跳到主要內容

臺灣博碩士論文加值系統

(44.200.171.74) 您好!臺灣時間:2022/08/12 21:03
字體大小: 字級放大   字級縮小   預設字形  
回查詢結果 :::

詳目顯示

: 
twitterline
研究生:曾仁傑
論文名稱:葡萄皮中花青素最佳萃取條件之評估及其經驗模式之建立
論文名稱(外文):Studies on optimum extraction of anthocyanins and build up its empirical mathematical model from grape skin
指導教授:楊季清楊季清引用關係
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立屏東科技大學
系所名稱:食品科學系
學門:農業科學學門
學類:食品科學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2002
畢業學年度:90
語文別:中文
論文頁數:89
中文關鍵詞:葡萄皮抗氧化萃取率
外文關鍵詞:grape skinantioxidantextractability
相關次數:
  • 被引用被引用:22
  • 點閱點閱:6690
  • 評分評分:
  • 下載下載:741
  • 收藏至我的研究室書目清單書目收藏:2
抗氧化抽出物對熱相當敏感,就大量生產方式,萃取作業中適當的加熱有助於物質之抽出速率;除了溫度外,其他的條件,如溶劑種類、溶劑之pH值、溶劑用量、萃取時間均會影響到最後所得到之抗氧化物質的性質。而本研究的重點在葡萄皮抗氧化物質萃取效率之評估與經驗模式之建立並找出其最佳的萃取條件。
在萃取溶劑探討方面,使用酸性甲醇由葡萄皮中所能抽取出之花青素較酸性乙醇來的高,但在溶劑的破壞指數上,則以酸性甲醇較高。
葡萄皮與酸性甲醇比例愈高,其瞬間萃取花青素量愈高,其後的萃取速率則較低。在萃取溫度60℃下酸性甲醇1:20的比例其瞬間萃取量為4183.37mg/100g,但比例為1:5時,其瞬間萃取量為2213.04mg/100g。當萃取溶劑為酸性乙醇時,其葡萄皮與萃取溶劑比例為5到20倍間,其瞬間萃取量變化不大,由1801到2091mg/100g,但萃取速率隨萃取溶劑比例增加而增加。在萃取溫度方面,對於影響酸性甲醇與酸性乙醇之影響非常相似,萃取溫度愈高,兩者均有較高之瞬間萃取量與萃取速度。
在數學模式方面,可以發現到萃取速率與萃取曲線之斜率呈現正相關的關係。當斜率越大,代表花青素之抽出量也就越多,亦即抽取速率也越高。
關鍵字:葡萄皮、抗氧化、萃取率
Abstract
The preliminary antioxidant studies revealed that the antioxidant extracts were very sensitive to heat. Elevated temperature for extraction process would increase the extraction rate in mass production. There are several factors will increase extract rate such as different kinds of solvent、pH of solvent、amount of solvent and extraction time. The objectives of this study are evaluating the effective extraction method for extracting antioxidants from grape skin, and establishing their experience model for various applicable solvents.
The extract solvents characteristics of acidic methanol and acidic ethanol were investigated. Yield of anthocyanin extracts from grape skin with acidic methanol was higher than acidic ethanol. In Simplified degradation index respects acidic methanol was higher than acidic ethanol.
In treat temperature respects added 20 rate of acidic methanol to the grape skin and warmed 30 minutes under 60℃ could abstracted anthocyanin extracts around 93%.
The results of extract rate with slope of extract curve showed right relation on mathematic model. When slope of extract curve increase which means amount of anthocyanin extracts was increased.
