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研究生:林興誠
研究生(外文):Shing Chering Lin
論文名稱:台灣黑羽土雞在水簾式棲架雞舍生長與行為觀察之研究
論文名稱(外文):A study of growth and behavior of native chicken in wet pad and forced ventilation with vertical perches
指導教授:夏良宙夏良宙引用關係
指導教授(外文):Liang Chou Hsia
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立屏東科技大學
系所名稱:畜產系
學門:農業科學學門
學類:畜牧學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2002
畢業學年度:90
語文別:中文
論文頁數:99
中文關鍵詞:土雞棲架行為水簾
外文關鍵詞:native chickenperchesbehaviorwet pad and forced ventilation
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本研究之目的在探討具有棲架之水簾式圈養土雞舍飼養土雞之增重及其行為,並應用此結果評估水簾式土雞舍圈養土雞之可行性和未來待改善之地方。本研究採用32.27m(長) ×8.45m(寬)具有直立式棲架之水簾式土雞舍,畜舍內由中線以菱形網分為兩半,一半飼養雄性,一半飼養雌性黑羽土雞。飼養期間除初重外,每週逢機選80頭秤重。如果有死雞,每日記錄一直到16週齡為止。由小雞第一次上棲架當週,亦即第四週起,每週分別由兩組人進行行為觀察,24小時觀察之項目包含社會行為中之打鬥、追逐、啄羽及一般之行為中之蹲躺、移動、啄地、攝食及飲水等行為。試驗結果顯示雞之平均死亡率為4.4 %(♂6.9%,♀1.8 %),而增重在前4週,尚未完全採用水簾前,成績與文獻上之結果類似,到16週時,土雞成績比文獻上的台灣黑羽土雞增重300克左右。公母生長速率,也從4-6週後,公雞增重極顯著比母雞快。就外形而言,幾乎都沒有互相攻擊所造成的傷害,土雞成長的過程,其蹲躺行為顯著的減少,而移動行為顯著的增加,啄地和輕微啄羽均是母雞比公雞多,但激烈的追逐、打鬥則公雞比母雞多出很多。打鬥之次數由4週起逐漸增加,到10週後又減低,打鬥中偶爾發生2隻攻擊1隻和3隻攻擊1隻的現象,雖然次數不多,但這代表之意義並未能有好之解釋,打鬥的時間仍以夜間到第二天凌晨為最多,追逐也有相類似的情況,挖地之動作在14週後有逐漸增加之情形,攝食行為也有隨著週齡之增加而減少的情況,飲水行為則是先減少後增加,挖地和飲水發生最多的時段是在每日8-12時,但攝食發生較多的時段是在4-8以及傍晚16-20時和晚上20-24時這一段時間內,本試驗結果很清楚說明水簾式土雞不但可飼養出有良好增重之土雞,且死亡率低、外觀正常,各類行為跟文獻上有雷同之趨勢,相信它適合台灣土雞之飼養。
The purpose of this experiment is to study the effect of wet pad and force ventilation (WPFV) (with vertical perches) on the body weight and behavior of the native chicken. The result of this study can provide information to evaluate WPFV house now and future. The size of the house is 32.27m(L) x 8.45m(W). The house is divided into two parts by castled iron mesh one part is used for keeping male and the other is used for keeping female native chicken, which feather has black with silver color. Body weight of chicken was measured once a week except initial body weight until the end of 16 weeks. Behavior observation was started when the first chick was jump on the perches, that was the fourth week of age. Behavior observation has been done once per week for 24 hours continually by two group of trained observer. The observation items included aggressive behavior e.g. fighting chasing and peaking and common behavior e.g. laying moving pecking at the ground peaking at the feather pawing feeding and drinking. The result show there was quite a low mortality rate (6.9% for male, 1.8% for female). The body weight is about the same as a previous survey during the first 4 weeks. However, since then the body weight gains increase very fast for the chicken, which kept in WPFV. The WPFV house is only operated occasionally before 4 week of age. The final body weight of the chicken in the WPFV house is about 300 gms higher than the best one chicken, which kept in convention chicken house. Due to less aggressive the body appearance is in a very good sharp. Laying behavior is decreasing with increasing of week age. Moving behavior is increasing with increasing of week age. Female chicken had higher activity and pecking and pawing but less fighting and chasing when compare with male chicken. The total fighting times is increasing from 4 week to 10 week of age but decreasing afterward. Although there was less fighting time on 1 fight to 2 or 1 fight to 3, but it needs further study to know. Fighting and chasing activity usually happen more during daytime. Pawing was decreasing after 14 weeks of age. Feeding behavior is decreasing at beginning but drop afterwards. Pawing and drinking of chicken usually found on 8-12 am. Feeding of chicken usually happened on 4-8, 16-20 and 20-24 o’clock. The above results shown that native chicken kept in WPFV chicken house not only had very good performance, low mortality rate but also had a good appearance. The chicken had normal behavior when kept in the WPFV chicken house. This kind of chicken house is suitable for the native chicken. The density of the chicken in the house is increasing. The chicken density in the present experiment is quite normal.
