustments: The parents and the teachers mentioned the main socially maladjusted behaviors of the three target children before group counseling, which were “Hasn''t a feeling of belonging his class” and “ I can get rather than how much we can get” for member A, “Hasn''t a feeling of belonging his family” and “Has socially unacceptable goals” for member B, “Hasn''t a feeling of belonging his class”, and “ Didn''t exerts genuine effort” for member C. The most of the socially maladjustments of member A, B and C appeared in the third period, for example, “Isn''t tolerant of others” ”Didn''t encourage others” and “Has socially unacceptable goals” for member A, “Has socially unacceptable goals” for member B, “Has a weak and negative self-concept” for member C. These, however, decreased in the final period. The socially well-adjusted behaviors increased gradually during the process of the group. Additionally, the member E''s socially maladjusted behaviors, for example “Isn''t tolerant of others” reduced at the end of the group, and her well-adjusted behaviors, for example, “Cooperates with others” and “Is willing to share with others” still remained during the process of the group.
4. The changes in terms of goals for misbehaviors: The goals for misbehaviors of member A and C were “searching for attention”, of member B were “searching for power”, and “searching for revenge”. These appeared distinctly in the third period, and reduced obviously in the final period of the group. The member E''s goals for misbehaviors, “searching for power” and “searching for revenge”, appeared distinctly in the beginning and the second periods, and decreased gradually during the process of the group.
5. The changes of members according to interviews of their teachers and their parents: The teachers and the parents of member A and B declared that both of them performed positively in the immediate interview after the group and in the follow-up interview after 8 weeks. The teacher and the parent of member C considered that C improved in the immediate interview after group, but his teacher pointed out that C''s misbehaviors appeared again after 8 weeks. The researcher did not interview the parent of C at the follow-up because she could not be reached. The teacher of member E declared that E never changed her critical verbal expressions in the immediate interview after group and in the follow-up interview. Member E, however, still maintained her positive social behaviors in both of the teacher’s interviews. The teachers and the parents of member A and B always cooperated with the researchers and changed their treatments to member A and B. Therefore, teachers and parents’ concern about the children and their different treatments according to the Adlerian theory that are the most important to help the socially maladjusted children.
In sum, it seems appropriate to employ the theory of Adler to help the Taiwanese children with socially maladjustment, but some points related to the culture of Taiwan should be pay attention to by the researcher in the future. Limitations of the study and worthwhile future research are discussed.
KEYWORD:socially maladjusted children, The Adlerian approach counseling group,
social interest, verbal interaction, social maladjustment, misbehavior goals
第一章 緒論
第一節 研究動機與目的 ...……………………………………………….1
第二節 研究問題 ..………………………………………………………..5
第三節 名詞解釋 ..…………………………………………………………6
第二章 文獻探討
第一節 阿德勒學派的基本概念 ..…………………………………………8
第二節 阿德勒學派對兒童輔導的觀點 ..……………………………….13
第三節 阿德勒學派團體諮商的理論與應用 .....………………………21
第四節 阿德勒學派團體諮商的相關研究 …….…………………………25
第三章 研究方法
第一節 研究方法學的探討 .………………………………………………30
第二節 研究設計與架構 .…………………………………………………32
第三節 研究對象 ...……………………………………………………..34
第四節 團體方案 .…………………………………………………………35
第五節 研究參與者 ..……………………………………………..…….41
第六節 研究過程 ...………………………………………………………43
第七節 資料的整理與分析 ...…………………………………………..44
第四章 資料分析結果
第一節 成員社會興趣改變之分析結果 ………………………………….51
第二節 成員口語互動變化之分析結果 ………………………………….53
第三節 成員社會適應行為改變之分析結果 .…………………………..64
第四節 成員錯誤行為目標改變之分析結果 ...………………………..84
第五節 成員在團體回饋單中的表現 .…………………………………..95
第六節 綜合描述 ....……………………………………………………100
第五章 結果與討論
第一節 研究結果摘要 ....……………………………………………..111
第二節 討論與結論 ..…………………………………………………..116
第三節 研究限制 ..……………………………………………………..124
第四節 建議 ..…………………………………………………………..125
參考書目……………………………………………………………………127
附錄
附錄一 兒童社會適應情形評量表………………………………………132
附錄二 家長同意書 ...…………………………………………………133
附錄三 諮詢資料 .……………………………………………………..134
附錄四 團體活動觀察紀錄表 .………………………………………..140
附錄五 團體活動內容 .....…………………………………………..141
附錄六 團體公約 .……………………………………………………..147
附錄七 成員相互訪問單 ..…………………………………………….148
附錄八 「我的父母」調查表 .………………………………………..149
附錄九 「我是大導演」手足角色分配表 ..………………………...150
附錄十 成員回饋單 .....…………………………………………....151
附錄十一 團體總回饋單 .……………………………………………..153
附錄十二 「社會興趣量表」使用同意書……………………………..154
附錄十三 成員A的資料編碼結果 ……………………………………..155
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