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研究生:楊為宗
研究生(外文):Yang Wei-Tsung
論文名稱:高屏溪洪水演算水文特性之研究
論文名稱(外文):A Study on Hydrologic Characteristics of Kao-Ping River Flood Routing
指導教授:鄒 禕
指導教授(外文):Tsou I
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立屏東科技大學
系所名稱:土木工程系碩士班
學門:工程學門
學類:土木工程學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2002
畢業學年度:90
語文別:中文
論文頁數:103
中文關鍵詞:高屏溪洪水演算Muskingum-CungeHEC-RAS
外文關鍵詞:Kao-Ping Riverflood routingMuskingum-CungeHEC-RAS
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本研究利用高屏溪流域所紀錄的暴雨時流量探討退水曲線與洪水演算時之水文特性K及x變化。高屏溪主要支流荖濃溪,旗山溪與隘寮溪為研究對象。在退水係數方面結果,以1981年為分界,各支流下游流量站集水區,1981年之前的退水係數均略大1981年之後的退水係數。將高屏溪流分成五個河段,進行Muskingum-Cunge演算。結果顯示在水文特性方面,平均傳遞時間在荖濃溪上下游段分別為2.83與3.52;在旗山溪上下游段平均傳遞時間分為3.31及3.52;在隘寮溪平均傳遞時間為3.98。在荖濃溪與旗山溪下游段平均傳遞時間比上游段傳遞時間大。各河段之加權參數x大致維持在0.491-0.499。結果亦顯示K值與尖峰流量有中度相關性。本研究驗證結果以平均傳遞時間計算之Muskingum-Cunge流量與HEC-RAS模式比較,其尖峰誤差大致維持在8%內。
The study utilizes Kao-Ping River recorded storm flow to discuss recession curve and changes of hydrologic characteristics K, x on flood routing. The study area includes three upstream branches of Kao-Ping River, which are Lao-Nung River, Chi-San River, and Yai-Liao River. At recession coefficient aspect, it shows that the recession coefficient before 1981 is larger than the recession coefficient after 1981, for the downstream discharge stations of every branches. According to the location of discharge stations, the study area divided into five reaches to process Muskingum-Cunge routing. The results exhibited that the average traveling time K of upstream and downstream reaches for Lao-Nung River is 2.83 and 3.52 separately; the average traveling time K of upstream and downstream reaches for Chi-San River is 3.31 and 3.52 separately and the average traveling time K for Yai-Liao River is 3.98. The average traveling time K of downstream reaches is larger than the average traveling time K of upstream reaches for both Lao-Nung River and Chi-San River. The weighting factor x of every reaches will maintain 0.491~0.499. The result also shows that K values have some median relationship with peak discharge. For verification, the study compares the results of Muskingum-Cunge and HEC-RAS model, the relative error of peak discharge is about 8%.
目錄
中文摘要………………………………………………………….Ⅰ
英文摘要………………………………………………………….Ⅱ
誌謝……………………………………………………………….Ⅲ
目錄……………………………………………………………….Ⅳ
表目錄…………………………………………………………….Ⅶ
圖目錄…………………………………………………………….Ⅸ
第1章 緒論………………………………………………………..1
1.1 研究背景…………………………………………………1
1.2 研究動機與目的…………………………………………1
1.3 過去之相關研究…………………………………………2
第2章 流域環境分析..……………………………………………6
2.1 高屏溪流域簡介…………………………………………6
2.2 地表水文分析……………………………………………9
2.3 雨量分析………………………………………………...12
第3章 研究方法………………………………………………….15
3.1 退水曲線……………...……….………………………...15
3.2 流域地文特性因子……………………………………...17
3.3 馬斯金更模式理論…......……………………………….19
3.4 Muskingum-Cunge模式理論…………………………...23
3.5 多變量迴歸分析………………………………………...26
3.6 HEC-RAS河川演算模式……………………………….26
3.6.1基本控制方程式……………………………...……….27