目 錄
中文摘要………………………………………………………I
英文摘要……………………………………………………..III
誌謝……………………………………………………..……..V
目錄…………………………………………………..…… VIII
表次索引…………………………………………………….XII
圖次索引…………………………………………………….XV
壹、前言……………………………………………………….1
貳、文獻探討……………………………………………. …..4
一、雞隻的分類…………………………………… 4
(一)台灣本地雞分類………………………………..4
(二)台灣本地雞之種類與產量……………..………5
(三)臺灣本地雞之歷史沿革
及發展趨勢…………………………………….9
1.歷史沿革………………………………….…..9
2.發展趨勢…………….……………..………..11
3.目前的分類狀況…………………………….12
二、社會行為…………………………….……………17
(一)定義……………………………………………17
(二)社會架構………………………………………17
1.君臣………………………………………….17
2.父子………………………………………….18
3.夫婦………………………………………….19
4.兄弟朋友…………………………………….21
(三)溝通……………………………………………22
1.視覺………………………………………….22
2.聽覺………………………………………….22
3.味覺………………………………………….22
4.嗅覺………………………………………….23
5.觸覺………………………………………….23
6.打鬥、威脅…………………………………..23
(四)影響社會關係之因素……………………..…..24
1.面積………………………………………….24
2.高溫………………………………………….24
3.品種………………………………………….24
4.激素………………………………………….25
5.外形………………………………………….25
三、水簾式強迫通風畜舍應用於養雞………………..25
(一)選擇水簾式強迫通風雞舍
因應臺灣地理環境………….…………..……25
(二)高環境溫度對於雞隻的影響…………………26
1.雞隻的散熱方式…………………………….26
2.高環境溫度所產生的問題………………….28
(三)雞舍內熱的來源………………………………28
1.季節………………………………………….29
2.雞舍的方位與遮蔭………………………….29
3.雞舍的大小通風…………………………….29
4.屋頂的隔熱與顏色………………………….30
5.飼養密度…………………………………….31
6.雞隻日齡…………………………………….31
7.飼料及消化率……………………………….31
(四)解決熱緊迫之方法……………………………32
1.早期之經驗………………………………….32
2.遺傳………………………………………….32
3.通風………………………………………….32
4.淋浴………………………………………….32
5.晝夜溫差法………………………………….33
6.水簾及強迫通風禽舍(水簾式禽舍) ……….33
(五)強迫通風水簾或雞舍使用的結果……………33
四、棲架之利用………………………………………34
(一)土雞……………………………………………35
(二)種雞……………………………………………35
(三)蛋雞……………………………………………36
(四)肉雞……………………………………………37
參、材料與方法……………………………………………..38
肆、結果和討論……………………………………………..51
一、生長成績及存活率………………………………51
二、上棲架行為………………………………………54
三、打鬥、追逐行為…………………………………58
四、一般行為…………………………………………66
伍、結論……………………………………………………..89
陸、參考文獻…………………………………………………90
作者簡介……………………………………………………100
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