Keywords:grape skin、antioxidant、extractability
目 錄
頁 次
中文摘要………………………………………………..…… I
英文摘要……………………………………………….….. I I
誌謝………………………………………………………… I I I
目錄………………………………………………………… I V
圖表索引…………………………………………………… VII
壹、前言………………………………………………..……. 1
貳、文獻回顧…………………………………………..……. 4
2.1 省產黑后葡萄..……………………..……………..…… 4
2.1.1 省產黑后葡萄之簡介..…………………..……….… 4
2.1.2 省產黑后葡萄園藝特性..…………………………... 5
2.1.3 省產黑后葡萄皮中之主要抗氧化成分..……..……. 6
2.1.4 其它各類植物抗氧化之相關研究………..……..…. 9
2.2 人工合成抗氧化劑使用上之安全顧慮……..……..…. 10
2.3 花青素………………….……………………..……..… 11
2.3.1 花青素之簡介…………………………….……..…. 11
2.3.2 花青素之結構……………...…………………..…….. 12
2.3.3 影響花青素顏色之因素…………………....…….….. 18
2.3.3.1 色素本身之化學結構…….………………..……. 18
2.3.3.2 pH值…………………………….………….…….. 20
2.3.3.3 溫度(Temperature)…………………..………...… 20
2.3.3.4 光線(Light)………………………………..……...22
2.3.3.5 氧氣(Oxygen)……………………………..……...23
2.3.3.6 金屬離子…………………………………..…..…23
2.3.3.7 抗壞血酸(Ascorbic acid)………………….…..…25
2.3.3.8 二氧化硫(SO2)………………………….……..…25
參、材料與方法……………………………………….………29
3.1 實驗設計……………..……………..………….…….. 29
3.2 實驗材料………………..……………………….…….30
3.2.1 省產黑后葡萄皮……….…….………………..…..... 30
3.2.2 省產黑后葡萄皮之樣品前處理…………………..…30
3.2.3 化學藥品…………….……………….………………30
3.3 實驗方法………………………………………………31
3.3.1 萃取溶劑對花青素萃取之影響………….…………31
3.3.1.1 萃取溶劑之種類…………………………………31
3.3.1.2 萃取溶劑用量與花青素抽出速率之關係….…...31
3.3.1.3 萃取溶劑對花青素之破壞性之測定…………....31
3.3.2 萃取溫度與花青素抽出之關係………………….…32
3.3.3 統計分析………………………………………….…33
肆、結果與討論………………………….………….…………34
4.1 花青素萃取之影響因子………………………………….…....34
4.1.1萃取溶劑…………………………………….…….…34
4.1.1.1溶劑用量對葡萄皮中花青素抽出之影響…….…34
4.1.1.2萃取溶劑種類對花青素之破壞性的影響…….…36
4.1.2萃取溫度對葡萄皮中花青素抽出之影響……….….43
4.1.3萃取時間……………………………………………..49
4.1.3.1 萃取時間對葡萄皮中花青素抽出之影響.….…...49
4.1.3.2 萃取溶劑之種類對花青素抽出之影響…….……51
4.1.4黑后葡萄皮前處理對花青素抽出之影響…….….…...55
4.1.4.1前處理對花青素之破壞性…………………..……55
4.1.4.2前處理對花青素之萃取率的影響………….…….56
4.2 數學模式………………………………………………...….….…61
伍、結論………………………………………….……….……76
陸、參考文獻……………………………………….…….……78
作者簡介
圖 表 索 引
表2-1一般蔬菜和水果顏色之花青素.……….…………….…..7
表2-2常見的蔬菜和水果的顏色及其主要的花青素化合物...13
圖2-1一些常見花青素化合物取代基之一般構造…………...16
圖2-2花青素之基本構造….………………………..……..…..17
圖2-3花青素之深色效應……….……….………………...…..19
圖2-4不同pH環境下之花青素結構..…...………………...…21
圖2-5 Commelinin的結構………...…………………………...24
圖2-6花青素-二氧化硫複合物…….………………………….26
圖2-7花青素之重亞硫酸脫色反應.…….…………………….27
圖4-8不同比例之酸性甲醇對新鮮葡萄皮中花青素
抽出之比較…………………………..………………....35
圖4-9不同比例之酸性乙醇對新鮮葡萄皮中花青素
抽出之比較………………..………....…………..……..37
表4-3以不同溶劑萃取新鮮葡萄皮中花青素之分解
指數(DIsimp.)……….….……………….………………39
表4-4以不同溫度萃取新鮮葡萄皮中花青素之分解
指數(DIsimp.)…………………………………………...40
表4-5在60℃下添加不同量之pH 1.0酸性甲醇萃取溶
劑萃取新鮮葡萄皮中花青素分解指數(DIsimp.)