3.6.2 HEC-RAS模式之建立...………………………….…..28
3.6.3模式的比較……………………………………..……..28
第4章 資料分析與整理………………………………………….31
4.1 退水曲線之分析………………………………………...31
4.2 地文資料..…………...………………………………...33
4.2.1基本地文因子……...………………………………...33
4.2.2各河道斷面資料……………………………………..33
4.3 水文資料………………………………………………...41
4.4 Muskingum-Cunge模式………………………………...42
第5章 結果與討論……………………………………………...46
5.1 河川退水曲線…………………………………………...46
5.2 馬斯金更模式演算……………………………………...50
5.3 Muskingum-Cunge模式演算…………………………...54
5.4 多變量迴歸分析之探討………………………………...60
5.5 敏感度分析之探討……………………………………...60
5.6 HEC-RAS河川演算模式……………………………….64
第6章 結論與建議……………………………………………...68
6.1 結論………..………………………..…………………...68
6.2 建議……………………………………………………...69
參考文獻………………………………………………………….71
附錄一 各演算河段水面頂寬之關係式..…....………………….77
附錄二 各演算河段所有暴雨之率定曲線….……..………..…..84
附錄三 Muskingum-Cunge所演算五個河段之結果…………...97
表目錄
表2.1 高屏溪流域支流概況表……...…………….……..…..6
表2.2 高屏溪流域流量站站況…….………………….…..10
表2.3 高屏溪各流量測站平均逕流量分析……..…………….11
表2.4 高屏溪流域氣象站站況表……..……………………….13
表2.5 高屏溪流域內各氣象站月平均降雨量及年降雨量表...14
表4.1 高屏溪流域之主要支流地文因子…………………..….34
表4.2 高屏溪流域之地文因子………………………………...34
表4.3 演算河段流量站率定曲線整理表…………………...…43
表4.4 范迪颱風之率定曲線及水面寬關係式……………...…44
表4.5 傳遞時間及加權參數之求法-以范迪颱風為例…….….44
表5.1 高屏溪流域主要支流之退水係數…………………...…46
表5.2 時間及流量分類之依據……………………………...…55
表5.3 以颱洪起訖時間為主之傳遞時間和加權參數………...57
表5.4 以尖峰流量到達時間為主之傳遞時間和加權參數…...57
表5.5 以尖峰流量為主之傳遞時間和加權參數…………...…58
表5.6 五個河段傳遞時間與地文因子迴歸分析結果……...…61
表5.7 阿其巴橋至新發大橋傳遞時間迴歸分析結果……..….61
表5.8 新發大橋至里嶺大橋傳遞時間迴歸分析結果………...62
表5.9 楠峰橋至杉林大橋傳遞時間迴歸分析結果……..…….62
表5.10 杉林大橋至里嶺大橋傳遞時間迴歸分析結果…….…..63
表5.11 三地門至里嶺大橋傳遞時間迴歸分析結果………..….63
表5.12 敏感度分析之結果……………………….……………..64
表5.13 Cunge與兩個斷面模擬結果表…………………….……66
表5.14 Cunge與三個斷面模擬結果表…………………….……66
表5.15 Cunge與五個斷面模擬結果表………………………….67
圖目錄
圖2.1 高屏溪流域河川水系圖…………………….………...7
圖3.1 研究流程圖…………………………………….…………16
圖3.2 河川之稜形蓄水與楔形蓄水….…………………...….…20
圖3.3 高屏溪流域之五個河段示意圖………………………….25
圖3.4 HEC-RAS模式建立流程圖………………….…………29
圖4.1 退水流量與時間之半對數圖…………………………….32
圖4.2 妮娜颱風洪水歷線與退水曲線之比較…….…...……….32
圖4.3 梅山站斷面變化圖………………….……………………36
圖4.4 阿其巴橋斷面變化圖………………….…………………36
圖4.5 新發大橋斷面變化圖…………………………….………37
圖4.6 民族橋斷面變化圖……………………………………….37
圖4.7 民權橋斷面變化圖………………………….…………....38
圖4.8 楠峰橋斷面變化圖……………………………………….38
圖4.9 月眉斷面變化圖………………………………..…..…….39
圖4.10 杉林大橋斷面變化圖………………………………..….39
圖4.11 里嶺大橋斷面變化圖…………………………………...40
圖4.12 三地門斷面變化圖……..…………………………….....40
圖5.1 荖濃溪新發大橋之賀伯颱風…………………….….…...47
圖5.2 旗山溪杉林大橋之賀伯颱風……………………...…......47
圖5.3 隘寮溪三地門之賀伯颱風……………………….………48
圖5.4 平均退水係數圖……………………………….…….…...49
圖5.5 三條主要支流之地文因子…………………………….…49
圖5.6 稽延4小時之洪水歷線………………………...…….…..51
圖5.7 稽延4小時之演算結果.……………………….....…..…..51
圖5.8 面積修正後之洪水歷線...………………………....……..52
圖5.9 面積及雨量比修正後之洪水歷線……………………….52
圖5.10 以流量係數修正後之洪水歷線…………………...……53
圖5.11 以流量係數修正後之演算結果……….………………..54
圖5.12 颱洪起訖長短時間之平均傳遞時間圖…………...……58
圖5.13 尖峰流量到達長短時間之平均傳遞時間圖……….…..59
圖5.14 高低尖峰流量之平均傳遞時間圖…………………..….59
圖5.15 Cunge模式與HEC-RAS模式比較圖-19890911洪水為例………………………………………………………………….65
圖5.16 Cunge模式與HEC-RAS模式比較圖-1978范迪颱風為例……………………………………………………………...…..65
圖5.17 Cunge模式與HEC-RAS模式比較圖-1996賀伯颱風為例……………………………………………………………….…66
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