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研究生:郭獻仁
研究生(外文):Kuo, Hsien Ren
論文名稱:環境溫度及光照對離乳仔豬攝食及飲水行為之影響
論文名稱(外文):The Effect of Environmental Temperature and Light on Feeding and Drinking Behavior of Weaning Pigs
指導教授:夏良宙夏良宙引用關係
指導教授(外文):Liang Chou Hsia
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立屏東科技大學
系所名稱:畜產系
學門:農業科學學門
學類:畜牧學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2001
畢業學年度:90
語文別:中文
論文頁數:141
中文關鍵詞:離乳仔豬環境溫度光照攝食行為飲水行為成績
外文關鍵詞:Weaning pigsEnvironmental temperatureLightFeeding behaviorDrinking behaviorPerformance
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豬隻生產過程中,如何降低仔豬的死亡率及改善仔豬的生長速率,以降低生產成本是學界與產業界一直努力的目標。本研究的目的是探討環境溫度的高低變化及間歇光照、間歇給水,對仔豬離乳之後的成績及行為之影響,做為日後改善仔豬飼養管理方法之參考。
試驗的結果,離乳仔豬在不同的環境溫度下,第一週高溫組的攝食量及增重較其他兩組好,隨著仔豬週齡的增加,低溫組的仔豬在攝食量及增重有較好的趨勢,但在飼料效率則低溫組較高溫組差。
豬隻在恆高環境溫度(33℃)及溫度變化(25℃→33℃→25℃)時的攝食行為頻率均較恆適溫(25℃)低,且豬隻在溫度變化的環境,其攝食行為頻率比恆高溫組的攝食行為的頻率有較低的趨勢。表示環境溫度高低變化使豬隻攝食行為頻率減少。豬隻在恆高溫組及溫度變化組的喝水行為頻率較高。豬隻在高環境溫度下側躺行為的比例較高,恆高溫組則以24小時全天給水有較高的攝食頻率,在適溫組及溫度變化組,是間歇給水的攝食行為較為頻繁。在高溫及溫度變化組發現在間歇給水處理的豬隻,開始給水時有較高的喝水行為的頻率。
溫度變化影響豬隻的行為,環境溫度變化的快慢也可能影響豬隻的行為,急速升溫組的攝食行為的頻率比緩慢升溫的攝食行為有較低的趨勢。飲水行為在急速升溫組的豬隻在開始升溫後有較高的飲水頻率,急速升溫組的仔豬對環境溫度的變化較反應,其移動的行為較頻繁,急速升溫組的側躺行為也較緩慢升溫組的頻率有較高的趨勢,不論是急速升溫或是緩慢升溫的攝食行為及飲水行為皆是以24小時給水組的豬隻飲水行為的頻率較高。
飼養在密閉的氣候室,對外界環境的感受應該很少但所有結果發現即使是不同的環境溫度,給予全天24小時的人工光照,豬隻活動的頻率似乎是以白天較高,到了午夜12時之後,所有活動的頻率減少甚至是零,而側躺的行為頻率在這時段也較高。給予豬隻間歇光照及間歇給水有增加豬隻攝食量及增重的趨勢。間歇的光照配合間歇給水。在全天24小時光照之下,間歇給水的攝食量及增重有較好的趨勢。在行為的部份,在24小時全天光照,間歇給水組的豬隻的攝食行為頻率有較高的趨勢,若在間歇光照組中,間歇給水組的豬隻的攝食行為的頻率有較高的趨勢。
綜合所有試驗可歸納出,仔豬剛離乳時是需要有較高的環境溫度,可有較好的攝食量及增重。其後給予仔豬適溫稍低的環境溫度有增加仔豬的攝食量及增重的趨勢。環境溫度的變化會影響豬隻的生產成績。快速環境溫度的升高,使豬隻快速反應,尋找有效的散熱方法。這時後的豬隻會較需要水。
間歇的光照配合間歇給水,有增加仔豬攝食量及增重的趨勢,但不見得有較高的攝食行為頻率。有可能是豬隻的攝食速度增快。因此,間歇光照及間歇給水有改善豬隻生長成績的趨勢。藉由本試驗期可提供養豬產業在豬隻飼養管理上之參考依據。
How to reduce the mortality rate and growth rate is one of the most important goals on pig production. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of temperature, intermittently lighting and intermittently watering methods on the performance of weaning piglets. The experiment result shown that the piglets had better performance (feed intake and weight gain) during the first week under high environmental temperature treatments. The performance was getting better for the piglets raised under the cold environmental temperature treatment since two weeks of age. However the feed conversion rate of piglets which under high environmental temperature treatment had better result than piglet under low environment temperature treatment. Total feeding time was low for piglets raised under high and fluctuated environmental temperature treatment when compared with the piglets raised under optimum environmental temperature. There was a tendency that piglets ate more frequently under high environmental temperature than piglets