之變化情形……………………………………………..42
圖4-10添加不同比例pH 1.0酸性甲醇對新鮮葡萄皮在
不同萃取溫度下萃取75分鐘後其花青素之
抽出量……..…………………………….………..…...44
圖4-11添加不同比例pH 1.0酸性甲醇對新鮮葡萄皮在
不同萃取溫度下萃取75分鐘後其花青素之抽
出速度…………………………………….............….....46
圖4-12添加不同比例pH 1.0酸性乙醇對新鮮葡萄皮在
不同萃取溫度下萃取75分鐘後其花青素之抽
出量…………………………………………..………..47
圖4-13添加不同比例pH 1.0酸性乙醇對新鮮葡萄皮在
不同萃取溫度下萃取75分鐘後其花青素之抽
出速度…………………………………………………48
圖4-14添加不同比例pH 1.0酸性甲醇對新鮮葡萄皮在
萃取溫度60℃下萃取花青素抽出量之變化情形…...50
圖4-15添加不同比例pH 1.0酸性乙醇對新鮮葡萄皮在
萃取溫度60℃下萃取花青素抽出量之變化情形…...52
圖4-16添加不同比例之pH 1.0酸性甲醇、酸性乙醇對
新鮮葡萄皮在60℃下萃取75分鐘後其花青素
抽出量之比較…..……………………………………..53
表4-6添加20倍pH1.0酸性乙醇溶劑對新鮮葡萄皮以
不同樣品前處理方式對花青素分解指數(DIsimp.)
之變化情形……………………………………………..57
圖4-17以pH1.0酸性甲醇對不同預處理方式之黑后葡
萄皮的花青素萃取率………..……………...…...……58
圖4-18以pH1.0酸性乙醇對不同預處理方式之黑后葡
萄皮的花青素萃取率…………………………………60
圖4-19以pH1.0酸性甲醇對新鮮葡萄皮以1:5溶劑添
加比例在不同萃取溫度下對花青素抽出量之平
方根之變化情形……………………………...…....….62
圖4-20以pH1.0酸性甲醇對新鮮葡萄皮以1:10溶劑添
加比例在不同萃取溫度下對花青素抽出量之平
方根之變化情形………………………...…………….64
圖4-21以pH1.0酸性甲醇對新鮮葡萄皮以1:20溶劑添
加比例在不同萃取溫度下對花青素抽出量之平
方根之變化情形………………………....…..………..65
圖4-22以pH1.0酸性甲醇對新鮮葡萄皮以不同溶劑添
加比例在萃取溫度60℃下對花青素抽出量之平
方根之變化情形……………………..………………..66
圖4-23以pH1.0酸性甲醇對新鮮葡萄皮經不同萃取溶
劑比例、萃取溫度進行對花青素萃取其斜率變
化之情形………………...…………………………….68
圖4-24以pH1.0酸性乙醇對新鮮葡萄皮以1:5溶劑添
加比例在不同萃取溫度下對花青素抽出量之平
方根之變化情形…………………………...……..…...70
圖4-25以pH1.0酸性乙醇對新鮮葡萄皮以1:10溶劑添
加比例在不同萃取溫度下對花青素抽出量之平
方根之變化情形………………………………..…….71
圖4-26以pH1.0酸性乙醇對新鮮葡萄皮以1:20溶劑添
加比例在不同萃取溫度下對花青素抽出量之平
方根之變化情形…………………………………..….72
圖4-27以pH1.0酸性乙醇對新鮮葡萄皮以不同溶劑添
加比例在萃取溫度60℃下對花青素抽出量之平
方根之變化情形………………………………………74
圖4-28以pH1.0酸性乙醇對新鮮葡萄皮經不同萃取溶
劑比例、萃取溫度進行對花青素萃取其斜率變
化之情形………………………………………………75
1.王子慶。2000。葡萄籽與皮抗氧化性之研究。屏東科技大學食品科學系碩士論文。
2.王子慶、楊季清。2000。巨峰葡萄皮之抗氧化物質於不同脂質系統之表現。台灣農業化學與食品科學39(1)。
3.王子慶、楊季清、李文立。2001。國產黑后與巨峰葡萄皮甲醇萃取物抗氧化性與安全性之評估。台灣農業化學與食品科學 39(1):8-15。
4.冉亦文、王光輝。1981。葡萄酒速釀技術之探討。酒類試驗研究所年報 107-115。
5.冉亦文、徐涵明。1982。紅葡萄酒釀酒試驗(三)康柯紅葡萄酒與玫瑰紅酒擴大釀製試驗。酒類研究所年報 77-84。
6.何妙齡。1985。台灣夏季與冬季葡萄果實發育期間有機酸與糖份含量變化之比較。菸試彙報 22:57-69。
7.吳思敬、顏國欽。1998。桑葉甲醇萃取物抗氧化機制之探討。食品科學 25(2):128-137。
8.林書玉。1996。紅豆蔻揮發性成份及抗氧化性之研究。東海大學食品科學系碩士論文。
9.洪千雅。1993。香薷及槐花抗氧化成份之研究。東海大學食品科學系碩士論文。
11.陳福旗譯。1988。葡萄育種的進展。科學農業 36(11-12):344-348。
12.陳雅玲。1997。欖仁葉之抗炎保肝與抗氧化活性之藥效評估。高雄醫學院天然藥物研究所碩士論文。
13.陳鴻文。1995。決明子抗氧化特性之研究。國立中興大學食品科學系碩士論文。
14.莊淑娟。1996。台灣市售生藥枸杞之抗炎保肝與抗氧化活性評估。高雄醫學院天然藥物研究所碩士論文。
15.黃淑媛、蔣茂輝。1981。省產釀酒葡萄與葡萄酒中黃酮類化合物含量之探討。酒類試驗研究所年報 49-65。
17.葉佳聖、蘇正德。1993。芡實抗氧化成份之研究。東海學報34:1115-1132。
18.張明慧、吳天賞、蘇正德。1996。茵陳蒿抗氧化成份之研究。食品科學 23(4):594-607。
19.葉漢民、蔣青華。1992。釀酒葡萄深色品種色素之差異與穩定性之研究。菸試彙報 36:93-101。
20.葉漢民、蔣青華、何妙齡、何聖典。1989。釀酒葡萄深色品種色素之萃取與穩定性之研究。菸試彙報 79-82。
21.張毅偉。1998。益智仁揮發性、抗氧化成分與百香果殼花青素、抗氧化成分之研究。東海大學食品科學系碩士論文。
22.楊正憲。1994。桑椹紅皮甘薯花色素之研究與花色素之氧化和抗氧化之探討。東海大學食品科學系碩士論文。
23.廖貴燈。1977。食品中之花青素。食品工業 5:26。
24.鄭士哲。1992。天然抗氧化劑及包裝方法對雞肉香腸化學及微生物特性之影響。東海大學食品科學系碩士論文。
25.劉伯康。1996。數種傳統食用植物抗氧化性之研究。國立中興大學食品科學系碩士論文。
26.劉伯康、陳惠英、顏國欽。1999。數種傳統食用植物甲醇萃取物抗氧化性之研究。中國農業化學會誌 37(1):105-116。
27.劉建功。2000。加熱處理對不同品種與發酵鹽度之楊桃汁紅變現象的影響。元培學報 7:57-72。
28.歐錫坤。1994。巨峰葡萄不同生產模式之生理研究。中華農業研究 43(2):173-181。
29.樊謙騰。1996。鳳凰花及山竹果殼抗氧化成分與花青素之研究。東海大學食品科學系碩士論文。
30.樊謙騰、蘇正德。1997。山竹果殼甲醇萃取物抗氧化成分及其作用機制之研究。中國農業化學會誌 35(5):540-551。
31.謝衣鵑。2001。花青素簡介。食品工業發展研究所專題報導 33(4):6-10。
32.鍾培芳、陳惠英、顏國欽。2000。加熱處理對茶飲料抗氧化特性之影響。台灣農業化學與食品科學 38(2):120-125。
33.魏慈悅。1994。草果揮發性成分及其抗菌性抗氧化性之研究。東海大學食品科學系碩士論文。
34.羅彩瑄。1997。苧蔴及青苧蔴根部水抽提物保肝抗炎及抗氧化作用藥效評估。高雄醫學院天然藥物研究所碩士論文。
35.羅龍新。2001。茶葉萃取的動力學與浸出平衡機理的研究。食品科學 22(8):32-37。
36.Adams, J. B. (1972) Campden Food Preserv. Res. Assoc., Tech. Bull. p.22.
37.Ames, B. N. (1989) Endogeneousb DNA damage as related to cancer and aging. Mutat. Res.214-46.
38.Aruoma, O. I. (1994) Nutrition and health aspects of free radicals and antioxidants. Food Chem. Toxic. 32(7):671-693.
39.Bajaj, K. L. Kansal, B. D., Chadha, M. L. and Kaur, P. P. (1990) Chemical composition of some important varieties of eggplant (Solanum melongena L.).Tropical Science. 30(3):255-261.