under fluctuated environmental temperature. The piglets drank and lay on side behavior more frequently when they kept under high environmental temperature. The piglets ate more frequently when water was provided for 24 hours under high environmental temperature treatment. However when piglets kept under optimum and fluctuated environmental temperature ate more frequently when water supply under intermittently condition. The piglets under high and fluctuated environmental temperature treatment rush to drink water when water start to supply under intermittently water supply treatment. There was a tendency that piglets had lower feeding frequency, more moving frequency, more lay on side behavior when they kept in a chamber where temperature raised sharply than when temperature raised slowly. Piglets kept in both sharp and slow raised treatments drinking more frequency in 24 hours water supply treatment than piglets under intermittently water supply treatment. Piglets had more activity in day time than in night time even in the total closed environmental temperature controlled chamber. The activity even reduced to zero and had more lay on side in midnight and early morning. The piglets had more feeding behavior, higher feed intake and weight gain when piglets kept under a chamber where an intermittently light and water were provided. The feeding behavior of pig was higher when 24 hours and intermittently lighting and intermittently watering systems were provided. Our conclusion was that piglets could reach higher performance when provided higher environmental temperature during the first week of weaning, then provided a little bit lower environmental temperature afterwards. It was important to provide optimum constant environmental temperature for piglets. The piglets could have good performance when kept in an intermediately lighting and watering system.
表次索引
圖次索引
壹、前言
貳、文獻探討
一、影響離乳仔豬成績及行為因子
(一) 影響仔豬成績之生理因子
1.消化道的改變
2.消化脢活性之變化
3.免疫系統的發展
4.生長速率
(二) 影響離乳仔豬成績之營養因子
1.營養組成分之影響
2.飼料的型態
3.餵飼策略
4.仔豬離乳前教槽料之給予
5.水的攝取
(三) 影響離乳仔豬成績之環境因子
1.溫度及溼度
2.通風
3.空氣品質
4.地面材質
(四) 影響離乳仔豬之管理因子
1.飼養密度
2.仔豬健康
3.母豬管理
二、低環境溫度對仔豬成績及行為之影響
(一) 仔豬與環境之間的熱量交換
1.熱交換基本原理
2.環境溫度的影響
3.空氣流動速率的影響
4.周圍大氣壓力的影響
5.地面特性的影響
(二) 環境溫度與體溫調節之交互作用
1.失熱
2.熱生成
3.仔豬出生後代謝速率的發展
(三) 低環境溫度對仔豬免疫系統之影響
(四) 低環境溫度對仔豬生理的影響
1.絕緣
2.體溫過低
3.激素的變化
4.代謝的反應
5.營養的代謝反應
(五) 低環境溫度對仔豬行為之影響
(六) 低環境溫度對仔豬型態上之改變
(七) 低環境溫度對仔豬成績之影響
三、光照對禽畜行為及成績之影響
(一) 光照刺激禽畜的機制與途徑
(二) 光照對豬隻繁殖生理之影響
(三) 光照對禽畜行為之影響
(四) 光照對禽畜外表型態上之影響
(五) 光照對禽畜成績之影響
參、材料與方法
試驗一:不同環境溫度離乳仔豬成績之影響
試驗二:不同環境溫度及不同給水處理對豬隻行為之影響
試驗三:環境溫度升高的快慢及不同給水處理對豬隻行為之影響
試驗四:間歇光照及間歇給水對離乳仔豬成績及行為之影響
肆、結果與討論
試驗一:不同環境溫度離乳仔豬成績之影響
試驗二:不同環境溫度及不同給水處理對豬隻行為之影響
試驗三:環境溫度升高的快慢及不同給水處理對豬隻行為之影響
試驗四:間歇光照及間歇給水對離乳仔豬成績及行為之影響
伍、結論
陸、參考文獻
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