40.Baldini, V. L. S., Iaderoza, M. and Draetta, I. —dos-S. (1995) Anthocyanins from Ardisia humilis. Tropical Science. 35(2):130-134.
41.Beattie, H. G., Wheeler, K. A., and Pederson, C. S. (1943) Changes occurring in fruit juices during storage. Food Res. 8:395.
42.Branen, A. C. (1975) Toxicology and biochemistry of butylated hydroxyanisole hydroxytoluene. J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc. 52:59-63.
43.Brouillard, R. (1982) Anthocyanins as food colors. Markakis, p.1, Ed., Academic Press, New York.
44.Chen, Q., Shi, H., and Ho, C. T. (1992) Effects of rosemary extracts and major constituent on lipid oxidation and soybean lipoxygenase activity. J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc. 69(10):999-1002.
45.Corrigan, F. M., Welsh, S. W., Wkinner, E. R., and Horrbin, D. F. (1994) Brain lipids in aging and in Alzheimer’s disease: a review. J. Nutr. Med. 4(3):327-349.
46.Daravingas, G. and Cain, R. F. (1965) Changes in the anthocyanin pigments of raspberries during processing and storage. J. Food Sci. 30:400.
47.Dziezak, J. D. (1986) Preservatives: Antioxidants . Food Technol. 40(9):94-102.
48.Fulki, T. and Frankcis, F. J. (1968) Quantitative methods for anthocyanins. 2. Determination of total anthocyanin and degradation index for cranberry juice. J. Food Sci. 33:78.
49.Goto, T., Kondo, T., Tamura, H., Imagawa, H., Iino, A. and Takeda, K. (1982) Structure of gentiodelphin, an acylated anthocyanin isolated from Gentiana makinoi, that is stable in dilute aqueous solution. Tetrohedron Lett. 23:3695-3698.
50.Guimaraes, I. S. —de-S., Carvalho, M., Sundfeld, E. and Philip, T. (1984) Natural food colorants: anthocyanins from grape wastes. EMBRAPA 11:29.
51.Halliwell, B. and Gutteridge, J. M. C. (1994) In “antioxidants in nutrition, health, and disease.” Chap.(5):90-110.
52.Halliwell, B., Gutteridge, J. M. C. and Cross, C. E. (1992) Free radicals, antioxidants and human disease: where are we now? J. Lab. Clin. Med. 119(6):598-620.
53.Hall, R. L. (1958) Flavor study approach at Mccor milk & company, Inc. In “Flavor research and acceptance”, P.224, Rein hold Pub. Corp. New York.
54.Harris, R. S. (1960) Effects fo larage-scale preparation on nutrients fo foods of plant origin. In Nutritional Evaluation of Food Processing. R. S. Harris and H. von Loesecke<Editor>. AVI Publishing Co., Westport, CT.
55.Hettiarachchy, N. S., Glenn, K. C., Gnanasambandam, R. and Johnson, M. G. (1996) Natural antioxidant effect from fenugreek (Ttigonella foenumgracecum) for ground beef patties. J. Food Sci. 61(3):516-519.
56.Hrazdina, G. and Franzese, A. J. (1974) Oxidation products of acylated anthocyanins under acidic and neutral condition. Phytochem. 13:231.
57.Hrazdina, G. (1971) Reaction of the anthocyanidin-3,5-diglucoside:formation of 3,5-di-(ο-β-D-glucosyl)-7-hydroxy coumarin. Phytochem. 10:231.
58.Iaderoza, M., Baldini, V. L. S., Draetta, I.-dos-S. and Bovi, M. L. A. (1992) Anthocyanins from fruits of acai (Euterpe oleracea, Mart) and jucara (Euterpe edulis, Mart). Tropical Science. 32(1):41-46.
59.Igarashi, K., Takanashi, K. Makino, M. and Yasui, T. (1989) Antioxidative activity of major anthocyanin isolated from wild grape (Vitis coignetiae) Nippon Shokuhin Kogyo Gakkaishi 36:852.
60. Igarashi, K., Yoshida, T. and Suzuki, E. (1993) Antioxidative activity of Nasunin in Chouja-nasu (Little Eggplant Solanum Melongena L. ‘Chouja’) Nippon Shokuhin Kogyo Gakkaishi 40:138.
61.Imida, K., Fukshima, S., Sgiva, T., Ohtani, M., Nakanishi, K. and Ito, N. (1983) Promoting activities of butylated hydroxyanisole and butylated hydroxytoluene on 2-stage urinary bladder carcinogensis and inhibition of γ-glutamyl transpeptidase-positive foci development in the liver of rats. Carcinogensis. 4:885-889.
62.Jacob, R. A. (1994) Nutrition, health and antioxidants. INFORM. 11:1271-1275.
63.Jeng-De Su. (1992) Investigation of Antioxidative Activity and Tocopherol Contents on Chinese Crude Drugs of Fruits or Seeds. Food science 19(1):12-24.
64.Jette F. Young, Lars O. Dragsted, Bahram Daneshvar, Søren T. Lauridsen, Max Hansen and Brittmarie Sandström. (2000) The effect of grape-skin extract on oxidative status. British Journal of Nutrition 84:505-513.
65.Jurd, L. and Asen, S. (1966) The formation of metal and co-pigment complexes of cyaniding-3-glucoside. Photochemistry. 5:1263.
66.Jurd, L. (1963) Anthocyanins and related compounds. I. Structure transformations of flavylium salts in acidic solutions. J. org. chem.. 28:987.
67.Karen Williams Slinkard and Singleton V. L. (1984) Phenol content of grape skins and the loss of ability to make anthocyanins by mutation. Vitis 23:175-178.
68.Kent Kantz and Singleton V. L. (1990) Isolation and Determination of Polymeric Polyphenols Using Sephadex LH-20 and Analysis of Grape Tissue Extracts. Am. J. Enol. Vitic. 41(3):223-228.
69.Loft, S., Vistisen K., Ewert Z., Tjonneland A., Overead K. and Poulsen H. E. (1992) Oxidative DNA damage smoking, gender and body mass index. Carcinogenesis 13:2441-2447.
70.Madsen, H. L. and Berteelsen G. (1995) Spices as antioxidants. Trends in Food Sci. & Tech. 6(8):271-277.
71.Markakis, P. and Jurd, L. (1974) Anthocyanins and their stability in foods. CRC Critical Reviews in Food Technology 5:437.
72.Markakis, P., Livingston, G. E. and Fellers, R. C. (1957) Quantitative aspects of strawberry pigment degradation. Food Res. 22:117.
73.Maruta, Y., Kawabata J., and Niki R. (1995) Antioxidative caffeorylquinic acid derivatives in the roots of Burdock. J. Agric. Food Chem. 43:2592-2595.
74.Mitsuda, H., Yasumoto, K. and Iwami, K. (1996) Antioxidative action of indole compounds during the autoxidation of linoleic acid. Eiyoto Shokuryo. 19:210-214.
75.Nakatani, N. (1992) Natural antioxidants from spices In phenolic compounds in Food and their effects on health Ⅱ: antioxidants and cancer prevention. Edit by 72-86.
76.Nebesky, E. A., Esselen, W. B., Macconnell, J. E. W. and Fellers, C. R. (1949) Stability of color in fruit juices. Food Res. 14:261.
77.Odeleye, O. E., Eskelson, C. D., Mufti, S. I. and Watson, R. R. (1992) Vitamin E Inhibition of lipid peroxidation and ethanol-mediated promotion of esophageal Tumorigenesis. Nutr. Cancer 17(3):223-234.
78.Oyaizu, M. (1986) Antioxidative activity of browning products of glucosamine fractionated bu organic solvent and thin-layer chromatography. Nippon Shokuhin Kogyo Gakkaishi. 35:771-775.
79.Palamidis, N. and Markakis, P. (1975) Stability of grape anthocyanin in a carbonated beverage. J. Food Sci. 40:1047.
80.Ramarathnam, N., Osawa T., Ochi H. and Kawakishi S. (1995) The contribution of plant food antioxidants to human health. Trends in Food Science and Technology. 6:75-82.
81.Riitta Julkunen-Tiitto. (1985) Phenolic Constituents in the Leaves of Northern Willows:Methods for the Analysis of Certain Phenolics. J. Agric. Food Chem. 33:213-217.
82.Robak, J. and Gryglewski, R. J. (1988) Flavonoids are scavengers of superoxide anions. Biochem. Pharmac. 37(5):837-841.
83.Ruch, K. J., Cheng, S. J. and Klaunig, J. E. (1989) Prevention of cytotoxiciter and inhibition of intercellular communication by antioxidant catchin isolated from Chinese green tea. Carcinogenesis 10:1003-1008.
84.Shahidi, F. and Wanasundara, P. K. J. P. D. (1992) Phenolic antioxidants. Crit. Rev. Food Sci. Nutr.. 32:67-103.
85.Shi, X., Dalal, N. S. and Jain, A. C. (1991) Antioxidant behaviors of caffeine:Efficient scavenging of hydroxyl radicals. Food Chem. Toxic. 29:1-6.
86.Shimada, K., Fujikawa, K., Yahara, K. and Nakamura, T. (1992) Antioxidant properties of xanthan on the autoxidation of soybean oil in cyclodextrin emulsion. J. Agric. Food Chem. 40:945-948.
87.Shrikhande, A. J. and Francis F. J. (1976) Anthocyanins in food. CRC Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition 7:193.
88.Shrihande, A. J. and Francis, F. J. (1974) J. Food Sci. 39:904-906.
89.Si S. Lin, Been H. Chiang and Lucy S. Hwang. (1989) Recovery of Perilla Anthocyanins from Spent Brine by Diafiltration and Electrodialysis. Journal of Food Engineering 9:21-23.
90.Somaatmadja, D., Powers, J. J. and Hamdy, M. (1964) Anthocyanins. VI. Chelation studies on anthocyanins and other related compounds. J. Food Sci. 29:655.
91.Stadtman, E. R. and Oliver D. N. (1991) Metal-catalyzed oxidation of proteins. Physiological consequences. J. Biol. Chem. 266:2005-2008.
92.Sweeny, J. G., Wilkinson, M. M. and Iacobucci, G. A. (1981) Effects of flavonoid sulfonates on the photobleaching of anthocyanins in acid solution. J. Agric. Food Chem. 29:563.
93.Tamura, H. and Yamagami, A. (1994) Antioxidative activity of Monoacylated anthocyanins isolated from Muscat Bailey A Grape. J. Agric. Food Chem. 42:1612.
94.Teixerira, A. J. R., Gommers, A. J. H., Werken, G., Westra, J. G., Stavenuiter, J. F. C. and Joong, A. P. J. M. (1993) Methods for the analytical Biochemistry 214:474-483.
95.Tibor Fuleki and Francis F. J. (1968) Quantitative Methods for Anthocyanins. 1. Extraction and Determination Total Anthocyanin in Cranberry Juice. Journal of food science 33:72-77.
96.Tibor Fuleki and Francis F. J. (1968) Quantitative Methods for Anthocyanins. 2. Determination of Total Anthocyanin and Degradation Index for Cranberry Juice. Journal of food science 33:78-83.
97.Timberlake, C. F. and Bridle, P. (1967) Flavylium salt、anthocyanidin and anthocyanins. II. Structure transformation in acid solutions. J. Sci. Food Agric. 18:479.
98.Timberlake, C. F. and Bridle, P. (1975) The Flavonoids. Chapman and hall, New York. P.214.
99.Timberlake, C. F. (1980) Anthocyanins-occurrence, extraction and chemistry. Food Chem. 5:69.
100.Torel, J., Cillard, J. and Cillard, P. (1986) Antioxidant activity of flavonoids and reactivity with proxy radicals. Phytochem. 25(2):383-385.
101.Tsuda, T., Ohshima, K., Kawakishi, S. and Osawa, T. (1994) Antioxidative pigments isolated from the seeds of Phaseolus vulgaris L. J. Agric. Food Chem. 42:248.
102.Van Buren, J. P., Bertino, J. J. and Robinson, W. B. (1968) Stability of wine anthocyanins on exposure to hert and light. Am. J. Enol. Vitic. 19:147.
103.Wang, H., Cao, G. and Prior, R. L. (1997) Oxygen radical absorbing capacity of anthocyanins. J. Agric. Food chem.. 44:304-309.
104.Williams, M. and Hrazdina, G. (1979) Anthocyanins as food colorants:Effect of pH on the formation of anthocyanin-rutin complexs. J. Food Sci. 1:66.
105.Yinrong Lu and L. Yeap Foo. (1999) The polyphenol constituents of grape pomace. Food Chemistry 65:1-8.
QRCODE
 
 
 
 
 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               
第一頁 上一頁 下一頁 最後一頁 top